Conference Paper

Depth-Based Energy-Balanced Hybrid Routing Protocol for Underwater WSNs

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Conference Paper

Depth-Based Energy-Balanced Hybrid Routing Protocol for Underwater WSNs

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Abstract

Underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs) are meant to be deployed at the areas that need to be monitored continuously without the human assistance. Therefore, these networks are expected to stay operational for a longer period of time. However, sensor nodes in these networks are equipped with limited energy (e.g., battery) resources. Moreover, uneven energy consumption is one of the biggest challenges in UWSN because it leads to creation of energy holes and ultimately shorten network lifetime. This invites UWSN designers to introduce protocols that can minimize and balance energy consumption of nodes. This paper presents DB-EBH, a Depth-Based Energy-Balanced Hybrid routing protocol for UWSNs. Like EBH, DB-EBH is a hybrid approach which is based on direct and multihop communication. However, DB-EBH considers linear random deployment of nodes. It selects a priority neighbor node for data forwarding on the basis of its depth from the sink. Simulation results validate the performance of DB-EBH in terms of energy efficiency, network lifetime and throughput.

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... Energy efficiency in UWSNs is the basic requirement to achieve longer network lifetime. Energy Balanced Hybrid Protocol[1] and DBEBH protocol[2] combines multi-hop communication and direct transmission, due to which the energy is balanced to some extent between sensor nodes. But because of direct transmission of data from sensor nodes to sink node (especially from the farthest nodes), the energy consumption of the network is increased which effects the network lifetime and creates network holes. ...
... In this protocol every node transmit its sensed data along with data packets of its higher depth neighboring nodes, due to which the nodes of lower depth (closer to the sink) have rapid energy reduction, which results in network hole problem. DBEBH [2] is the improved form of EBH, in which nodes randomly deployed and energy grades maintained to switch between multi-hop communication and direct transmission of data. When the energy grade of a relay node decreased, it sends control packet to its high depth neighboring node which in turn changes its transmission mode from multi-hop mode to direct transmission mode. ...
... In underwater wireless communication acoustic signals are used by reason of which we have to face high end to end delay, limited range and less bandwidth. Many energy efficient routing protocols like Energy Efficient Depth-Based Routing Protocol (EEDBR), DE-EBH [1] etc. have been proposed, as energy constraint is still the major challenge for UWSNs. In UWSNs, the network lifetime mainly depends on the life of sensor nodes, when the sensor nodes die the network collapse. ...
... As our proposed protocol is localization free routing protocol so we present few well known proposed localization free routing protocol for UWSNs. In [1], a proposed protocol is DB-EBH. In this protocol, energy balancing mechanism is used to increase the network lifetime. ...
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... Authors in [1] present a balance energy consumption technique called DB-EBH for UWSNs. DB-EBH is a hybrid protocol as it uses direct as well as hop-by-hop communication among sensor nodes during its operation. ...
... It is assumed that all nodes are deployed linearly and then residual energy information is used to switch transmission mode between direct and hop-by-hop to make the nodes able to consume their energy in a balanced way. Linear deployment of the sensor nodes makes this protocol [2] different from [1] in which nodes are deployed in a random manner. ...
... Authors in [1] present a balance energy consumption technique called DB-EBH for UWSNs. DB-EBH is a hybrid protocol as it uses direct as well as hop-by-hop communication among sensor nodes during its operation. ...
... It is assumed that all nodes are deployed linearly and then residual energy information is used to switch transmission mode between direct and hop-by-hop to make the nodes able to consume their energy in a balanced way. Linear deployment of the sensor nodes makes this protocol [2] different from [1] in which nodes are deployed in a random manner. ...
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... If the ad hoc network form with a similar characteristic of the node, then it is defined as the homogeneous network, and if the node is not the same type & having a different operating system, then the network is called the heterogeneous type of the network. Ad hoc network protocol categorized into three categories: (i) Table-driven [10] (ii) Source-initiated [11] (iii) Balanced-hybrid protocol [12]. ...
... Multi-Hoping and direct transmission, both methods are employed in the network to balance the energy consumption. The authors introduces the DB-EBH (Depth Based Energy Balanced Hybrid) routing protocol in [7]. DB-EBH is an energy hybrid protocol like EBH. ...
... In IA-IEEDBR [6], three routing techniques are discussed that uses different routing metrics to enhance network lifetime, throughput and overcome the coverage holes in a network. DB-EBH [7], follows a hybrid approach that uses multi hop and direct communication mode in which it selects a priority neighbor node for data transmission on the basis of its depth from the sink. A geographic approach named vector based forwarding [8], allows the nodes to reduce energy consumption and to weigh the benefit to forward packets by ignoring low benefit packets. ...
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... We will now discuss some of the protocols which are related to our work. Depth-Based Energy-Balanced Hybrid routing protocol is proposed in [1]. The concept of energy gradation determines in which mode will a node transmit its data. ...
... In IA-IEEDBR[6], three routing techniques are discussed that uses different routing metrics to enhance network lifetime, throughput and overcome the coverage holes in a network. DB-EBH[7], follows a hybrid approach that uses multi hop and direct communication mode in which it selects a priority neighbor node for data transmission on the basis of its depth from the sink. A geographic approach named vector based forwarding[8], allows the nodes to reduce energy consumption and to weigh the benefit to forward packets by ignoring low benefit packets. ...
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... As water is used as medium of transmission and the required signals to transmit data so UWSNs shows different structure design as comparison to terrestrial network. In USWNs different schemes have been proposed for efficient and cooperative routing having transmission with usage of sink followed by relay/nodes [9]. The node mobility changes the structure of topology in underwater environment with respect to water current and water pressure. ...
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... As with UWSNs, the sensor nodes with limited energy sources are deployed at different places, to monitor the environment and to route different data packets to the sink nodes. Thus, another routing protocol, DB-EBH [25], based on direct and multi-hop communication of the network, proposed a solution for this, in order to maintain the network alive. In this protocol, priority is giving to a node according to its location, in which the best nodes are selected for forwarding communication, and localization information are taken from the depth sensors equipped at each sensors' nodes. ...
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... TayyabaLiaqat et al. [8] had proposed Depth-Based Energy- Balanced Hybrid Routing Protocol for UWSNs. In this paper, author concludes that energy is always the main issue of wireless network. ...
... The first stage of 3LLT (updated stage) is for detecting sensor failures. Alarm can be achieved by the layer of failure-sensitive filters according to [315][316][317][318]. ...
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... Because each node detects any benefit and transmits it to neighboring nodes, the difficulty occurs out to be a sudden reduction in energy of nodes that are next to sink. Paper [30] presents descriptions of the integrated view of the above-mentioned paper in which nodes have been randomly deployed and energy ratings have been preserved. But each variant also has drawbacks that have been submitted and evaluated correspondingly by various scholars. ...
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I. Snigdh, R. Khichar and N. Gupta, "Lifetime Prolonging Algorithm for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Network," Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research,.pp. 818-822, 2013.
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Hop-by-Hop Dynamic Addressing Based (H 2 -DAB) Routing Protocol for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks
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