Abstract

This short paper focuses on how both coaching psychology and positive psychology practice can be informed by ecopsychology research. It argues that coaching and positive psychologists can promote relatively straightforward ecopsychological interventions to their client groups in order to enhance their wellbeing. A t the beginning of the last decade, both positive psychology and coaching psychology gradually became established internationally as two new branches of psychology. In these two fields, handbooks were published, journals and professional bodies set up, national and international conferences held, research units/centres established at universities around the world and postgraduate courses launched (see Palmer & Whybrow, 2007). The Australian Psychological Society, Interest Group in Coaching Psychology (APS IGCP) definition of coaching psychology highlights the link between these two branches of psychology: Coaching Psychology, as an applied positive psychology, draws on and develops established psychological approaches, and can be understood as being the systematic application of behavioural science to the enhancement of life experience, work performance and wellbeing for individuals, groups and organisations who do not have clinically significant mental health issues or abnormal levels of distress (APS IGCP, 2015). Both coaching and positive psychology have a focus on enhancing Can ecopsychology research inform coaching and positive psychology practice? Citation: Palmer, S. (2015). Can ecopsychology research inform coaching and positive psychology practice? Coaching Psychology International, 8, 1, 11-15.
Coaching Psychology International. © International Society for Coaching Psychology 2015
Volume 8, Issue 1
11
Abstract
This short paper focuses on how both
coaching psychology and positive
psychology practice can be informed by
ecopsychology research. It argues that
coaching and positive psychologists can
promote relatively straightforward
ecopsychological interventions to their
client groups in order to enhance their
wellbeing.
Key words: coaching psychology, positive
psychology, ecopsychology, wellbeing,
Eco-Health Relationship Browser, resilience,
health and wellbeing coaching
At the beginning of the last
decade, both positive
psychology and coaching
psychology gradually
became established
internationally as two new branches
of psychology.
In these two elds, handbooks were
published, journals and professional
bodies set up, national and international
conferences held, research units/centres
established at universities around
the world and postgraduate
courses launched (see Palmer &
Whybrow, 2007).
The Australian Psychological Society,
Interest Group in Coaching Psychology
(APS IGCP) denition of coaching
psychology highlights the link between
these two branches of psychology:
Coaching Psychology, as an applied
positive psychology, draws on and
develops established psychological
approaches, and can be understood as
being the systematic application
of behavioural science to the enhancement
of life experience, work performance
and wellbeing for individuals,
groups and organisations who do not
have clinically signicant mental
health issues or abnormal levels of
distress (APS IGCP, 2015).
Both coaching and positive
psychology have a focus on enhancing
Can ecopsychology research inform coaching
and positive psychology practice?
Stephen
Palmer PhD
National
Wellbeing
Service
Coaching Psychology International. © International Society for Coaching Psychology 2015
Volume 8, Issue 1
12
wellbeing using a range of evidence-based
strategies, interventions and techniques.
Enhancing wellbeing:
Shifting the health of the population
from languishing to flourishing
If one of the aims in both positive and
coaching psychology practice is to shift the
health of the population from languishing
to ourishing, then encouraging clients,
coachees or groups to undertake relatively
easy and straightforward interventions to
enhance wellbeing may be more
achievable than recommending more
complex or strenuous activities or
strategies.
The solution-focused and cognitive
behavioural models and techniques that
are often used within positive and
coaching psychology practice are effective
in enhancing goal striving, hope, wellbeing
and resilience, and also in reducing stress,
anxiety and depression (eg, Grant, Curtayne,
& Burton, 2009; Green, Oades, & Grant,
2006). However, the methodology can take
some hours to teach and the client/coachee
many hours of practice to learn and apply
successfully and not all coachees are
successful. Therefore, it is important that
practitioners have a wide range of
evidence-based wellbeing enhancing
strategies and techniques that they could
share with their client groups.
There are many different branches of
psychology that positive and coaching
psychologists could be informed by to
enhance wellbeing. One eld is
ecopsychology research, which may
provide practitioners with a range of
interventions and activities that are
relatively easy to introduce to client groups
and for them subsequently to be able to
integrate within their daily routines. The
integration is probably essential if an aim
is to shift the wellbeing of a population
from mental and physical ill-health to
languishing and then from languishing to
ourishing.
Ecopsychology applies ecological and
psychological theories and research
methodology to study the relationship
between people and the natural world
(Palmer, 2014). Some researchers have
already noted the importance of urban
green and countryside walking research
within the theoretical framework of
positive psychology (eg, Crust, Henderson, &
Middleton, 2013).
Ecopsychology research in brief
In the past 20 years there have been a large
number of research papers published on
ecopsychology, environmental psychology
and eco-health that could possibly inform
positive and coaching psychology practice.
Often, what is known as Green Exercise is
undertaken by the research participants.
This refers to physical activity or exercise,
such as cycling, jogging, horse-riding,
shing, sailing or walking that occurs in
the presence of nature, for example, the
countryside or an urban park (see Pretty,
Peacock, Sellens, & Grifn, 2005; Pretty,
Peacock, Hine, Sellens, South, & Grifn, 2007;
Barton & Pretty, 2010).
In a systematic review of evidence for the
added benets to health of exposure to
natural environments, Bowler, Buyung-Ali,
Knight and Pullin (2010:1) concluded that
‘the studies are suggestive that natural
environments may have direct and positive
impacts on well-being’ with the
Coaching Psychology International. © International Society for Coaching Psychology 2015
Volume 8, Issue 1
13
recommendation that further research was
necessary ‘to understand the general
signicance for public health’.
Research has not just been limited to
walking or exercising with Nature. For
example, Brown, Barton and Gladwell (2013)
found that viewing photographs of nature
scenes positively affects recovery of
autonomic function following acute
mental stress. This tentatively
demonstrates how photographs of nature
could be used to enhance resilience.
Linking ecopsychology
research to coaching and
positive psychology practice
Two research papers that have simple
practice implications are highlighted
below.
Barton and Pretty (2010), using a
multi-study analysis, investigated what is
the best dose of nature and green exercise
for improving mental health. Their results
found that acute short-term exposures to
facilitated green exercise improved both
self-esteem and mood, irrespective of
duration, intensity, location, gender, age
and health status. Somewhat surprisingly,
they concluded that ve minutes’ exposure
duration showed greatest changes in both
self-esteem and mood.
l Practice implications Instead of
coachees eating their lunch in their ofce,
sitting in front of a computer screen,
looking at an excel sheet, they could be
encouraged to walk to their local park, be
mindful of the park environment and eat
their sandwich whilst sitting on a park
bench. (The caveat would be that the
coachee does not feel threatened in the
park environment.) Green Ofce areas also
may provide an alternative in built-up
urban neighbourhoods that lack parks or
suitable open spaces and also during poor
weather conditions.
Marselle, Irvine and Warber (2014)
undertook a large-scale study examining
group walks in nature and multiple aspects
of wellbeing. They found that group walks
in nature were associated with signicantly
lower depression, perceived stress and
negative affect, as well as enhanced
positive affect and mental wellbeing, both
before and after controlling for co-variates.
There were no group differences on
social support. In addition, nature-based
group walks appeared to mitigate the
effects of stressful life events on perceived
stress and negative affect while synergising
with physical activity to improve positive
affect and mental wellbeing.
l Practice implications Coachees
wishing to improve their wellbeing could
be encouraged to go on walks with nature.
If they wish to walk with others, then in the
UK they could join their local accredited
Walking for Health groups.
For further details see:
www.walkingforhealth.org.uk
If in doubt, which evidence-based
ecopsychology interventions could
a practitioner recommend?
For psychologists and health professionals
in practice it can be a challenge keeping
up-to-date with relevant research. The
US Environmental Protection Agency and
partners developed EnviroAtlas, which is a
free interactive web-based tool that
includes data to assist in informing
Coaching Psychology International. © International Society for Coaching Psychology 2015
Volume 8, Issue 1
14
planning and policy decisions that protect
the environment and the economy. A part
of the EnviroAtlas system is the Eco-Health
Relationship Browser, which includes
research literature that links ecosystems,
the services they provide, and their impact
on human health and wellbeing.
Understandably, some sections, such as
Aesthetics and Engagement, or Recreation
and Physical Activity with Nature, are more
relevant than others, such as Water Hazard
Mitigation to coaching and positive
psychology practice.
In their paper on the development of the
Eco-Health Relationship Browser, Jackson,
Daniel, McCorkle, Sears and Bush, (2013)
report on the systematic review of the
literature that was undertaken to populate
the Browser with suitable research.
Conclusion
The main aim of this short paper was to
highlight how ecopsychology research
could more explicitly inform both
coaching psychology and positive
psychology practice. It was not inuenced
by well-known theories, such as Wilson’s
Biophilia Hypothesis, which asserts that
human beings have an “innate tendency to
focus on life and lifelike processes” (Wilson,
1984:1), and thereby possibly explaining
the effectiveness of Nature based
interventions. The focus of this paper was
on research and not theories.
Some coaching psychologists have
already started integrating coaching with
mindful walking with nature (O’Donovan,
2015). Clearly, ecopsychology research is
very relevant for health and wellbeing
coaching too.
In conclusion, the hope is that by using
relatively simple evidence-based
ecopsychological interventions, wellbeing
can be enhanced for individuals, groups and
communities. Perhaps effective coaching is
self-coaching, and simple ecopsychological
interventions are relatively easy to persuade
oneself to undertake.
References
APS, IGCP (2015). Definition of Coaching
Psychology. Retrieved on 28/2/15 from
https://groups.psychology.org.au/igcp/
Barton, J., Hine, R. and Pretty, J. (2009). ‘The
health benefits of walking in greenspaces of
high natural and heritage value’. In J Integr.
Environ Sci., 6 (4), 1–18.
Barton, J. & Pretty, J. (2010). ‘What is the best
dose of nature and green exercise for
improving mental health? A multi-study
analysis’. In Environ. Sci. Technol., 44,
3947–3955.
Bowler, D.E., Buyung-Ali, L.M., Knight, T.M. &
Pullin, A.S. (2010). ‘A systematic review of
evidence for the added benefits to health of
exposure to natural environments. In BMC
Public Health, 10:456. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-
10-456.
Brown, D.K., Barton, J.L. & Gladwell, V.F. (2013).
‘Viewing nature scenes positively affects
recovery of autonomic function following
acute-mental stress’. In Environ. Sci. Technol.,
47, 5562−5569.
Crust, L., Henderson, H. & Middleton, G. (2013).
‘The acute effects of urban green and
countryside walking on psychological health: A
field-based study of green exercise’. In Int. J.
Sport Psychol., 44: 1-19.
Grant, A.M., Curtayne, L. & Burton, G. (2009).
‘Executive coaching enhances goal attainment,
Coaching Psychology International. © International Society for Coaching Psychology 2015
Volume 8, Issue 1
15
resilience, and workplace wellbeing: A
randomised controlled study’. In The Journal of
Positive Psychology, 4, 396-407.
Green, L.S., Oades, L.G. & Grant, A.M. (2006).
‘Cognitive-behavioural, solution-focused life-
coaching: Enhancing goal striving, well-being
and hope’. In Journal of Positive Psychology,
1(3), 142–149.
Jackson, L.E., Daniel, J., McCorkle, B., Sears, A.
& Bush, K.F. (2013). ‘Linking ecosystem services
and human health: the Eco-Health
Relationship Browser’. International Journal of
Public Health, 58, 5, 747-755.
Marselle, M.R., Irvine, K.N. & Warber, S.L.
(2014). Examining group walks in nature and
multiple aspects of wellbeing: A large-scale
study’. In Ecopsychology, 6(3), 134–147.
O’Donovan, H. (2015). Mindful Walking. Dublin:
Hachette Books Ireland.
Palmer, S. (2014). “I’ll go anywhere as long as
it’s forward, said David Livingstone. “You can’t
navigate without a decent map,” retorted
Christopher Columbus. Closing keynote paper
given at the BPS SGCP 4th International
Congress of Coaching Psychology, London,
12 December 2014.
Palmer, S. & Whybrow, A. (2007). ‘Coaching
psychology: An introduction’. In S. Palmer & A.
Whybrow (Eds), The Handbook of Coaching
Psychology: A Guide for Practitioners. Hove:
Routledge.
Pretty, J., Peacock, J., Hine, R., Sellens, M.,
South, N. & Griffin, M. (2007). ‘Green exercise
in the UK countryside: effects on health and
psychological well-being and implications for
policy and planning’. In J. Environ. Plann.
Manage, 50 (2), 211–31.
Pretty, J., Peacock, J., Sellens, M. & Griffin, M.
(2005). ‘The mental and physical health
outcomes of green exercise’. In Int J Environ
Heal R, 15(5), 319–337.
Wilson, E. O. (1984). Biophilia: The Human
Bond With Other Species. Cambridge,
Masschusetts: Harvard University Press.
Relevant websites
Eco-Health Relationship Browser:
http://enviroatlas.epa.gov/enviroatlas/Tools/
EcoHealth_RelationshipBrowser/index.html
EnviroAtlas:
http://enviroatlas.epa.gov/enviroatlas/atlas.html
Acknowledgements
I would like to thank Laura Jackson and
Jessica Daniel at the Office of Research and
Development, US Environmental Protection
Agency, for providing me with information
about the Eco-Health Relationship Browser.
Their support is much appreciated.
Biography
Prof Stephen Palmer PhD is Director of the
recently launched National Wellbeing Service
Ltd. He is a Visiting Professor of Work Based
Learning and Stress Management at the Institute
of Work Based Learning at Middlesex University,
Director of the Coaching Psychology Unit at City
University London, President of both the
International Society for Coaching Psychology
and International Society for Stress Management
(UK). His forthcoming books include a major
series of three academic textbooks on
Psychological Stress and also three textbooks
on Psychological Resilience and Wellbeing.
All six books are co-edited with Dr Kristina
Gyllensten, and will be published by Sage
Publications in 2015.
Email:
director@nationalwellbeingservice.com
© 2015 S Palmer
... Teori ini menggabungkan Teori Ekologi dan Teori Psikologi. Dalam teori ini, manusia dilihat berubah dan berkembang samada dari aspek fizikal, psikologikal, emosi, dan sosial dengan dipengaruhi alam persekitarannya ke arah kesejahteraan (Palmer, 2015). Ia melihat kepada hubungan manusia dan alam persekitaran semulajadi dan membantu individu mengembangkan daya hidup lestari dan mengurangkan keterasingan daripada alam (Giuseppina et al., 2020;Milfont, 2012). ...
Article
Full-text available
The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic affects mental health in communities all over the world. Thus, this paper aims to see the potential of gardening as a therapy for mental health during this COVID-19 pandemic. Through the content analysis method, library research was conducted to examine this intervention. Findings show that gardening can be an alternative approach to prevention and healing in regards to mental health issues. Nature-based intervention such as gardening helps bring the feeling of peace and closeness to Allah which also allows for mental health issues to be curbed and health be restored, which ensures the overall well-being of those affected by COVID-19.
... Notice that the key driver in Figure 1 is the intention to perform the desirable behaviour, but TPB does has its limitation (Ingham, 1994). Indeed, the intention for action to reverse the climate change has been actively embedded in coaching conversations (Palmer, 2015),. Whybrow (2018Whybrow ( , 2019 attempt to re-define regenerative coaching as Regenerative Coaching by including the human concerns on biosphere, planet, ecosystems, economics and regenerative design. ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper invites readers to reflect on and review the current developments and interventions in response to the Covid-19 pandemic and climate crisis, drawing from the established theory of planned behaviour, ecopsychology research, coaching and transpersonal psychology, and discusses the future action and practice in the realms of mindfulness and psychological intervention. We propose Transpersonal coaching as the fourth wave psychological intervention to leverage positive change. We conclude with a call for action to encourage the reader to consider how they can apply the approach in their everyday life.
Chapter
Full-text available
The field of positive psychology (PP) research and practice is now 20 years old, and it has experienced significant growth since its formal launch in 1998 (Seligman, 1998; Seligman & Csikszentmihalyi, 2000). It is generally acknowledged that PP is an “umbrella term” and that it covers many different topics from a diverse range of disciplines. A review of the literature by Rusk & Waters (2013) found that the most densely concentrated PP topics are life satisfaction/happiness, motivation/achievement, optimism, and organisational citizenship/fairness. In a similar vein, the field of coaching psychology (CP) has experienced significant growth in research and practice. There are now three meta-analytic studies (Theeboom, Beersma, & van Vianen, 2014; Jones, Woods, & Guillaume, 2015; Sonesh, Coultas, Lacerenza, Marlow, Benishek, & Salas, 2015) and one systematic review (Lai & McDowall, 2014) which highlight that coaching is effective, although the field could benefit from more randomised controlled trials (for example Spence & Grant, 2005).
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter explores the complementarity and integration of both fields and what they have to offer to the further development of positive psychology coaching (PPC) and more practically to the "PPC." It aims to give an historical account of the simultaneous emergence of the two complementary fields, an overview of the current status, and an outline of the authors' recommendations for how the two fields may continue to be integrated. While the two fields have been defined as complementary and there are some dedicated journal articles and conference presentations on the integration of positive psychology and coaching psychology, there are limited published texts available on the combination of both approaches, PPC. Coaching for the enhancement of optimal functioning and wellbeing has existed since the late 1980s when "executive coaching" first emerged. The RAW framework can be used within one-to-one coaching, group or team coaching, or training.
Book
Full-text available
The Handbook of Coaching Psychology: A Guide for Practitioners provides a clear and extensive guide to the theory, research and practice of coaching psychology. In this new and expanded edition, an international selection of leading coaching psychologists and coaches outlines recent developments from a broad spectrum of areas. Part One examines perspectives and research in coaching psychology, looking at both the past and the present as well as assessing future directions. Part Two presents a range of approaches to coaching psychology, including behavioural and cognitive behavioural, humanistic, existential, being-focused, constructive and systemic approaches. Part Three covers application, context and sustainability, focusing on themes including individual transitions in life and work, and complexity and system-level interventions. Finally, Part Four explores a range of topics within the professional and ethical practice of coaching psychology. The book also includes several appendices outlining the key professional bodies, publications, research centres and societies in coaching psychology, making this an indispensable resource. Unique in its scope, this key text will be essential reading for coaching psychologists and coaches, academics and students of coaching psychology, coaching and mentoring and business psychology. It will be an important text for anyone seeking to understand the psychology underpinning their coaching practice, including human resource, learning and development and management professionals, and executives in a coaching role.
Article
Full-text available
Abstract This short paper will describe social prescribing, highlight some of the research outcomes and then consider how positive and coaching psychologists could possibly become more involved in social prescribing and social prescriptions as a part of their practice. Keywords: social prescribing, social prescription, coaching, coaching psychology, positive psychology, ecopsychology Citation: Palmer, S. (2018). Can positive and coaching psychologists become more involved in social prescribing?The prescription for enhanced wellbeing. Coaching Psychology International, 11, 1, 27-31.
Book
Full-text available
This is a preview PDF to book including foreword, preface, Chapter 1 and references. Positive Psychology Coaching in Practice provides a comprehensive overview of positive psychology coaching, bringing together the best of science and practice, highlighting current research, and emphasising the applicability of each element to coaching. With an international range of contributors, this book is a unique resource for those seeking to integrate positive psychology into their evidence-based coaching practice. Beginning with an overview of positive psychology coaching, the book includes an assessment of theories of wellbeing, an examination of mindfulness research, a guide to relevant neuroscience, and a review of a strengths-based approach. It also contains chapters that explore the application of ACT, the role of positive psychology in wellness and resilience coaching, positive leadership theory, and developmental psychological theories as they relate to coaching through significant life transitions. In each chapter, theory and research is thoroughly explored and applied directly to coaching practice and is supported with a list of relevant resources and a case study. The book concludes with the editors' views on the future directions of positive psychology coaching. Positive Psychology Coaching in Practice will be essential reading for professional coaches in practice and in training seeking to enhance their evidence-based practice; coaching psychologists; practitioners of positive psychology; and academics and students of coaching, coaching psychology, and positive psychology. Suzy Green is a clinical and coaching psychologist based in Australia. She is a leader in the fields of coaching psychology and positive psychology and is the founder of Sydney-based The Positivity Institute, dedicated to the research and application of positive psychology.
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Outdoor walking groups can facilitate interaction with nature, social interaction, and physical activity, yet little is known about their efficacy in promoting mental, emotional, and social well-being. National group walk programs are especially underevaluated for these outcomes. The present study sought to identify the mental, emotional, and social well-being benefits from participating in group walks in nature. Design: Drawing on an evaluation of the Walking for Health pro-gram in England, a longitudinal study investigated the mental, emotional, and social well-being of individuals who did (Nature Group Walkers) and did not (Non-Group Walkers) attend group walks in nature. Both groups were statistically matched using pro-pensity score matching (n = 1,516). Between-group t tests and multiple regressions were performed to analyze the influence of nature-based group walks on depression, perceived stress, negative affect, positive affect, mental well-being, and social support. Findings: Group walks in nature were associated with significantly lower depression, perceived stress, and negative affect, as well as enhanced positive affect and mental well-being, both before and after controlling for covariates. There were no group differences on social support. In addition, nature-based group walks appear to mitigate the effects of stressful life events on perceived stress and negative affect while synergizing with physical activity to improve positive affect and mental well-being. Originality/Value: The present study identifies the mental and emotional well-being benefits from participation in group walks in nature and offers useful information about the potential health contribution of national outdoor group walk programs. Key Words: Group walks—Nature and health—Depression—Mental well-being— Emotional well-being—Social well-being—Walking.
Article
Full-text available
Ecosystems provide multiple services, many of which are linked to positive health outcomes. Review objectives were to identify the set of literature related to this research topic, and to design an interactive, web-based tool highlighting the weight of evidence, thus making the information more accessible. A systematic review was conducted to create the Eco-Health Relationship Browser ( http://www.epa.gov/research/healthscience/browser/introduction.html ). The search was conducted in four stages utilizing Google Scholar, PubMed and Science Direct, targeted journals, and targeted keywords; search results were limited to peer-reviewed journal articles published in English from 1 January 1990 to 31 December 2012. The review identified 344 relevant articles; a subset of 169 articles was included in the Browser. Articles retrieved during the search focused on the buffering and health-promotional aspects of ecosystem services. Landscape and Urban Planning, Urban Forestry and Urban Greening, and Health and Place yielded the most articles relevant to this search. Results from the systematic review were used to populate the Browser, which organizes the diverse literature and allows users to visualize the numerous connections between ecosystem services and human health.
Article
Full-text available
Lifestyles are increasingly characterised by sedentary behaviour, obesity problems, stress, mental ill-health and disconnection from nature. However, contact with nature has been shown to improve psychological health by reducing stress, enhancing mood and replenishing mental fatigue. In addition to providing a range of environmental services, greenspaces provide opportunities and incentives for ‘green exercise’ such as walking, cycling or horse riding. Visitor numbers indicate that many people already benefit from spending time in greenspaces, but little is known about the immediate impact of an acute exposure on their health and wellbeing. This study focuses on evaluating changes in self-esteem and mood after walking in four different National Trust sites of natural and heritage value in the East of England. The standardised measures of both self-esteem and mood were administered immediately pre- and post-activity. Self-esteem scores for visitors leaving the sites were significantly higher than those just arriving and overall mood also significantly improved. Feelings of anger, depression, tension and confusion all significantly reduced and vigour increased. Thus, the environment plays an important role in facilitating physical activities and helping to address sedentary behaviours. Walking, in particular, can serve many purposes including exercise, recreation, travel, companionship, relaxation and restoration. However, walking in greenspaces may offer a more sustainable option, as the primary reward is enhanced emotional wellbeing through both exposure to nature and participation in exercise.
Article
Full-text available
There is evidence that contact with the natural environment and green space promotes good health. It is also well known that participation in regular physical activity generates physical and psychological health benefits. The authors have hypothesised that 'green exercise' will improve health and psychological well-being, yet few studies have quantified these effects. This study measured the effects of 10 green exercise case studies (including walking, cycling, horse-riding, fishing, canal-boating and conservation activities) in four regions of the UK on 263 participants. Even though these participants were generally an active and healthy group, it was found that green exercise led to a significant improvement in self-esteem and total mood disturbance (with anger-hostility, confusion-bewilderment, depression-dejection and tension-anxiety all improving post-activity). Self-esteem and mood were found not to be affected by the type, intensity or duration of the green exercise, as the results were similar for all 10 case studies. Thus all these activities generated mental health benefits, indicating the potential for a wider health and well-being dividend from green exercise. Green exercise thus has important implications for public and environmental health, and for a wide range of policy sectors.
Article
Full-text available
There is increasing interest in the potential role of the natural environment in human health and well-being. However, the evidence-base for specific and direct health or well-being benefits of activity within natural compared to more synthetic environments has not been systematically assessed. We conducted a systematic review to collate and synthesise the findings of studies that compare measurements of health or well-being in natural and synthetic environments. Effect sizes of the differences between environments were calculated and meta-analysis used to synthesise data from studies measuring similar outcomes. Twenty-five studies met the review inclusion criteria. Most of these studies were crossover or controlled trials that investigated the effects of short-term exposure to each environment during a walk or run. This included 'natural' environments, such as public parks and green university campuses, and synthetic environments, such as indoor and outdoor built environments. The most common outcome measures were scores of different self-reported emotions. Based on these data, a meta-analysis provided some evidence of a positive benefit of a walk or run in a natural environment in comparison to a synthetic environment. There was also some support for greater attention after exposure to a natural environment but not after adjusting effect sizes for pretest differences. Meta-analysis of data on blood pressure and cortisol concentrations found less evidence of a consistent difference between environments across studies. Overall, the studies are suggestive that natural environments may have direct and positive impacts on well-being, but support the need for investment in further research on this question to understand the general significance for public health.
Article
Full-text available
Green exercise is activity in the presence of nature. Evidence shows it leads to positive short and long-term health outcomes. This multistudy analysis assessed the best regime of dose(s) of acute exposure to green exercise required to improve self-esteem and mood (indicators of mental health). The research used meta-analysis methodology to analyze 10 UK studies involving 1252 participants. Outcomes were identified through a priori subgroup analyses, and dose-responses were assessed for exercise intensity and exposure duration. Other subgroup analyses included gender, age group, starting health status, and type of habitat. The overall effect size for improved self-esteem was d = 0.46 (CI 0.34-0.59, p < 0.00001) and for mood d = 0.54 (CI 0.38-0.69, p < 0.00001). Dose responses for both intensity and duration showed large benefits from short engagements in green exercise, and then diminishing but still positive returns. Every green environment improved both self-esteem and mood; the presence of water generated greater effects. Both men and women had similar improvements in self-esteem after green exercise, though men showed a difference for mood. Age groups: for self-esteem, the greatest change was in the youngest, with diminishing effects with age; for mood, the least change was in the young and old. The mentally ill had one of the greatest self-esteem improvements. This study confirms that the environment provides an important health service.
Article
Full-text available
Both physical activity and exposure to nature are known separately to have positive effects on physical and mental health. We have investigated whether there is a synergistic benefit in adopting physical activities whilst being directly exposed to nature ('green exercise'). Five groups of 20 subjects were exposed to a sequence of 30 scenes projected on a wall whilst exercising on a treadmill. Four categories of scenes were tested: rural pleasant, rural unpleasant, urban pleasant and urban unpleasant. The control was running without exposure to images. Blood pressure and two psychological measures (self-esteem and mood) were measured before and after the intervention. There was a clear effect of both exercise and different scenes on blood pressure, self-esteem and mood. Exercise alone significantly reduced blood pressure, increased self-esteem, and had a positive significant effect on 4 of 6 mood measures. Both rural and urban pleasant scenes produced a significantly greater positive effect on self-esteem than the exercise-only control. This shows the synergistic effect of green exercise in both rural and urban environments. By contrast, both rural and urban unpleasant scenes reduced the positive effects of exercise on self-esteem. The rural unpleasant scenes had the most dramatic effect, depressing the beneficial effects of exercise on three different measures of mood. It appears that threats to the countryside depicted in rural unpleasant scenes have a greater negative effect on mood than already urban unpleasant scenes. We conclude that green exercise has important public and environmental health consequences.
Book
The Handbook of Coaching Psychology provides a clear perspective on this emerging area of professional practice. The book begins with a mixture of personal and factual narratives on the historical and current context of coaching and coaching psychology. Stephen Palmer, Alison Whybrow and leading coaching psychologists and coaches outline recent developments in the profession, providing the reader with straightforward insights into the application of eleven different psychological approaches to coaching practice, including: solution focused coaching psychodynamic and systems-psychodynamic coaching narrative coaching cognitive behavioural coaching. Part three of the book considers the coach-client relationship, coach development and professional boundaries, together with issues of diversity and sustainability. The final part covers coaching initiatives in organisations and supervision followed by an introduction to professional bodies and available resources.
Article
Within the theoretical framework of positive psychology, the effects of single sessions of low to moderate intensity walking on markers of psychological health were studied in two different green exercise environments. Participants were 83 recreational walkers (M age = 62.91, s = 9.33) who completed questionnaires to measure self-esteem and affective states before and after either an urban green or countryside walk. A questionnaire concerning enjoyment of physical activity was completed post-walk. Significant increases in positive affect (p =.02) and decreases in negative affect (p = .004) followed walk completion. Significant increases in self-esteem were found (p =.01), with countryside walkers reporting significantly higher post-walk self-esteem than urban green walkers. Significantly higher levels of enjoyment (p =.04) were reported by countryside walkers. This is potentially an important finding since enjoyment is an important determinant of adherence.
Article
In this introductory chapter the authors consider what is coaching and coaching psychology, the origins of coaching psychology and the specific study of the psychology of coaching, and the gradual professionalisation of coaching psychology with the move towards coaching psychology becoming an applied area of psychology. Then the authors introduce the different parts of this handbook. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)