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Atlas des poissons d'eau douce de Guyane, tome 2, fascicule 2 - Siluriformes.

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... several columns of three rows of plates on the caudal peduncle beginning under the adipose fin spine). Le Bail et al. (2000) describe an A. aff. hoplogenys from French Guiana as being entirely brown, which is unlike any Northwestern Guiana Shield species. ...
... The holotype was pictured and described in Bleeker (1864) as entirely reddish-brown, again, unlike any of the Northwestern Guiana Shield species. Le Bail et al. (2000) recognize an A. aff. temmincki from eastern French Guiana, but describe it as having spots that make the background dark color appear as a network. ...
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The Orinoco Andes and northwestern Guiana Shield (Essequibo, Orinoco, Branco, and upper Negro) were found to contain 11 species of Ancistrus, six of which are new. We additionally examine A. brevifilis from the Río Tuy of Venezuela and A. trinitatis from the island of Trinidad. The species in the region can be broken up into dorsoventrally flattened species (A. leoni new species, A. lithurgicus, and A. macropthalmus), white to yellow-dotted species (A. kellerae new species, A. nudiceps, and A. patronus new species), wide-jawed species (A. amaris new species and A. yutajae new species), and white-spotted species (A. brevifilis, A. leucostictus, A. trinitatis, A. saudades new species, and A. triradiatus). Distributions of Ancistrus support the Proto-Berbice hypothesis as A. saudades is found in the upper reaches of the Ventuari, Caura, and Caroni rivers, which were thought to have once flowed into the Proto-Berbice. In addition, although A. nudiceps does not appear to have split once the Takutu River was captured by the Branco, the progenitor of A. leucostictus and A. saudades did speciate with the populations on either side of the Rupununi Portal differing by 7% sequence divergence of the mitochondrial Cytochrome b gene. Besides the descriptions of the new species, we redescribe the others occurring in the area, and adjacent watersheds. We provide a key for their identification, and a preliminary hypothesis of relationships based on DNA sequences of the few species for which tissue samples are available.
... Mullet species belonging to the Mugilidae family are coastal marine fishes, with a worldwide distribution in warm waters, including all temperate, subtropical, and tropical seas (Fortunato et al. 2017), where they grow well on algae and detritus (Keith et al. 2000). Because they are highly euryhaline and eurythermal species and tolerate a wide range of salinities, they inhabit various habitats, such as shallow brackish and marine waters close to lagoons, and spend part of their life cycle in coastal lagoons, lakes, and/or rivers using these areas for feeding, refuge, and development (Nelson 2006a, b;Heras et al. 2009;González-Castro and Ghasemsadeh 2015;González-Castro and Minos 2015). ...
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Otoliths are known to vary in morphology between and within species and therefore, they have long been considered useful structures for fish identification and discrimination in numerous studies. To obtain a deeper understanding of whether the shape of the sagitta otolith shows a discrepancy between congeneric species and their sexes inhabiting the same environmental conditions, it was found useful to compare the shape of the sagitta otolith between fish samples and the sexes of Liza aurata and Chelon ramada collected from the Boughrara lagoon situated in southeastern Tunisia using Elliptical Fourier analysis (EFA). At the interspecific level, the MANOVA and Wilks’ λ tests showed significant differences (p < 0.0001), i.e., asymmetry, between the left and right otoliths of the two species. At the intraspecific and intersexual levels, the Fisher’s distances (D) showed significant asymmetry in the otoliths (p < 0.05) between males and females on the left and right sides, as well as between the right sides, i.e. there was sexual dimorphism. Besides, a significant asymmetry between the left and right sides of the otoliths was found between males, as well as between females in L. aurata. However, in C. ramada, significant asymmetry was detected only on the right and left sides of the otoliths between males and females, i.e. there was sexual dimorphism. Moreover, the modality projection on the first two axes F1 and F2 of the Redundancy analysis (RDA) accounted for 60.11% of the total variance and clearly showed the presence of two distinct main groups of otoliths corresponding to the two species. Therefore, the shape of the saccular otoliths, sagittae, showed clear variation, i.e. asymmetry, between L. aurata and C. ramada, as well as between the sexes. This variability in the sagitta otolith shape was suggested to be due to differences in the response and adaptability of the fish samples of both species to the local environmental conditions of the Boughrara lagoon.
... Fish were morphologically identified at the species level based on the literature Le Bail et al., 2000;Mol, 2012;Planquette et al., 1996). Fish taxonomy follows Le F I G U R E 1 Distribution map of sampling sites and effort. ...
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The Maroni is one of the most speciose basins of the Guianas and hosts a megadiverse freshwater fish community. Although taxonomical references based on morphological identification exist for both the Surinamese and Guianese parts of the basin, there are still taxonomical uncertainties concerning the status of several species. We used COI sequences of 1,284 fish in conjunction with morphological and biogeographical evidence to assist with species delineation and discovery in order to validate and standardise the current taxonomy. This resulted in a final DNA barcode dataset of 199 fish species (125 genera, 36 families, and 8 orders; 68.86% of strictly freshwater fishes from the basin), among which 25 are new putative candidate species flagged as requiring taxonomic update. DNA barcoding delineation through BINs unveiled further cryptic diversity (230 BINs in total). To explore global genetic patterns across the basin, genetic divergence landscapes were computed for 128 species, showing a global trend of high genetic divergence between the Surinamese south‐west (Tapanahony and Paloemeu), the Guianese south‐east (Marouini, Litany, Tampok…), and the river outlet in the north. This could be explained by lower levels of connectivity between these three main areas and/or the exchange of individuals between these areas and the neighbouring basins. A new method of ordination of genetic landscapes successfully assigned species into cluster groups based on their respective pattern of genetic divergence across the Maroni Basin: genetically homogenous species were effectively discriminated from species showing high spatial genetic fragmentation and possible lower capacity for dispersal.
... As pescadas pertencem à família Sciaenidae, são peixes que apresentam desova parcelada, fecundação externa e não têm cuidado parental (Goulding 1980, Keith et al. 2000, Santos et al. 2006. ...
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The fishes of family Sciaenidae are among the most marketed species in the Santarém ports in lower Amazon presenting great economic and social importance for the region. The study aimed to verify the Sciaenidae larvae spatial-temporal distribution during monthly sampling realized from January to December of 2013 in the vicinity of Marrecas Island, on the lower stretch of Amazon River, next to the municipality of Santarém, state of Pará, Brazil. The biological material was obtained with conical-cylindrical plankton net (300 µm mesh size). Analysis of Variance was used to verify larval density differences between stations and sampling months and Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) to verify the possible relation between environmental variables and the density of Sciaenidae larvae. We collected 1,018 Sciaenidae larvae, of which 91.3% were identified as Plagioscion squamosissimus, followed by Plagioscion auratus (6.4%) and Pachypops fourcroi (2.4%). No significant difference in larval density variation was found between stations. The reproductive and spawning period in this stretch of Amazon River occurred over two moments of the hydrological cycle, one in September/October (drought), particularly for P. squamosissimus, and another in April (flooding) for P. arautus and P. fourcroi. This result indicates that the marginal areas of the river are places of dispersal and larval aggregation. In the CCA, the fluviometric level was negatively correlated with the temporal distribution of P. squamosissimus larvae in September, month of lower river flow, and the precipitation index was positively correlated with P. fourcroi larvae in April, end of the flood period. The island’s lowland and flooded shores function as dispersal, retention and nursery sites, emphasizing the importance of maintaining the integrity of these environments, as well as increasing knowledge about the ichthyofauna in the Lower Amazon.
... As pescadas pertencem à família Sciaenidae, são peixes que apresentam desova parcelada, fecundação externa e não têm cuidado parental (Goulding 1980, Keith et al. 2000, Santos et al. 2006. ...
Article
The fishes of family Sciaenidae are among the most marketed species in the Santarém ports in lower Amazon presenting great economic and social importance for the region. The study aimed to verify the Sciaenidae larvae spatial-temporal distribution during monthly sampling realized from January to December of 2013 in the vicinity of Marrecas Island, on the lower stretch of Amazon River, next to the municipality of Santarém, state of Pará, Brazil. The biological material was obtained with conical-cylindrical plankton net (300 µm mesh size). Analysis of Variance was used to verify larval density differences between stations and sampling months and Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) to verify the possible relation between environmental variables and the density of Sciaenidae larvae. We collected 1,018 Sciaenidae larvae, of which 91.3% were identified as Plagioscion squamosissimus, followed by Plagioscion auratus (6.4%) and Pachypops fourcroi (2.4%). No significant difference in larval density variation was found between stations. The reproductive and spawning period in this stretch of Amazon River occurred over two moments of the hydrological cycle, one in September/October (drought), particularly for P. squamosissimus, and another in April (flooding) for P. arautus and P. fourcroi. This result indicates that the marginal areas of the river are places of dispersal and larval aggregation. In the CCA, the fluviometric level was negatively correlated with the temporal distribution of P. squamosissimus larvae in September, month of lower river flow, and the precipitation index was positively correlated with P. fourcroi larvae in April, end of the flood period. The island’s lowland and flooded shores function as dispersal, retention and nursery sites, emphasizing the importance of maintaining the integrity of these environments, as well as increasing knowledge about the ichthyofauna in the Lower Amazon.
Article
en Trophic support of species-rich tropical fish communities remains uncertain in small forest streams where dense and constant canopy cover strongly limits the solar radiation available to aquatic producers. We sampled >1300 fish from 80 species in 14 remote headwater streams during the dry season in French Guiana. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analyses and mixing models were run to estimate the trophic position (TP) of each species and its dependence on terrestrial organic carbon sources. Matching patterns were found between nitrogen stable isotope ratios and the literature on diets of species at the base and top of the food web. Nearly 60% of the species fed exclusively on animal prey (mean TP >3), including piscivorous and parasitic fish species. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that TP were distributed broadly along the phylogeny and changed gradually within lineages. Carbon stable isotope ratios differed strongly between herbivores that fed on aquatic primary producers and those that fed on terrestrial plants along banksides. Terrestrial carbon was dominant in nearly 90% of species, and most of them depended more or less exclusively on terrestrial carbon. Ancestral state reconstructions indicated that only a few lineages showed local changes toward the consumption of algal carbon. We conclude that fish in neotropical headwater streams shaded by a dense tree canopy depend strongly on terrestrial subsidies. Changes in this aquatic-terrestrial linkage would have major consequences for the remarkable fish biodiversity in these streams. FRENCH ABSTRACT fr La contribution majoritaire du carbone algal aux réseaux trophiques d'eau douce a été démontrée, même dans la partie amont des bassins versants où les apports de carbone terrestre sont substantiels. Ces apports terrestres proviennent principalement de lignocellulose, une source de nourriture que les consommateurs n'assimilent pas bien sous les climats tempérés, contrairement aux algues de haute qualité nutritive. La prédominance de l'apport algal reste en questionnement dans les petits cours d'eau en forêt tropicale, qui diffèrent entre autre par un couvert forestier dense et constant limitant fortement le rayonnement solaire disponible pour les producteurs aquatiques, par les essences végétales elles même, et par les caractéristiques physicochimiques du sol et de l'eau. Nous avons étudié l'écologie trophique de 80 espèces de poissons (> 1300 individus) issues de 14 ruisseaux pauvres en nutriments dans un contexte de forêt tropicale préservée en Guyane Française. Nous avons rassemblé des informations sur leur alimentation, puis combiné ces connaissances avec l'analyse des isotopes stables C et N dans leur muscle et dans une variété d'aliments potentiels, aquatiques et terrestres. Nous avons calculé leur position trophique et leur dépendance vis-à-vis des sources de C terrestres ou aquatiques. Nos résultats montrent des profils trophiques concomitants entre les isotopes stables de l'azote et la littérature sur les régimes alimentaires des espèces à la base et au sommet du réseau trophique, validant la pertinence d'une telle approche combinée pour ces communautés de poissons. Nous constatons qu'une majorité des espèces (60%) se nourrit de proies animales, y compris des poissons strictement piscivores. Une grande majorité (près de 90%) dépend principalement de sources alimentaires terrestres (>50% de C terrestre dans leurs tissus), et 65% en dépendrait plus ou moins exclusivement (>75% de C terrestre). Leurs niveaux trophiques sont très variables, depuis l'herbivorie (Myloplus ternetzi) jusqu’à l'ichtyoparasitisme (Ituglanis nebulosus). Seules 9 espèces sont plus fortement liées aux sources de C aquatique, et elles ont majoritairement un niveau trophique bas (Farlowella reticulata, Cyphocharax helleri, Ancistrus temminckii, Ancistrus aff. hoplogenys, Satanoperca rhynchitis and Ancistrus cf. leucostictus). Ces traits trophiques ont été utilisés dans une analyse phylogénétique pour tester leur pertinence évolutive. Ceci révèle que les positions trophiques sont largement réparties le long de la phylogénie et changent progressivement au sein des lignées. Les reconstructions d'états ancestraux indiquent toutefois que quelques lignées montrent des changements ponctuels vers la consommation de carbone algal. Nous concluons que les poissons des petits cours d'eau néotropicaux ombragés par un couvert forestier dense dépendent très fortement des apports nutritifs terrestres. Des changements dans ce lien aquatique-terrestre auraient des conséquences majeures sur la remarquable biodiversité des poissons de ces cours d'eau. Ces connaissances aideront les gestionnaires de l'environnement à mieux appréhender les impacts potentiels des projets d'exploitation des ressources naturelles, et à proposer des solutions de remédiations plus pertinentes dans les cas de réhabilitation de sites en fin d'exploitation.
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Environmental DNA (eDNA) metabarcoding has recently gain much attention to assess aquatic environment biodiversity. A great variety of protocols have been developed to collect, extract, and analyze eDNA, some of which are continuously evolving and optimized with technological improvements. Such technological shifts might deprecate the biological data produced with earlier protocols, leading to a loss of biological knowledge. Here, we investigated the robustness of an aquatic eDNA metabarcoding method through the comparison of two biodiversity datasets generated by two optimized protocols with different collection and extraction steps. To this end, we compared fish community richness and composition of 12 streams and 3 rivers from French Guiana, sampled with two distinct protocols commonly used in aquatic eDNA studies. Although sample collection with each protocol was not achieved the same year, our results show that species richness and species composition were only slightly affected by the protocol choice, both protocols producing similar fish assemblages at each sample site. Both protocols had a higher replicability in streams than in rivers, strengthening the importance to adapt sampling effort to waterbody type as rivers host a larger number of species than small streams. Despite the need for a standardized approach in eDNA metabarcoding studies, testing the robustness of datasets to protocol variations remains crucial to valorize old data, time series, or data collected in difficult to access locations.
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Structure of the helminth community and analyses of helminth population parameters of Pimelodus blochii collected in the Xapuri River in comparison with those in the Acre River were evaluated. Eight adult helminth species were found parasitizing P. blochii in the Acre River: the nematodes Orientatractis moraveci, Rondonia rondoni, Philometroides acreanensis, Cucullanus (Cucculanus) pinai pinai, Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) pimelodus, Rhadochona acuminata, and Brasilnema sp., and the trematode Dadaytrema oxycephala. For Xapuri's fishes, nine helminth species were found: the nematodes O. moraveci, R. rondoni, C. (C.) pinai pinai, Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) rarus, P. (S.) pimelodus, R. acuminata, Brasilnema sp., and Cystidicolidae gen. sp., and the trematode D. oxycephala. Nematode and Acanthocephala larvae were also reported. Helminth abundance, prevalence, and diversity were influenced by seasonality and locality (river). The helminth parasites from Acre's fishes formed a subset of the helminth community of the Xapuri's. The results indicate an influence of the environmental characteristics of the rivers on the helminth community structure and diversity. This is the first study of the parasite community of P. blochii in the Xapuri River. The paretheses of (Spirocamallanus) and (S.) should not be in italics all along the text and tables.
Article
Pollution by plastics is a global problem, in particular through the contamination of aquatic environments and biodiversity. Although plastic contamination is well documented in the aquatic fauna of the oceans and large rivers of the world, there are few data on the organisms of headwater streams, especially in tropical regions. In the present study, we evaluated the contamination of small fish by plastics in Amazonian streams. For this, we evaluated the shape and size, and the abundance of plastics in the gastrointestinal tracts and gills of 14 fish species from 12 streams in eastern Brazilian Amazonia. We used a Generalized Linear Mixed Model (GLMM) to compare the levels of contamination among species and between organs. Only one individual of the 68 evaluated (a small catfish Mastiglanis cf. asopos) contained no plastic particles, and no difference was found in the contamination of the gills and digestive tract. However, Hemigrammus unilineatus presented less contamination of both the gills and the digestive tract than the other species, while Polycentrus schomburgkii had less plastic in the gastrointestinal tract, whereas Crenicichla regani and Pimelodella gerii both had a larger quantity of plastic adhered to their gills in comparison with the other species. Nanoplastics and microplastics adhered most to the gills, while plastic fibers were the most common type of material overall. This is the first study to analyze plastic contamination in fish from Amazonian streams, and in addition to revealing high levels of contamination, some species were shown to possibly be more susceptible than others. This reinforces the need for further, more systematic research into the biological and behavioral factors that may contribute to the greater vulnerability of some fish species to contamination by plastics. Amazonian stream fish show contamination by plastics. The species respond differently. The smaller the particle, the easier it is to adhere to the gills.
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