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Taurine content in foods

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  • Centro de Investigaciones Interdisciplinarias en Ciencias y Humanidades

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TAURINE CONTENT IN FOODS H. Pasantes-Morales, O. Quesada, L. Alcocer and R. Sánchez-Olea Nutrition Reports International, Vol. 4, No 4, 1989. The taurine content of foods including fruits, vegetables, seeds, nuts, cereals, meat, seafood, and dairy products was examined in this study. The highest concentration of taurine was found in clams and octopus (41.4 μmoles/g and 31.2 μmoles/g) followed by shrimp and fish (12.4 μmoles/g and 9.1 μmoles/g). Beef, pork and lamb meet contain taurine in concentration ranging 3.5-4.0 μmoles/g. Taurine concentration in chicken leg was 6.6 μmoles/g and in chicken breast was 1.4 μmoles/g. No taurine was found was found either in hen eggs (yolk or white) or in dairy products or in honey. Taurine was undetectable in fruits and vegetables. From the seeds, cereals and grains examined, rice, wheat, barley, sesame seed, coffee and cacao, contains no taurine. Pumpkin seeds contain 13.5 nmoles/g, black beans 9.2 nmoles/g, horse beans 12.9, and chick peas 18.7 nmoles/g. No taurine was detected in peanuts. Almonds, cashews, hazelnuts, and pine nuts contained taurine in concentrations ranging 15-46 nmoles/g. Pistachios contained very low concentrations of taurine (4.9 nmoles/g). Al analyses were carried out in uncooked samples. The interest of these results is considered in terms of reported evidences on the deleterious consequences of taurine deficiency in animals and humans.
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... Taurine shows numerous physiological functions (osmotic pressure regulation, protection of cells against free radicals, influence on the development of the brain and the retina), it is also beneficial for cardiac muscle operation (Pasantes -Morales et al., 1990). ...
... influenced by legumes. Taurine is synthesized in mammalian organisms from sulphur amino acids, methionine and cysteine (Pasantes-Morales et al., 1990;Kulasek et al., 2004;Marušić et al., 2013). In the present experiment, the higher taurine content was perhaps influenced by the elevated supply of these amino acids in the mixes, through the increasing contribution of (pea) seeds in the nutrition in experiment I, groups E1-E4 vs C. Post-extraction soybean meal was the sole protein source in the control mix (present study). ...
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The study objective was to evaluate the impact of different contributions of pea ( Pisum sativum ) cultivar Hubal and blue lupin ( Lupinus angustifolius ) cultivar Regent on the level of selected bioactive substances in pork meat. 100 individuals three-breed cross piglets: ♀ (landrace × yorkshire) × ♂ duroc were used. Two experiments were performed, in which pea seeds (experiment I: E1 – 5.0% pea seeds; E2 – 10.0% pea seeds; E3 – 15.0% pea seeds; E4 -17.5% pea seeds) and blue lupin seeds (experiment II; D1 – 5.0% blue lupin seeds; D2 – 10.0% blue lupin seeds; D3 – 15.0% blue lupin seeds) were used instead of SBM-GM. In each of the experiments 50 animals were divided into 5 groups (control - C, and four experimental), placed in group pens, each for 10 individuals (sex ratio hogs : sows - 1:1). The animals were weighed and tagged before the experiments. The mean body weight of the pigs at experiment I and II commencement was: 26.7 and 33.5 kg, and at the end of the experiments: 122.0 and 124.0, respectively. In the first experiment (progressive pea contribution) the concentration of Carnosine was shown to be higher in E4 than E3 and C by 47.3% and 94.2%, respectively. In comparison with group C, the Q10 coenzyme content in groups E1, E2, E3 and E4 was lower by 40.9%; 56.8%; 40.9% and 65.9% respectively. In the second experiment (progressive lupin contribution) increased content of all of the investigated bioactive substances was recorded in groups D1-D3 vs C. Significant differences between groups C, D2, D4 for taurine (P≤0.05; P≤0.01) and creatine (P≤0.05) have been recorded. The content of bioactive substances in the longissimus lumborum muscle was significantly influenced by legumes, which increased the level of bioactive components of protein fraction. Therefore, it can be concluded, that pea ( Pisum sativum ) cultivar Hubal and blue lupine ( Lupinus angustifolius ) cultivar Regent are an alternative to SBM-GM, increasing the nutritionally valuable of pork meat.
... Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) is a free amino acid found abundantly in mammalian tissues (Lubec et al. 1997), particularly in excitable tissues, such as the brain, cardiac, and skeletal muscles (Schaffer et al. 2010;Huxtable 1992). Regarding food nutrition, taurine abounds in seafood and poultry (Stacchiotti et al. 2018;Pasantes-Morales et al. 1989) and is also added to various energy drinks, generally at a concentration of ~ 1000 mg per 250 mL serving (De Luca et al. 2015;Peacock et al. 2013). ...
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Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) is a free amino acid found abundantly in mammalian tissues. Increasing evidence suggests that taurine plays a role in the maintenance of skeletal muscle function and increase of exercise capacity. Most energy drinks contain this amino acid; however, there is insufficient research on the effects of long-term, low-dose supplementation of taurine. In this study, we investigated the effects of long-term administration of taurine at low doses on aging in rodents. In Experiment 1, we examined age-related changes in aging Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats (32–92 weeks old) that O2 consumption and spontaneous activity decreased significantly with aging. In Experiment 2, we examined the effects of long-term (21-week) administration of taurine on healthy aging SD rats. SD rats were stabilized for 32–34 weeks and divided into three groups, administrated water (control), 0.5% taurine (25 mg/kg body weight (BW)/day), or 1% taurine (50 mg/kg BW/day) from age 34 to 56 weeks (5 days/week, 5 mL/kg BW). Our findings suggest that long-term administration of taurine at relatively low dose could attenuate the age-related decline in O2 consumption and spontaneous locomotor activity. Upon intestinal absorption, taurine might modulate age-related changes in respiratory metabolism and skeletal muscle function via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α), succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), cytochrome c (Cycs), myocyte enhancer factor 2A (MEF2A), glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4), and myoglobin, which are regulated by the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). This article examines the mechanism underlying the effects of taurine on age-related changes, which may have potential clinical implications.
... Taurine is an amino acid found almost exclusively in animal foods and though small amounts may be found in some plant foods such as cereals, legumes, and grains (a thousand times less when compared to animals foods) (Pasantes et al., 1989), these amounts are insufficient to meet human requirements (Laidlaw et al., 1990). It is often stated that since taurine can be synthesized in vivo from methionine and cysteine via cysteinesulfinic acid decarboxylase (CSD), taurine requirements can be met by consumption of plant proteins that are rich in methionine and cysteine, which can be found in adequate amounts in several legumes and grains (van Vliet et al., 2015). ...
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There is wide scale concern about the effects of red meat on human health and climate change. Plant-based meat alternatives, designed to mimic the sensory experience and nutritional value of red meat, have recently been introduced into consumer markets. Plant-based meats are marketed under the premise of environmental and human health benefits and are aimed appeal to a broad consumer base. Meat production is critiqued for its overuse of water supplies, landscape degradation, and greenhouse gas emission, and depending on production practices, environmental footprints may be lower with plant-based meat alternatives. Life-cycle analyses suggest that the novel plant-based meat alternatives have an environmental footprint that may be lower than beef finished in feedlots, but higher than beef raised on well-managed pastures. In this review, we discuss the nutritional and ecological impacts of eating plant-based meat alternatives vs. animal meats. Most humans fall on a spectrum of omnivory: they satisfy some nutrient requirements better from plant foods, while needs for other nutrients are met more readily from animal foods. Animal foods also facilitate the uptake of several plant-derived nutrients (zinc and iron), while plant nutrients can offer protection against potentially harmful compounds in cooked meat. Thus, plant and animal foods operate in symbiotic ways to improve human health. The mimicking of animal foods using isolated plant proteins, fats, vitamins, and minerals likely underestimates the true nutritional complexity of whole foods in their natural state, which contain hundreds to thousands of nutrients that impact human health. Novel plant-based meat alternatives should arguably be treated as meat alternatives in terms of sensory experience, but not as true meat replacements in terms of nutrition. If consumers wish to replace some of their meat with plant-based alternatives in the diet (a “flexitarian approach”) this is unlikely to negatively impact their overall nutrient status, but this also depends on what other foods are in their diet and the life stage of the individual.
... Among the invertebrates, arthropods and mollusks contain higher levels of taurine ranging from 12-41 µmol/g wet wt. [15]. Insects, honeybees and spiders, all contain considerably higher amount of this amino acid and it is very common in fish and birds. ...
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Taurine was discovered more than two hundred years ago from animal sources. It is distributed in both mammals and non-mammals and its content is high in several tissues. For more than a century-and-a-half, taurine was regarded just as an end product of sulfur metabolism. Recently, taurine has been rediscovered and its beneficial effects in processes like epilepsy, hypertension, congestive heart failure and diabetes have been well-documented. It was patented and found some clinical utility, but being an amino acid, therapeutic use confronts limitations like restricted permeability and more. This necessitates the development of prodrugs (analogues) mainly derivatives of taurine. A large number of taurine derivatives have been reported in the literature with partial to marked activity. Taurine derivatives like taltrimide, acamprosate and tauromustine, are already in the market as anti-convulsant, anti-alcoholic and anti-cancer agents. Many other analogues are effective in experimental models. The in depth analysis of these analogues and their biological actions can provide certain clues for further consideration. In the present review, attempts have been made to provide synopsis, synthesis and symbiosis of chemical and biological actions, which may provide future guidance and facilitate further research in this area. The successful journey of these analogues to clinical utility is a healthy and happy sign and an index of bright future, and we hope that this review will provide enough input to ignite the minds. All rights reserved -
... While not specifically analysed in this preliminary study, prune juice concentrate obtained from local sources in Davis, CA has also been reported to contain taurine (0·02-0·16 g/kg as is), although source and method of processing yielded different results (28) . It has been notoriously difficult to identify plants that contain measurable amounts of taurine (5,9,29) , and often the amino acid is overlooked or underreported in analysis of plant matter. Nutritional quality of plants and macroalgae have also been shown to vary with season, geographic location (soil nutrients), and environmental stress (drought, salinity, light exposure) (30)(31)(32)(33) . ...
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Chapter
Taurine content is high (mM) in mammalian brain. By its major role as an osmolyte, taurine contributes to the cell volume control, which is particularly critical in the brain. Taurine participates in osmotic adjustments required to maintain the organization and size of intracellular compartments. It counteracts volume fluctuations in unbalanced transmembrane fluxes of ions and neurotransmitters, preserving the functional synaptic contacts. Taurine has a key role in the long-term adaptation to chronic hyponatremia as well as in other pathologies leading to brain edema. Together with other osmolytes, taurine corrects cell shrinkage, preventing mysfunction of organelles and apoptosis. Swelling corrective taurine efflux occurs through a leak pathway, likely formed by LCRR8 protein isoforms. Shrinkage-activated influx comes largely by the increased activity of the Na⁺/Cl⁻-dependent transporter. The brain taurine pool results from the equilibrium between (i) dietary intake and active transport into the cell, (ii) synthesis in the brain itself or import of that synthesized elsewhere, and (iii) leak and posterior excretion. The interplay between these elements preserves brain taurine homeostasis in physiological conditions and permits the proper adjustments upon deviations of normal in the internal/external environment.
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