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Application of effective microorganisms on soil and maize

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... Microorganisms are effective only when they are presented with suitable and optimum conditions for metabolizing their substrates including available water, oxygen (depending on whether the microorganisms are obligate aerobes or facultative anaerobes), pH, and temperature of their environment. The important consideration here is the careful selection of a mixed culture of compatible, effective microorganisms properly cultured and provided with acceptable organic substrates [12,13]. In Natural Farming, these beneficial microorganisms can be grown to high populations and then applied to soils that also have a large stable population of beneficial microorganisms, especially facultative anaerobic bacteria [14]. ...
... Effective Microorganism (EM), generally in liquid form, contains a variety of lactic acid bacteria, yeasts, and phototrophic bacteria that can be applied as inoculants to increase the microbial diversity of soil ecosystem [12,[19][20][21]. Talaat et al. [22] observed that EM contains selected species of microorganisms including predominant populations of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts, smaller numbers of photosynthetic bacteria, actinomycetes, and other types of organisms. ...
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This paper reviews the role of Natural Farming as an ecological farming method to produce organically grown food of safe and high quality and at the same time improve soil quality and soil health. Currently, there is a dearth of information on the effects of Natural Farming approach on black pepper farms particularly in Sarawak, Malaysia. Previous studies on other crops had indicated positive outcome using the Natural Farming method. Thus, this paper discusses the essential role of effective microorganisms in Natural Farming and their potential in pepper cultivation. Through the action of effective microorganisms, this approach should be able to transform a degraded soil ecosystem into one that is fertile and has high nutrients availability. The mixed culture of effective microorganisms applied must be mutually compatible and coexist with one another to ensure its favorable establishment and interaction in the soil. Therefore, it is anticipated that introducing Natural Farming in black pepper cultivation can enhance the predominance of effective microorganisms in the soil, which in turn could lead to promising growth and yield of the crop.
... Nevertheless, the process of producing fermented juices will still need a wide range of beneficial microorganisms to convert raw materials to an end product that can act as a soil conditioner and, perhaps, a fertilizer [1,12,26]. The fermented juices derived from plant parts are liquids containing a variety of lactic acid bacteria, yeasts, and phototrophic bacteria [2,26,35], which play a significant role in organic, or natural, crop farming to sustain soil health. If these fermented juices are added to soil, they most likely will enhance the biological health of the soil through an increase in the soil microbial population and soil nutrient reserves. ...
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Sustaining soil health cannot be divorced from sustainable crop production. Organic, or natural, farming is being promoted as a good sustainable agriculture practice. One aspect of organic farming that could significantly enhance and sustain soil health, soil quality, and crop productivity is the use of high-quality soil conditioners or organic amendments produced from agro-wastes. Thus, the objective of this study was to characterize the chemical and biological properties of selected agro-wastes with potential for use as organic amendments in sustaining soil health. Standard procedures were used to produce and characterize the soil conditioners, namely fermented plant juice (FPJ), fermented fruit juice (FFJ), palm kernel shell (PKS) biochar, and kitchen waste (KW) compost. The fermented juices (FPJ and FFJ), PKS biochar, and KW compost exhibited chemical and biological properties with good potential as soil conditioners or organic amendments to sustain soil health. The fermented juices contained important microbes that can solubilize P and K in soil for crop use. The high pH and C content of the biochar and compost and the high cation exchange capacity of the biochar are good indicators of the potential of these materials to sustain soil health in terms of the liming effect of acid soils, nutrient and water retention, nutrient reserves, and a suitable habitat for microbial life. Moreover, the organic amendments contain reasonable amounts of macro- and micro-nutrients, which could be released to increase soil fertility. Despite these potential benefits, field application of these organic amendments is necessary to evaluate their effects on soil health and crop production in both the short and long term.
... In situ water harvesting techniques have proven to improve the efficient use of rainwater and increase the sustainability and reliability of rainfed agriculture by reducing runoff and evaporation (Grum et al. 2017). Moreover, incorporating soil organisms to agricultural fields enhance water infiltration and retention (Ismail, 2013;Lee et al. 2008). Hence, conservation of soil moisture in the agricultural fields using in situ water harvesting techniques should be practi-ced by farmers with the help of extension workers. ...
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The movement of water in soils through infiltration and percolation is determined by the pore space and the structure of the soil. These soil characteristics are influenced by several physical and chemical soil parameters i.e. soil organic matter content, pH, cation exchange capacity and texture, which serve as important components that contribute to the type of pore space and structure of soils and in the long run affect water management of soils as well. Although water management of soils significantly determines soil fertility, the available water management related information is limited in Ghana. In our study the effect of four selected soil parameters (soil organic matter, pH, cation exchange capacity and texture) which have a major role in the development of water management properties were evaluated for five soil series types (Kumasi, Asuansi, Nta, Bekwai and Akumadan) of the Ashanti region of Ghana. Based on our evaluation we concluded the water management properties of the topsoil of the of Asuansi series may be the best among the studied soil types of the Ashanti region because of the high SOC content, acceptable pH level, high CEC (CEC>24m.e/100g) and moderately to high amount of clay in its texture. Soil texture, SOM, pH and CEC have an important relationship with water management in the various soil types reviewed which contributes greatly to soil fertility management. Keywords: Water management, soil texture, soil organic matter, pH, cation exchange capacity, soil series of Ghana
... Kinetin, a cytokinin known to significantly improve growth, development and productivity of maize [3] another approach of supplying growth promoting agent is through utilization of Effective Microorganism (EM) that have recently been used to improve plant growth and productivity [4]. Significant increase was obtained in leaf area, chlorophyll content by using EM on maize plants [5] statistical increase was also shown in certain yield, yield component) of maize crop with application of EM [6]. Kinetin boosted the growth parameters (leaf area, chlorophyll content) of maize plants [7] on the other hand Manuscript received June 15, 2020; revised November 26, 2020. ...
... Microorganisms are abundant in soil, but to observe their beneficial effects on plants and environment their population in soil must be increased. Hence, the appli cation of the effective microbes intensified the biological soil activity and improved the physical and chemical soil properties, hence contributing healthier plant growth and development (Lee et al., 2008). ...
... In situ water harvesting techniques have proven to improve the efficient use of rainwater and increase the sustainability and reliability of rainfed agriculture by reducing runoff and evaporation (Grum et al. 2017). Moreover, incorporating soil organisms to agricultural fields enhance water infiltration and retention (Ismail, 2013;Lee et al. 2008). Hence, conservation of soil moisture in the agricultural fields using in situ water harvesting techniques should be practiced by farmers with the help of extension workers. ...
Conference Paper
Water has always played a central role in Ethiopian society, as rainfed agriculture accounts for 90 % of the export, 85 % of employment and 47% of the GDP. In spite of being relatively rich in water and land resources, Ethiopia is unable to produce reliable food supply. Extensive land degradation and deforestation coupled with erratic water distribution both in space and time are the major causes of the problem. On top of that, the current frequent dry spells and droughts exacerbate the already impoverished water condition of the country. The Ethiopian government has recognized water as major component in the economic development and poverty reduction. Accordingly, efforts and investments have been done in Ethiopia to increase the irrigated area, on community-based soil and water conservation practices, and hydropower developments. Despite these efforts, the sustainability of water and land resources is far from satisfactory. The major reasons jeopardizing the sustainability are poor agronomic and water management practices, failure of local institutions to sustainably manage water resources, inadequate water storage capacity, and poor water monitoring system. To enhance the resilience of water and agricultural system, Ethiopia needs well-planned and well-managed land and water resource development projects, implementation strategies that take into consideration the environmental and hydrological systems, well-coordinated water monitoring scheme, and effective climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies. This paper assesses the challenges and prospects of water resource management, and forward future directions for the sustainable water resource management in Ethiopia. Keywords: Ethiopia, Water management, Land degradation, Soil erosion
... EM consist of mixed cultures of beneficial microorganisms such as lactic acid bacteria (LAB), photosynthetic bacteria and yeast [1]. Originally, EM was developed as microbial inoculants to increase microbial diversity and improve the quality of soil in agriculture [2]. Since1986, the application of EM has immensely expanded to other fields such as construction industry and water treatment works. ...
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Nowadays, concrete is popularly used in many areas and applications in construction industry. If designed and manufactured properly it can be one of the most durable construction materials. However, during the life span of the structure the surrounding environment where the structure is built may pose long-term durability problem to concrete such as cracks and corrosion of steel reinforcement. Thus, researchers around the world continue searching for any possible means to improve concrete qualities. This paper presents study on the effects of Effective Microorganism on fresh and hardened properties of concrete. The percentage of Effective Microorganisms (EM) used in this study was 10% and incorporated in the concrete mix by replacing the water content. In this research work, a number of control and EM concrete cube samples were cast, cured in water and tested at the ages of 3, 7 and 28 days. The workability of fresh concrete was measured through the slump test. The effect of EM on hardened concrete was assessed through compression test and ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) test. The experimental result shows that the workability of concrete with EM was 67% higher than the control concrete. This may indicate that the EM has the potential to be used as workability enhancer. In terms of compressive strength, the EM concrete recorded 8% higher strength at 28 days compared to concrete without EM. In addition, the early strength of EM concrete was found to be higher by 41% and 27% at 3 and 7 days compared to control, respectively. The UPV result for EM concrete also shows higher value than control concrete indicating denser concrete. All experimental results indicated that the use of EM has positive effects on concrete properties.
... Microorganisms are abundant in soil, but to observe their beneficial effects on plants and environment their population in soil must be increased. Hence, the application of the effective microbes intensified the biological soil activity and improved the physical and chemical soil properties, hence contributing healthier plant growth and development (Lee et al., 2008). ...
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At present, there is little information on the effects of organic amendments on black pepper farms particularly in Sarawak, Malaysia. The objective was to study the effects of organic amendments on selected soil properties, morphological characteristics, and yield of immature vines and its economic viability on immature pepper productions. There were five treatments each replicated five times in a randomized complete block design. Treatments were (i) F0—NPK 15:15:15 compound fertilizers, (ii) F1—fermented plant juice (FPJ), (iii) F2—FPJ incorporated with biochar, and compost, (iv) F3—fermented fruit juice (FFJ), and (v) F4—FFJ incorporated with biochar, and compost. The soil organic amendments which were consisted of fermented juices, biochar, and compost have positively improved soil bulk density, soil porosity, pH, CEC, TOC, C/N ratio, available P, exchangeable Ca, soil respiration, and soil microorganism count (bacteria, actinomycetes, and fungi). The fermented juices only or fermented juices with biochar and compost had lower effect on LAI and fruit spike length. The effect of soil organic amendments on fresh berry yield was comparable to that of NPK fertilizer. The economic viability study showed that the organic approach was comparable to the conventional NPK fertilization program. Through the interaction of beneficial microorganisms, biochar, and compost, introducing organic amendments in immature pepper cultivation is a reasonable option due to its contribution to yield that can lead to income sustainability for farmers.
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