Article

Trophy hunting in the Namibian economy: An assessment

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Abstract

Data derived from several sources were used to determine basic economic values for the trophy hunting industry in Namibia for the hunting season in 2000. Some 3640 trophy hunters spent 15 450 hunter-days, taking 13 310 game animals. Trophy hunting generated at least N$134 million (US$19.6 million) in direct expenditures, or gross output. Gross value added directly attributable to the industry was conservatively estimated at some N$63 million (US$9.2 million). Trophy hunting constitutes at least 14% of the total tourism sector and is a significant component of the Namibian economy. Some 24% of the income earned in the trophy hunting industry accrues to poor segments of society in the form of wages and rentals/royalties. About 21% of income generated is captured by the government, through fees and taxes. Trophy hunting is an important contributor to development. More research on the economics of the industry is needed.

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... Nevertheless they state that if there was assistance or a broader management plan, a buffer zone could be a good idea. As a number of studies from other places in Africa indicate, through trophy hunting and tourism, wildlife becomes economically important for the rural populations and increases their interest, concern and protective attitude towards the preservation of this new or newly recognised source of income (Baker, 1997;Humavindu and Barnes, 2003). ...
... The salary and the living standard of employees is higher, which is mainly due to the fact that employees in the tourism and hunting business need to be better skilled than employees on livestock farms. The higher salaries in the tourism/hunting sector are also found by Humavindu and Barnes (2003), who found that 24 percent of the income earned in the trophy hunting industry accrues to poor segments of society in the form of wages. ...
... More recent detailed empirical work has furthermore highlighted that, when tourism potential on private land is high, investment in wildlife based tourism can result in much higher financial and economic returns than those possible for livestock (Humavindu and Barnes, 2003). In that study, which was done in a study area comparable to the study area at the Etosha National Park, tourism as a land use was determined to be some ten times more valuable than the alternatives, in terms of both financial and economic measures. ...
Thesis
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This study investigates the attitudes of landowners and landusers on private commercial farmland at the south-western border of the Etosha National Park in Namibia towards a buffer zone according to the UNESCO Biosphere Concept and the socioeconomic potential for its implementation within the landowner and landuser community. The study was done in cooperation with the “Etosha Buffer Zone Project” of the Humboldt Universität zu Berlin. Research methods were qualitative interviews with landowners and landusers. Furthermore participant observation and expert interviews. Field research was done from September until October 2008 in the study area south-west of the Etosha National Park. The farmland at the south-western border of the Etosha National Park is used for different purposes, ranging from classical livestock farming to game farming in the form of eco-tourism or trophy hunting. The results of the study vary from very positive attitudes to very negative attitudes, mainly depending on the land use (livestock farming, combined livestock and game farming, pure game farming). Among other reasons, financial gain due to the close proximity of the Etosha National Park leads to positive attitudes (game farming), while financial loss due to the negative influence (predators) from the park leads to negative attitudes (livestock farming, partly game farming). Furthermore, research has shown that commercial livestock farming in the study area is not compatible with the Buffer Zone Concept. Therefore consistent landuse strategies in the form of some sort of wildlife farming and management are needed for the implementation of a buffer zone. Given the negative economic development of livestock farming in Namibia, especially at the border of the Etosha National Park and the increasing development of the tourism sector in the Namibian economy, which is furthermore favoured due to the close proximity of the study area to the Etosha National Park, the realisation of a buffer zone in the study area seems to be possible. Examples for that can be found all over Africa.
... The reintroduction and promotion of native wildlife on commercial farms across southern and eastern Africa is one example of "reconciliation ecology" (Rosenzweig, 2003) that advances the goal of biodiversity conservation in areas where humans live and work. Connected to markets by the theories and practices of sustainable utilisation, "game farming" offers economic diversity in addition to ecological diversity at the scales of the individual farm (Kreuter & Workman, 1994;McGranahan, 2008) as well as the region and country (Hosking, 1996;Humavindu & Barnes, 2003;van der Waal & Dekker, 2000). ...
... Although patchiness in the literature prevents a clear look at historical developments in the Namibian wildlife industry, a few data reveal distinct positive trends in wildlife abundance, tourist numbers and the economic value of game. Joubert (1974) reported 209 trophy hunters in 1972, whereas Humavindu and Barnes (2003) reported 3644 hunting clients 30 years later. Joubert et al. (1983) described 29 professional hunters and 185 hunting guides, while Humavindu and Barnes (2003) updated that figure to a total of 458 two decades later. ...
... Joubert (1974) reported 209 trophy hunters in 1972, whereas Humavindu and Barnes (2003) reported 3644 hunting clients 30 years later. Joubert et al. (1983) described 29 professional hunters and 185 hunting guides, while Humavindu and Barnes (2003) updated that figure to a total of 458 two decades later. Meanwhile, from 1972 to 1992, the economic value of wildlife on private rangelands in Namibia is estimated to have increased from 5% to 11% (Ashley & Barnes, 1996). ...
Article
Trophy hunting and ecotourism are important forms of sustainable utilisation in the human-impacted, working landscapes outside of formal parks and reserves. Research on the sustainability of such tourism operations, however, has focused on the financial viability of tourism operators, rather than environmental effects. This paper examines the sustainability strength of wildlife utilisation on private rangelands in Namibia in terms of ecological impact. Using grounded theory, 43 members of commercial conservancies were surveyed to identify themes in the practice and perception of sustainable utilisation. While basic tourism was infrequent, trophy hunting was a common source of revenue from wildlife. Three emergent themes from the data included differences in tourist versus hunting operations; attitudes and perceptions of the administration of conservation efforts; and the co-management of livestock and wildlife, especially farm economics and game-proof fencing. Overall, increases in the proportion of income derived from game (above 20% of farm revenue) were associated with concurrent reductions in domestic livestock, but did not increase the use of game-proof fences. Other factors delineating “weak” and “strong” sustainability on commercial Namibian rangelands are discussed. , 43, , , , , , , , 20%,
... For example, the annual amount spent by trophy hunters in South Africa is USD 250 million and contributes more than USD 341 million to the South African economy, and supports more than 17,000 employment opportunities [8]. Practically, the core of the South Africa tourism industry is based on wildlife tourism and hunting is one of the major income generators for product owners [25][26][27]. ...
... Other European countries, such as Ukraine [2], Spain [3,44], Serbia [37,45,46], Croatia [20,42,[47][48][49], Sweden [6,9,50], Norway [4,12,51], Czech Republic [40,41], and Finland [38,52]; • African countries such as Namibia [17,21,23,26,[28][29][30]33,53,54], Ghana [55], Botswana [32,56,57], Zimbabwe [15,58], Senegal [28], and Ethiopia [16,59]; • other countries, such as Pakistan [19], Canada [5]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The hunting has a major importance from many perspectives: as a product of leisure and recrea-tive, as tool for conservation and wildlife management, as main economic activity in rural area or as cultural heritage and traditional activity for countries from entire world, especially for Europe and Africa. Therefore, this research fills a gap in the literature and offer a cross-cultural opinion and perceptions of the 198 hunters from Romania and Spain. The aim of the paper is to analyze the perceptions and opinions of hunters regarding the hunting tourism through an online self -administrated questionnaire by a convenience sampling using hunters associations from these countries. Among the values that identify hunting as an activity, hunters highlight the human values (friendship, company, ethics), ecological values (love of nature associated with hunting as a tool to understand and enjoy the natural environment), and social values (resources generated, hobby, effort). The respondents can self-criticize some components and aspects of hunting groups. Hunters believe that the future of this sector is moving towards a commercial hunt, as-sociated with purchasing power to ensure results. Regardless of the nationality of the hunters, their values related to this sector are similar.
... The hunting tourism industry, which involves guided visits for tourists who hunt wildlife, provides economic benefits for Namibia in the form of foreign exchange revenue and employment generation. The hunting tourism industry also provides incentives for farmers and local communities to protect wildlife (Humavindu & Barnes 2003). ...
... Foreign hunters pay considerable amounts for their hunting packages. Besides these high fees generating sizeable incomes for the country, the hunters visiting Namibia may also have additional expenditure during their time here, such as transportation costs, purchases of handicrafts, or other purchases of goods or services (Humavindu & Barnes 2003). Therefore, an investigation of how this expenditure affects not only activity in different economic sectors, but also income for different socio-economic groups, is of some interest. ...
Article
The purpose of this study is to analyse the economic impacts of hunting tourism in Namibia. The economic impacts of hunting that takes place in communal land conservancies and on private lands, respectively, are studied, as well as the distribution of these impacts between different sectors and groups in the country. The study is based on data from a survey of hunters who visited Namibia during a five-year period. The income generated by hunting tourism, and the distribution of this income, are analysed using a recently developed Social Accounting Matrix (SAM). In aggregate, an extra N$ in spending by survey respondents translates into approximately one extra N$ in national income, and an average survey respondent's spending raised overall national income by an amount corresponding to two to three years' income for an average Namibian. The additional income generated by hunting tourism and associated tourism benefits rural households and urban wage earners to a greater extent, and capital owners to a lesser extent, than the average income distribution in the economy.
... A perfect example of this can be observed by comparing statistics between Botswana and Namibia, countries that have similar populations and wildlife resources. 40 During the 2000 hunting season Botswana generated US$12.6million for 2,500 trophy animals; to compete with that figure Namibia, with a highvalue game species offtake of 3 percent, would have to kill 13,310 trophy animals. 41 Such conclusions have clear implications on the management of the tourist hunting industry, by reaching equilibrium between high value big game species and low value plains game species (e.g., kudu Tragelaphus imberbis and gemsbok Oryx gazella) outfitters can potentially reduce the hunting pressure on plains game species. ...
... 46 Community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) plays a pivotal role in promoting sustainability by utilizing funds generated from hunting tourism to align conservation interests with rural development. 40 The CBNRM concept involves devolving wildlife resources to local communities and permitting their consumptive use as a form of income generation to improve rural Tourism without regard for how they perceive wildlife. ...
... This privatization of wildlife management has been shown to advance conservation objectives (Barnes and de Jager 1996;Kinyua et al. 2000). The economic eVects of privately managed game are seen at the farm (Kreuter andWorkman 1994), provincial (van der Waal andDekker 2000), and national levels (Hosking 1996;Humavindu and Barnes 2003). ...
... Although the wildlife production industry has spread across sub-Saharan Africa, research concentrates on South Africa, Zimbabwe, Kenya and Tanzania. Little research on the private wildlife industries of Namibia and Zambia has been published: Humavindu and Barnes (2003) report on the signiWcance of the sport hunting industry to Nambia's national economy, and Lewis and Alpert (1997) describe the nature of sport hunting in Zambia on publicly-and communally-held land. ...
Article
The private game industry has grown across Africa since the mid-20th century. While considerable research has documented wildlife production on commercial land in many eastern and southern African countries, few studies have focused specifically on the integration of livestock and game production in Namibia and Zambia. This paper reports a survey of 43 commercial conservancy members in Namibia and 23 game farmers in Zambia conducted between September 2004 and June 2005. The survey was based on inductive sampling theory and queried farmers on how they have integrated wildlife production into their management practices. Farmers in each country reported considerable integration of wildlife conservation and agricultural production. Namibian farmers reported substantial problems with bush encroachment, whereas none of their Zambian counterparts raised similar complaints. This paper describes the state of rangeland management on commercial farms in Namibia and Zambia and identifies important areas where further research can contribute to the enhancement of this conservation-production system. KeywordsGame farming-Game ranching-Wildlife production-Sustainable grazing-Veld management-Veld ecology-Bush encroachment-Namibia-Zambia
... Midgley et al. (2005) state that in Namibia, climate change and associated aridification could threaten the lucrative tourism sector. Indeed, the contribution of nature-based tourism (including landscape, game viewing and trophy hunting) is estimated to be 75 per cent of Namibia's total tourism sector (Humavindu and Barnes 2003). The Government of Namibia (2002) asserts that since tourism relies solely on Namibia's natural resources base, any impacts to biodiversity and natural ecosystems will impact on tourism. ...
... Another important source of tourism income in Namibia, and an example of a consumptive use value, is trophy hunting, which constitutes to about 14 per cent of the total tourism sector. Humavindu and Barnes (2003) estimate the consumptive economic use value of trophy hunting to be N$ 134 million in gross output, and N$ 63 million in gross value added (the value of production of goods and services minus intermediate inputs like raw materials). ...
Article
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The IPCC recognises Africa as a whole to be “one of the most vulnerable continents to climate variability and change because of multiple stresses and low adaptive capacity. Climate change is likely to exacerbate the dry conditions already experienced in southern Africa. And when rainfall does come, it is likely to be more intense, leading to erosion and flood damage. This will affect the poor most, with resulting constraints on employment opportunities and declining wages. But at present these predictions gain little policy traction in southern African countries. The multilateral climate change process is complicated and slow, and policymakers often see serious action on climate change as a domestic ‘vote loser’. One way to raise climate change concerns further up the policymakers’ agenda is to try to put an economic value on the environmental impacts of climate change. Figures that provide a clear message about the expected impact of climate change will be powerful motivators for policymakers in developing countries to start considering climate change as a part of their national development policies. This study is a first attempt to provide some economic indicators of how climate change will affect Namibia – one of the most vulnerable countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Focusing on natural resources, the study aims to assess the likely economic values of some of the most important environmental and socio-economic impacts of climate change in Namibia, and also to capture how some of the most important impacts might affect the overall structure of the economy.
... The offer of hunting experiences for upper-income recreational hunters, mostly from Europe, is an important part of the Namibian tourism industry. Trophy hunting in Namibia is controlled both by government and private agents and is allowed on both private and public land (Humavindu and Barnes 2003). In 2000, an estimate of 13,310 game animals were shot by an estimated 3640 hunters, of which 84% were European tourists (Humavindu and Barnes 2003). ...
... Trophy hunting in Namibia is controlled both by government and private agents and is allowed on both private and public land (Humavindu and Barnes 2003). In 2000, an estimate of 13,310 game animals were shot by an estimated 3640 hunters, of which 84% were European tourists (Humavindu and Barnes 2003). ...
Chapter
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... 5 In Namibia alone, a study undertaken by Michael Humavindu and Jonathan Barnes revealed that in 2000, hunting generated US$19.6 million in direct expenditure. 6 The research results indicate that, contrary to expectation, the expansion of the private security industry in southern Africa does not appear to contribute significant numbers of firearms to total national holdings. In South Africa, which has the largest and one of the most sophisticated private security industries in the region, as of September 2003, 1 643 private security companies (out of a total of 3 252) were registered as possessing 58 981 licenced firearms, which represents 1.6% of the total registered civilian firearms in South Africa. ...
... For example, nonresident hunters in Alberta pay in excess of US$10,000 in permit and guiding fees to hunt male bighorn sheep, with even higher amounts paid for hunting trophy sheep in Asia (Jorgenson et al., 1998). Another example from Africa is that in the 2000 hunting season, 3640 trophy hunters spent 15,450 hunter-days, taking 13,310 game animals in Namibia (Humavindu and Barnes, 2003). Currently, trophy hunting takes place in 23 African countries (see Lindsey et al., 2006 for an overview). ...
Article
During the last few decades wildlife trophy hunting has increasingly replaced traditional meat hunting. The economics of trophy hunting is analysed with the Scandinavian moose (Alces alces) serving as an example. A four-stage model (calf, yearlings, adult female and adult male) is formulated. The calves, yearlings, and females are hunted for meat, while the males are hunted for trophies and where the demand for trophy hunting depends on price and quality. We find that trophy hunting boosts the male population and yields a high ratio of males to females. The main reason for this result is that we consider a management scheme with well defined property rights and not of the ‘open-access’ type, and where the key mechanism is the quality demand effect in trophy hunting. In an extended model where ecological theory of animal adoption to hunting is assumed to influence the biology through fertility we still find that trophy hunting boosts the male stock.
... Economic studies of trophy hunting focus on international (Lindsey et al. 2006(Lindsey et al. , 2007, national (Humavindu andBarnes 2003, Muchapondwa 2003), local ( Jones 2009, Mbaiwa 2018, or industry-level (Saayman et al. 2018) scales. Those studies do not provide data for appropriate comparisons among all situations. ...
Article
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Reported effects of trophy harvest often are controversial. The subject is nuanced and many studies lack details necessary to place their results in context. Consequently, many studies are misunderstood or their conclusions misapplied. We propose that all dialogues about trophy hunting include a definition of how they use the term trophy, details of variables measured and why they were selected, and explanations of temporal and spatial scales employed. Only with these details can potential effects of trophy hunting be understood in context and used for management and policy decisions. © 2021 The Wildlife Society. Effects of trophy harvest often are controversial because many studies lack important details. Dialogues about trophy hunting must include a definition of how they use the term trophy, details of variables measured and why they were selected, and explanations of temporal and spatial scales employed so that potential effects of trophy hunting can be understood in context.
... The decline is also being suggested because trophy hunting is geared by key game species in which a ban or change in hunting policy in one of these species has a significant impact on the industry (Humavindu and Barnes, 2003;Lindsey et al., 2012). For instance our results showed a decline of hunting of African lion and African elephant in the two game reserves from 2007 to 2015 which is probably due to quota limitation imposed by CITES ,failure to attract customers or failure to locate the animals during hunting expedition. ...
... The Botswana Wildlife Management Association estimates that 49.5% of hunting expenditure, totalling US$9.5 million per annum, remains in individual hunting districts; a further 25.7% remains in the country (BWMA 2001). Similarly, Humavindu & Barnes (2003) show that 24% of hunting revenue earned in Namibia (totalling US$19.6 million) accrues to the poorer segments of society in the form of wages, rentals and royalties. In Zambia, the ADMADE programme (Administrative Design for Game Management Areas) receives around 67% of all revenue generated by sport hunting activities in Zambia's Game Management Areas. ...
... On the one hand, those studies have aimed to estimate the effect of hunting tourism on specific destinations and the role it plays in the local economy of the reception centres [17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Hunters make a large number of trips during the hunting season all over the world due to the irregular distribution of hunting species. The proliferation of this kind of travel gives rise to the origin of a new kind of specific tourism, i.e., hunting tourism. Currently, the economic magnitude of this kind of travel has led to carrying out numerous studies on the subject. It has, however, been observed that most of them concentrate on the economic and environmental aspects of this activity and neglect a parameter as important as demand. Becoming familiar with the characteristics of the hunting traveller allows more appropriate management of this kind of tourism. It is for this reason that this study approaches the various profiles of hunting travellers residing in Extremadura and determines the most important characteristics of their movements. The main source of information for this research is the results obtained from distributing a questionnaire during a period of one year. These data have been processed by univariate and bivariate statistical techniques, which allow us to obtain groundbreaking results. These include, in particular, the considerable mobility of the hunter resident in Extremadura, who makes a large number of trips in order to hunt during the season, and the relationship between the number of days hunters travel, according to their income.
... On Namibian wildlife ranches, and most communal land conservancies , the reintroduction of buffalo is precluded by veterinary restrictions (Lindsey et al. 2011 ). As a result, hunting safaris on private land in Namibia target almost entirely of low-value " plains game " hunts (Humavindu and Barnes 2003 ; Lindsey et al. 2007 ) reducing income signifi cantly relative to what could be achieved if buffalo reintroductions were permitted. Veterinary fencing is typically supported by state or international funding, whereas the benefi ts accrue to private beef producers . ...
Chapter
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Fencing is commonly used as a tool in wildlife management in Africa, particularly in the southern part of the continent. Fencing confers a number of advantages to wildlife managers including: the ability to utilize small habitat fragments and conserve wildlife in otherwise human-dominated landscapes by reducing edge-effects on large mammals; enabling intensive management practices (e.g. holding of wildlife in pre-release pens, separating genders or individuals, and protecting specific habitat types from certain species); and acting as a tool in disease control. Fencing is a potentially important tool in reducing human-wildlife conflict, and can assist in protecting wildlife from illegal hunting. Finally, fencing is important in the allocation of ownership and/or user-rights over wildlife and was important in providing the legal basis for the development of wildlife-based land uses on private land. However, there are a number of problems associated with the use of fencing, which can be categorized as ecological, epidemiological, social and financial. Ecological and epidemiological issues include: the inhibition of ecological processes such as migration; high levels of mortality of some species (particularly reptiles) along fence lines; and failure to achieve key objectives relating to disease control. Social issues include: negative community perceptions towards fences in some areas due to a feeling that they are an exclusive imposition; and, the importance of fence as sources of material for snares for illegal hunters. Financial issues include: the fact that fencing influences (and in some cases limits) land use options; and that fencing is costly to erect and maintain. Solutions to some of these problems include: using the minimum amount of fencing possible to achieve management objectives; where possible enlarging wildlife areas encompassed by fencing, or amalgamating adjacent areas; re-thinking the use of fences for veterinary purposes and using alternative strategies (such as commodity-based trading, or relaxation of veterinary controls in favour of wildlife-based land uses); conducting adequate environmental and social impact assessments to minimize ecological problems and social conflicts resulting from the construction of fencing; and re-designing fences to reduce mortality due to entanglement.
... comm., 2010; Damm, 2005). Most hunts in Namibia are low-value hunts involving primarily antelope species, whereas a significant proportion of those in Botswana involve high-value dangerous game (Humavindu and Barnes, 2003). ...
... From an economic standpoint, however, trophy hunting—because it may also be a beneficial tool for conservation efforts—can generate high revenues in developing areas (Baker, 1997; Humavindu & Barnes, 2003; Lindsey, Alexander , Frank, Mathieson, & Romanach, 2006; MacDonald, 2005; Milner et al.). Th is can lead to concern for the land and habitat because there is an economic incentive to preserve both land and habitat and protect them from development and degradation. ...
Article
Th e purpose of this descriptive and exploratory study was to extend our understanding of the motivations for trophy hunting. Hunting is an important recreational activity and part of the culture in Montana. Placing specific emphasis on the importance of obtaining a trophy non-human animal when hunting, the study examined the attitudes of resident hunters and nonresi-dent outfitter-sponsored hunters. Th e study used a qualitative approach to data collection and developed 2 surveys that contained mostly open-ended questions. Results from 1000 surveys mailed to resident elk hunters and 1000 surveys mailed to nonresident outfitter-sponsored elk hunters indicated that nonresident outfitter-sponsored hunters were more likely than resident hunters to seek trophy-class animals. Respondents provided statements about the importance of obtaining trophy animals.
... Especially, trophy hunting was considered an important revenue source, which generated US$13 million during that year. A frequent issue is that only a small part of this revenue is allocated for environmental organizations and local communities (Balmford et al., 2015;Humavindu and Barnes, 2003;Leader-Williams et al., 2009). However, some positive examples have also been observed, such as in Namibia, where an expressive proportion of the legal and regulated hunting revenue is transferred to the traditional populations, thus generating income and increasing abundance of various species (Booth, 2010). ...
... Wildlife in southern Africa has economic value (Barnes, 2001;Humavindu and Barnes 2003). In 2000, nearly one-quarter of income from safari hunters in Namibia accrued to the rural poor, making the industry important for economic development. ...
... The main focuses of those studies were trophy hunting sustainability, economic significance and benefits to conservation (Lewis & Alpert 1997;Humavindu & Barnes 2003;Whitman et al. 2004;Lindsey et al. 2006;Croes et al. 2011). Authors have thus investigated the management and the outcome of this industry. ...
Article
Trophy hunting, which is a form of recreational hunting with the main objective of collecting a trophy of interest, is a controversial subject. This activity could potentially generate an anthropogenic Allee effect (AAE). This demographic process states that the valuation of rarity could drive rare species exploitation and even lead to their extinction. Our project aims at testing the potential for an AEE in trophy hunting. We demonstrate that rare species have a high financial value, regardless of the trophy size, indicating that there is a high demand for those species. We also show that the number of trophies traded internationally and the number of recorded trophies by the Safari Club International (one of the largest clubs for international trophy hunters in the USA) rises as the degree of rarity (as measured by a rarity index) increases. Trophy hunting of rare species has been proposed as a tool to fund their conservation. However, our results indicate that there is a risk of an AAE for rare species. Furthermore, the combined effects of trophy hunting, illegal hunting, corruption as well as the lack of population knowledge and of management controls have potential to result in the unsustainable exploitation of rare species of high financial value. Nonetheless, trophy hunting has potential to generate strong financial incentives that are necessary for wildlife preservation. Such incentives are only likely to be effective if strict measures are required and enforced to prevent overexploitation of rare trophy species
... Further to this, a widely accepted argument is that ecotourism is a non-consumptive activity (Mintel, 2004; Reynolds & Braithwaite, 2001) and that, although it seems to offer 'varying levels of benefits' (Baker, 1997: 273; see also Duffy, 2002) in social, economic and environmental terms, it is a far more accepted practice than those consumptive forms of tourism such as sport or trophy hunting tourism. However, sport and trophy hunters have claimed that their activity can be identified as a consumptive form of ecotourism, which in many cases has proved more beneficial (low-volume and high-value) for the host environment than non-consumptive activities, such as photographic tourism (Anon, 1993; Morrill, 1995; Novelli & Humavindu, 2005; Strauss, 2003). ...
Article
Full-text available
Over the 20th century, wildlife-based tourism has experienced significant growth, with increasing emphasis placed on ecotourism as one of the most beneficial forms of sustainable tourism. A widely accepted argument is that ecotourism is a non-consumptive practice far better received than those consumptive forms, such as sport or trophy hunting tourism. This paper discusses aspects of perception, consumption and conservation of wildlife in relation to the North–South divide and the controversial issue of sport and trophy hunting tourism. By presenting results of research conducted in Namibia and Botswana, this paper presents a provocative argument that ecotourism embraces forms of consumptive tourism, which can prove to be beneficial to the economy, the environment and local communities.
... There is an extensive body of research on trophy hunting in Africa stretching over decades (Baker, 1997;Humavindu & Barnes, 2003;Lindsey, Roulet, & Romanach, 2007;Lindsey, Alexander, Frank, Mathieson, & Romanach, 2006;Lindsey et al., 2013;Lindsey, Frank, Alexander, Mathieson, & Romanach, 2007). However, most of these studies focus on the economic contribution of trophy hunting, and its contested link with conservation (Creel et al., 2016;Crosmary, Côt e, & Fritz, 2015;Lindsey et al., 2006;Vora, 2018). ...
Article
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Existing studies on the trophy hunting controversy in recent years have largely represented the anti-hunting views of the Western public, while overlooking the opinions of African people. This study taps into Africans’ social media narratives to illuminate the racially, politically, and historically charged context in which trophy hunting occurs in Africa. Data were collected from the Facebook pages of three major social media players with a predominantly African followership, namely, BBC News Africa, News24.com, and NewsDay-Zimbabwe. The dominant pattern was resentment towards what was viewed as the neo-colonial character of trophy hunting, in the way it privileges Western elites in accessing Africa’s wildlife resources. However, the West’s passionate criticism of violence against animals was viewed by participants as overblown, and as evidence of their (Westerners') higher regard for animals than for African people. Interestingly, trophy hunting was not objectionable from an animal rights perspective, but as a consequence of its complex historical and postcolonial associations. In addition, criticism was directed at African politicians who were perceived as allowing wildlife exploitation to satisfy their own greed. In this instance, far from tourism being a facilitator of intercultural understanding and peace, it appears to reproduce images and wounds of a colonial past.
... Trophy hunting earns more foreign currency for Namibia than it does for South Africa, which makes Namibia one of the preferred hunting destinations in Africa. Humavindu and Barnes (2003) suggested that trophy hunting is about five times more important as a contributor to the national economy in Namibia as South Africa. It is only Tanzania that earns more foreign currency from trophy hunting than Namibia (Agriforum, 2007). ...
Chapter
This paper discusses the major methods employed to harvest game on a commercial basis in South Africa and Namibia. These two countries are presently the major exporters of game meat from southern Africa. The methods employed are determined by the specific species and the terrain where these species are found. The wild behaviour and extensive nature of game species mean that inevitably the mechanics of game meat production are infinitely more complex than those of domestic production systems where stock can be driven to a central meat production facility. Unlike with domestic animals, good management practices that minimise stress during pre-slaughter handling are difficult to employ with wild ungulates since factors such as terrain, time limitations, weather and the behaviour of specific species will hinder the efficiency of the harvesting process. As the export and local consumption of game meat in Africa increases, it is becoming increasingly important to maximise its quality in order for it to compete with that of domestic species. One of the major quality aspects that can be controlled through proper management is the use of cropping methods suited to the specific species being cropped and efficient in minimising ante mortem stress. Relating this ante mortem stress to the meat quality of wild ungulates is also essential in understanding the importance of the harvesting process when it comes to the quality of the product being produced. Keywordsharvesting–meat quality–venison–Africa
... Farmers and reserve managers are encouraged to conserve this species because it provides potential ecological and economic benefits. The latter includes game hunting and biltong production in smaller reserves that cannot depend on ecotourism and wilderness safari experiences (Humavindu & Barnes 2003;Reilly et al. 2003). ...
Article
Full-text available
Habitat availability and use by bushbuck were investigated to assist with the compilation of a species-specific management plan. Eight bushbuck were fitted with radio-collars and tracked in their natural valley thicket and coastal bushveld-grassland habitat during summer. Bushbuck preferred short thicket habitat types which provided shelter and favoured forage plant species. Preference or avoidance of tall closed woodlands and high reedbeds by bushbuck was unclear and needs to be investigated further. Low closed grasslands were generally avoided, but they were still considered to be important as bushbuck feed on the fringes.
... The private game industry in southern Africa has grown extensively, with millions of hectares of land being converted to game farming as a sustainable alternative to livestock farming (Bothma 1989;Castley et al. 2001;Reilly et al. 2003). This has been driven by the economic opportunities provided by game hunting and biltong production, particularly in smaller reserves that cannot depend on ecotourism and wilderness safari experiences (Eloff 2002a,b;Humavindu & Barnes 2003;Reilly et al. 2003). Population estimations of game species are thus increasingly important. ...
Article
Full-text available
Bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus) are usually nocturnal, solitary, secretive and inhabit thick bush, making it difficult to estimate its density and abundance. The present study assessed simulated drive counts, distance sampling from sighting efforts, and mark-resighting as estimators of bushbuck population size in valley thicket and coastal bushveld?grassland habitat for management purposes. Sighting efforts using distance sampling during spring were found to be the most effective estimators of bushbuck density and abundance at Shongweni Dam and Game Reserve. Furthermore, the method had high repeatability and simplicity, and low costs. However, continued estimations are required over several years to determine whether these estimations are useful for monitoring population trends of bushbuck.
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Although the game industry is expanding in all areas, the most essential food safety management points in the supply chain of South African game meat has not yet been described. In order to determine the management points it was necessary to determine the supply chain and then to identify the most essential food safety management points. Information to better understand the supply chain and relevant food safety management aspects was obtained through a desk top study, observation of processes from farm to consumer in the local market as well as during export activities and analysis of questionnaire responses from game farmers, hunters, butcheries and municipalities. The description of essential food safety management points in the supply chain can assist policy-makers; law enforcers and the industry to establish and implement management programmes that will ensure a safe game meat product to the consumer. Keywordssupply chain–traceability–sustainable utilisation–hunting–harvesting
Article
There is a lack of consensus among some conservation NGOs and African governments concerning the acceptability and effectiveness of trophy hunting as a conservation tool. This lack of consensus is due partly to a lack of reliable information on the economic significance and ecological impact of the industry. We provide a review of the scale of the trophy hunting industry, and assess both positive and negative issues relating to hunting and conservation in Africa. Trophy hunting occurs in 23 countries in Africa, with the largest industries occurring in southern Africa and Tanzania, where the industry is expanding. The trophy hunting industry has remained static or is shrinking in Central and West Africa. A minimum of 1,394,000 km2 is used for trophy hunting in sub-Saharan Africa, which exceeds the area encompassed by national parks. Trophy hunting is thus of major importance to conservation in Africa by creating economic incentives for conservation over vast areas, including areas which may be unsuitable for alternative wildlife-based land uses such as photographic ecotourism. However, there are a number of problems associated with the industry which limit conservation benefits. Several of these problems are common to multiple countries, suggesting that if solutions were developed, conservation benefits would accrue over large areas.
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Approaches to community-based natural resource management tend to vary among programmes based on the needs and characteristics of the communities in which the programmes operate. Variation also exists within individual programmes, creating the potential for conflict if management does not recognize that these differences can indicate competing interests and needs. In this study we examine livelihood activities at the household level in a wildlife conservancy along the Kwando River in the Caprivi region of Namibia. We ask how people in the conservancy make their livelihoods and what differences exist between the conservancy’s riverside and inland populations. The study finds that the inland population, c. 20 km from the river on slightly heavier soils, engages in fewer livelihood activities and has greater food security than does the riverside population. We further establish that differences between the two populations are significant enough to indicate two distinct combinations of livelihood activities with different environmental interactions. These findings suggest that any management action taken by the conservancy will affect household livelihoods differently based on location and that these differences must be considered if the conservancy is to make a successful transition from a subsistence-based agricultural system to a wildlife-based economy.
Article
There exist few quantitative assessments of the relationship between biodiversity per se and economic benefits at scales that are relevant for conservation. Similarly, the merits of Community-Based Natural Resource Management programs for both wildlife and people are contested. Here, we harness two databases, on wildlife surveys and financial benefits, to address these issues for communal conservancies in northwest Namibia. We use ordination methods to characterize the diversity and stability of large wildlife assemblages on conservancies, and demonstrate that diversity (but not stability) is an important explanator of conservancy financial benefits. Our results indicate that for this area of Namibia, biodiversity, as represented by large wildlife assemblages, has an important, positive effect on the tangible financial benefits that people derive from conservation programs. KeywordsAfrica–Biodiversity–Community-based conservation–Community ecology–Ecosystem services–Diversity–Ecotourism–Stability–Wildlife
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Legislative changes during the 1960s–1970s granted user rights over wildlife to landowners in southern Africa, resulting in a shift from livestock farming to wildlife-based land uses. Few comprehensive assessments of such land uses on private land in southern Africa have been conducted and the associated benefits are not always acknowledged by politicians. Nonetheless, wildlife-based land uses are growing in prevalence on private land. In Namibia wildlife-based land use occurs over c. 287,000 km2. Employment is positively related to income from ecotourism and negatively related to income from livestock. While 87% of meat from livestock is exported ≥ 95% of venison from wildlife-based land uses remains within the country, contributing to food security. Wildlife populations are increasing with expansion of wildlife-based land uses, and private farms contain 21–33 times more wildlife than in protected areas. Because of the popularity of wildlife-based land uses among younger farmers, increasing tourist arrivals and projected impacts of climate change on livestock production, the economic output of wildlife-based land uses will probably soon exceed that of livestock. However, existing policies favour livestock production and are prejudiced against wildlife-based land uses by prohibiting reintroductions of buffalo Syncerus caffer, a key species for tourism and safari hunting, and through subsidies that artificially inflate the profitability of livestock production. Returns from wildlife-based land uses are also limited by the failure to reintroduce other charismatic species, failure to develop fully-integrated conservancies and to integrate black farmers sufficiently.
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Issues affecting the interplay among wildlife health, the health of domestic animals, and human health are receiving inadequate attention from protected area managers. This chapter encourages an innovative framework, called the "One Health Paradigm," by taking a broad ecological definition of health that brings together many disciplines that too often have remained isolated from each other. This ecosystem approach to health issues is especially pertinent in the parts of the world where domestic animals often interact with the wild species of greatest interest to protected area managers. Steve Osofsky and his colleagues also provide a perspective on the many relationships between the health of wildlife and the health of people living in the often-remote areas adjacent to protected areas, where human health care is often in short supply. Building a more appropriate response to the problems of disease transmission across the interface between wildlife and domestic animals can also lead to improvements in the health status of the people living around protected areas, thereby building a more positive attitude towards the protected area and conservation authorities. This chapter also emphasises the highly dynamic relationship between people, domestic animals, and wildlife, calling for significant investments in training, monitoring and research in order to ensure a healthy outcome for all concerned. The elements in the "One Health" paradigm provide a solid basis for building support for protected areas from those living near them and those working on human and animal health. Editor's introduction
Article
Ecotourism serves as the principal revenue source for many private protected areas worldwide. We surveyed seven ecotourism-based private protected areas in South Africa to identify key attributes and challenges. The findings include: 1) the top three attractions to private reserves were the wildlife, the scenery, and the high quality accommodation / service; 2) establishing a reserve was a costly undertaking, requiring an average initial outlay of USD $4.6 million; 3) in changing from farming to wildlife-based ecotourism, employment numbers increased by a factor of 3.5, the average value of wages paid per reserve increased by a factor of 20, and the average annual salary more than quintupled from $715 to $4,064 per employee; 4) the reserves were contributing in excess of $11.3 million to the regional economy per year; 5) reserves were making a substantial contribution to biodiversity conservation; and 6) lack of support by government entities was the most pressing challenge facing reserve owners. The analysis points to ecotourism as an economically and ecologically desirable alternative to other land uses, while also highlighting the need for governments to provide assistance and support for both the establishment and management of private reserves.
Article
Hunted wild game meat (HGM) is growing in popularity and attracting a premium among consumers. This has led to the emergence of supply chains for industrially produced HGM in many countries. With the growing demand for Halal meat and the disposable income of its consumers around the globe, meat and game industries in countries rich in wild game and feral animals would be encouraged to consider supplying Halal hunted game meat (HHGM) to Halal consumers around the world. Meeting the Halal requirements for industrial HHGM is easy given the already existing supply chains for HGM in many producing countries. What is needed by the Game and Meat Industries in these countries to comply with the Halal requirements in terms of the hunted animal and the hunter, the hunt location, modes and methods, the handling and processing of hunted carcases and the hunted animal welfare and sustainability in the industrial production of HHGM, is the subject of this review.
Article
Given the considerable popularity of community-based wildlife management as a conservation tool, it is of interest to assess the long-run sustainability of this policy not only in conservation terms, but also in financial terms. In this paper, we use cost–benefit analysis to study the social and financial sustainability of a large set of community conservancies in Namibia, one of the few countries where community-based wildlife management policies have been in place long enough to assess their long-term viability. We find that, although the social sustainability is generally good, the financial sustainability is problematic – especially for the younger conservancies: there is no real link between conservation achievements and financial success. This calls into question the long-term sustainability of many of these conservancies: if they are unable to generate enough revenue to pay for their running expenditure, they will eventually fail – even if they are successful from a conservation point of view. Similar problems, linked to the way in which external funders have pushed for additional conservancies to be established regardless of financial considerations, are likely to be present in other countries that have implemented such programmes.
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The completion of a national wildlife inventory in 2004 enabled the development of a set of wildlife accounts for Namibia, comprising both physical and monetary asset accounts, as well as production or flow accounts. Some 2.04 million larger wild animals made up the physical wildlife asset base which produced gross output of some N$1.5 billion and directly contributed N$ 700 million to the gross national product (GNP). Non-consumptive wildlife-viewing tourism generated 62% of the total wildlife sector GNP contribution. Hunting tourism and live game production generated 19 and 10%, respectively. The wildlife use sector represented 2.1% of national GNP in 2004. Its contribution will likely triple in the next 30 years as the sector reaches potential. Namibia’s standing wildlife assets in 2004 were estimated to have a value of N$10.5 billion, a value comparable with those estimated for fish and minerals. Findings suggest that development in the sector should emphasise both non-consumptive and consumptive tourism. Property rights should be secured, through the concessions policy and the community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) programme. Investments in building appropriate stocks of wildlife in both communal and private land should be facilitated.
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African wildlife conservation has been transformed, shifting from a traditional, state-managed government approach to a broader governance approach with a wide range of actors designing and implementing wildlife policy. The most widely popularized approach has been that of community-managed nature conservancies. The knowledge of how institutions function in relation to humans and their use of the environment is critical to the design and implementation of effective conservation. This paper seeks to review the institutional and governance challenges faced in wildlife conservation in southern and eastern Africa. We discuss two different sets of challenges related to the shift in conservation practices: the practical implementation of wildlife governance, and the capacity of current governance structures to capture and distribute economic benefits from wildlife. To some extent, the issues raised by the new policies must be resolved through theoretical and empirical research addressed at wildlife conservation per se. However, many of these issues apply more broadly to a wide range of policy arenas and countries where similar policy shifts have taken place.
Technical Report
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The international outcry and indignation which followed the killing of " Cecil the Lion " in Zimbabwe in July 2015 opened a Pandora's Box on the ethical and economic implications of trophy hunting, especially in African countries. Private trophy hunting operators such as Hunters Namibia Safaris, a Namibian company, more than ever before, had to justify their business. No easy task when your trade is often described as being controversial, unsustainable and, in many instances, cruel. While the debate on trophy hunting was always intense internationally and locally, the death of " Cecil the Lion " only escalated it. Governments, trophy hunting operators, professional hunters, communities impacted by trophy hunting, and national and international NGOs all had a point of view in the heated debate over whether or not trophy hunting is indeed a sustainable and worthwhile activity. Some countries such as South Africa and Namibia tout the success of the industry in terms of economic gain and wildlife conservation. Botswana took another direction and banned trophy hunting in 2013. But now the country faces the loss of income that hunters provided, as well as growing instances of wild animals such as lion and elephant threatening rural communities. So who is right and who is wrong about the sustainability of the industry? Some say that a well-regulated trophy hunting industry plays an important role in the conservation of wildlife and guarantees immediate and long-term economic benefits for communities (as well as the country as a whole). Others say the opposite – according to this view, trophy hunting is an unsustainable and unethical practice which wreaks havoc amongst big cat populations, elephants and endangered species such as black rhino.
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The Chobe National Park River Front (CNPRF) is renowned for a high population and variety of wildlife species in Botswana. The park has become popular for nature-based tourism and wildlife safaris. With increased numbers of wildlife tourists there have been reports on problems of overuse and vehicle congestion in some parts of the Chobe National Park. In order to mitigate crowding and vehicle congestion on the popular Chobe River Front route, the DWNP introduced and implemented Upper and Nogatshaa routes. The purpose of the study is to assess wildlife tourists’ frequency of use and potential environmental impacts on the Chobe River Front, Nogatshaa and Upper routes of the Chobe National Park. Data were collected in June 2013. A semi-structured questionnaire and face-to-face interviews were employed to elicit information from guides operating from fixed lodges, guides from mobile tour safaris and wildlife officials based at Sedudu gate. In addition, participant observation was also used to collect additional data for this study. The results revealed that the Chobe River Front of the CNP was heavily utilized by wildlife tourists, followed by the Upper route and the least used was Nogatshaa. The Chobe River Front route was the most preferred, while Nogatshaa is the least preferred route. The study revealed that there are benefits associated with the newly created vehicle decongestion routes at the CNP. Observations have been made to indicate that the two new routes have relatively relieved the Chobe River Front from tourist vehicle pressure; lessened the congestion of tourist vehicles particularly at animal sightings or encounters of predators (leopards, lions), have relatively relieved the Chobe River Front from tourist vehicle pressure; lessened the congestion of tourist vehicles particularly at animal sightings or encounters specifically predators (leopard, wild dogs, lions) and also creation of a few waterpoints along the Upper and Nogatshaa routes appears to have contributed towards spreading of wild animals over a large area thereby alleviating competition for foraging and water and thereby reducing grassing pressure at the CRF. However, there are still issues of congestion during game drives particularly along the River bank route and at the CRF viewing site. Hence, we still can make a general statement that the decongestion strategy that was meant to alleviate tour operators and tourists’ traffic pressure from the Chobe River Front has possibly not achieved the intended purpose as yet. Managerial implications include improving the use of Upper and Nogatshaa routes by providing better facilities and service to all types of visitors and tourists to make it appealing. It is recommended that the park management should consider devising a strategy to attempt to demarket the Chobe River Front route to reduce visitor pressure, vehicle congestion and alleviate negative impact on animals and associated resources of the CNP.
Article
Geopolitics and business development is a buzz word. There is a serious link between population growth and the environment. This is basically found somewhere between the view that population growth is solely responsible for all environmental ills and the view that more people means the development of new technologies to overcome any environmental problems. An attempt has been made in this article to discuss the geopolitical environment in Namibia and provides a comprehensive picture of the country’s, economy, polity, education and health situation in the country. It also highlights the environment and migration issues in general and how that affects a developing country like Namibia. It further argues that action is required by a broad group of policy makers in Namibia who can take important policy intervention measures that can ameliorate the current business landscape of the country.
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Namibia is the driest country in sub-Saharan Africa, but well known for its richness in species and sustainable natural resource utilization. The Namibian farming sector consists mainly of extensive farming systems. Cattle production contributes 54% of the livestock sector’s production output, followed by sheep and goats (25%), hides and skins (9%), and other forms of agricultural production (12%). Namibia’s freehold farmers have obtained ownership rights over land and livestock since the early 1900s; commercial rights over wildlife and plants were given to freehold farmers in 1967 and to communal farmers in 1996. Natural resource-based production systems then overtook agricultural production systems and exceeded it by a factor of at least two. The shift from practicing conservation to sustainable utilization of natural resources contributed to the rapid growth of wildlife utilization. The wildlife industry in Namibia is currently the only animal production system that is expanding. There are in total at least two million head of different wildlife species. The broader impact of the utilization of wildlife on the economy is estimated to be around N$ 1.3 billion. Tourism, live sales and trophy hunting, cannot sustain further growth. Wildlife farming could offer better opportunities for ensuring long-term sustainability. As the game meat trade in Namibia is not formalized, harvesting wildlife to satisfy the demand for game meat in export markets is still in its infancy. Sustainable harvesting of wildlife for meat production, however, has the potential to increase earnings to the beneficiaries in the wildlife sector.
Article
Wildlife utilization in Botswana was studied to find out (1) whether it generates positive contributions to national income, and (2) which combinations of uses can generate most income. Financial and economic models of different land uses were combined in linear programming and cost-benefit analyses. Results show that the wildlife resource in Botswana can contribute positively to national income, and this justifies government investment in the sector. The sector is economically efficient, and contributes to Botswana's economic development. Wildlife uses need to be fully developed in ways that maximize their economic contributions. Non-consumptive tourism on high-quality wildlife land will give the greatest economic returns, and should get priority. Safari hunting, community-based wildlife use (where viable), and limited intensive ostrich and crocodile production should also be given priority for investment. Other uses should get lower priority, but all should be developed. On about a third of wildlife land, wildlife uses have a clear economic advantage over livestock uses. The remaining two thirds of wildlife land has poor capacity to generate use value. Here, commercial livestock ranching is not an economic threat, but traditional livestock keeping is. A ban on consumptive wildlife uses in Botswana would significantly exacerbate this threat.
Article
A sample of 626 anglers was surveyed with a questionnaire to determine the expenditures, consumer surpluses and elasticities of demand associated with the Namibian recreational marine shore fishery in 1998. Two entirely different methods of valuation, the travel cost method and contingent valuation, were applied. Results for the two methods indicate convergent validation. On aggregate, anglers spent between N$23 million and N$31 million on angling trips in Namibia during 1998, and they were willing to pay between N$24 million and N$27 million more than this for the experience. The fishery contributed between N$11 million and N$15 million to gross national income. Anglers in the fishery were found willing to pay some N$1 million annually towards conservation of the fish resource, as well as some N$340 000 annually for licences. Demand for angling experiences is generally price inelastic, suggesting that rents might be captured through donations and licence fees, without reducing angler numbers.
Article
In Namibia, as in many countries, reliable and accurate information regarding the economic impact of tourism has not been available. In an attempt to overcome this problem, a set of preliminary tourism satellite accounts for Namibia has been constructed using currently available data. Such accounts are designed to accurately determine the size and importance of the tourism industry within an economy. The accounts present information including the supply of, and expenditure on, tourism commodities, as well as gross value added of, and employment within, the tourism industry. The limitations of the data used are identified, and recommendations to improve both data quality and quantity are made. Opportunities to improve these accounts in the future and the importance of such accounts in policy making are outlined. The development of a comprehensive set of accounts is feasible, and the potential for their use in policy making and economic analysis is great.
Article
Five community wildlife conservation and utilization initiatives, or conservancies, on communal land in Namibia were appraised to determine economic and financial worth. Conservancies are economically efficient and able to contribute positively to national income and the development process. They also provide a channel for the capture of international donor grants (wildlife non-use values) as income, and generate attractive financial returns for communities. Donor grants are very important catalysts in promoting land use change in conservancies. Ability to generate income from tourism is important. Flexibility and adaptability in design are key factors, ensuring effective rural development and conservation.