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Gratitude, Like Other Positive Emotions, Broadens and Builds

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Abstract

This chapter examines the feeling of being grateful. It suggests feeling grateful is similar to other positive emotions that help build a person's enduring personal resources and broaden an individual's thinking. It describes various ways by which gratitude can transform individuals, organizations, and communities in positive and sustaining ways. It discusses the specific benefits of gratitude including personal and social development, community strength and individual health and well-being.

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... In organizational contexts, dispositional gratitude also helps employees to cope with workplace stressors (Fredrickson, 2004)for instance, by seeking instrumental and emotional social support, interpreting situations positively, and resisting behavioral disengagement. These coping strategies increase employee happiness, job satisfaction, and affective commitment (Emmons & Mishra, 2011;Wood et al., 2010). ...
... Broaden-and-build theory (Fredrickson, 1998(Fredrickson, , 2001(Fredrickson, , 2004 proposes that positive affect can broaden the individual's momentary thought-action repertoire and build personal resources. Specifically, the broadened mindset engendered by positive affect can help to build personal resources, including physical, intellectual, social, and psychological resources. ...
... Individuals who exhibit high dispositional gratitude are more likely to recognize and appreciate favorable treatment from others (e.g., supervisor, coworker). According to broadenand-build theory, a grateful individual's mode of thinking may broaden, prompting consideration of a wide array of possible reciprocal actions (Fredrickson, 1998(Fredrickson, , 2001(Fredrickson, , 2004, such as expressing appreciation and thankfulness or helping their benefactor in return . These broadened thoughts and behaviors signal recognition and appreciation of the kindness received and facilitate high-quality interpersonal relationships. ...
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Dispositional gratitude has recently emerged as a variable of interest in organizational contexts. However, it remains unclear whether dispositional gratitude is predictive of employee well-being, with limited theoretical and empirical elucidation of the underlying mechanisms. To address these limitations, the present study investigated dispositional gratitude as a predictor of employee well-being and organizational commitment. Drawing on the broaden-and-build theory of positive affect, the study also examined whether the social bonding resources of leader-member exchange (LMX) and coworker exchange (CWX) mediated these effects. The participating employees ( N = 300) completed the survey in three waves at one-week intervals. The results of structural equation modeling (SEM) confirm that dispositional gratitude is positively related to employee well-being and organizational commitment and that these effects are mediated by LMX and CWX. The paper concludes by discussing the theoretical and practical implications of these findings, the study’s limitations, and future research directions.
... Consistent with this possibility, the broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions proposes that positive emotions boost adaptive thoughts and behaviors, which in turn expand personal resources contributing to wellbeing and psychological resilience (Fredrickson, 2001). These personal resources gained during states of positive emotion are durable, functioning as protective reserves in both the short-and long-term (Fredrickson, 2004). Indeed, cultivating experiences of positive emotion to cope with negative emotion might bring about an upward spiral toward improved wellbeing, fostering resilience to harmful outcomes in the face of adversity (Fredrickson, 2000(Fredrickson, , 2001. ...
... Aligned with the broaden-and-build theory, positive emotions associated with gratitude likely generate an upward spiral toward optimal functioning and inspire resilience. Cultivating a grateful disposition allows for a broadened scope of cognition and creative thinking as one considers a range of actions to reflect their gratitude and, in turn, these methods of repaying kindness become lasting skills that can be drawn on in times of need (Fredrickson, 2004). Through building these enduring resources, individuals experience personal growth, becoming more reflective, socially integrated, and healthy (Fredrickson, 2004). ...
... Cultivating a grateful disposition allows for a broadened scope of cognition and creative thinking as one considers a range of actions to reflect their gratitude and, in turn, these methods of repaying kindness become lasting skills that can be drawn on in times of need (Fredrickson, 2004). Through building these enduring resources, individuals experience personal growth, becoming more reflective, socially integrated, and healthy (Fredrickson, 2004). Importantly, individuals can also become more resilient. ...
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Researchers have emphasized the detrimental effects of COVID-19 on mental health, but less attention has been given to personal strengths promoting resilience during the pandemic. One strength might be gratitude, which supports wellbeing amidst adversity. A two-wave examination of 201 college students revealed anxiety symptom severity increased to a lesser extent from pre-COVID (January–March 2020) to onset-COVID (April 2020) among those who reported greater pre-COVID gratitude. A similar trend appeared for depression symptom severity. Gratitude was also correlated with less negative changes in outlook, greater positive changes in outlook, and endorsement of positive experiences resulting from COVID-19. Thematic analysis showed “strengthened interpersonal connections” and “more time” were the most commonly reported positive experiences. Overall findings suggest gratitude lessened mental health difficulties and fostered positivity at the onset of the pandemic, but more research is needed to determine whether gratitude and other strengths promote resilience as COVID-19 continues.
... Moreover, drawing upon trait activation theory (Tett & Burnett, 2003;Tett & Guterman, 2000), we argue that trait gratitude will likely manifest in humble behavior when individuals perceive gratitude-relevant cues (e.g., Fredrickson, 2004;van Kleef et al., 2010). Specifically, leaders' perceived organizational support (POS)-their perception that "the organization values their contributions and cares about their well-being" (Eisenberger et al., 1986, p. 501)-informs leaders that they are beneficiaries in their organizations (Ford et al., 2018) and is thus laden with cues relevant to trait gratitude. ...
... Third, dispositionally grateful people appreciate a wide range of learning experiences, regard them as teachable moments, and learn from them (e.g., Fredrickson, 2001;Fredrickson & Joiner, 2002). These people let go of their defensive mindset and engage in a broaden-and-build process (Fredrickson, 2001(Fredrickson, , 2004 by expanding their scope of attention and thought-action repertoires. They also uti-lize resources and opportunities for building their own competence and improving themselves (Armenta et al., 2017). ...
... Third, receiving support from the organization may remind leaders about the external input that can bring them the necessary resources for improving their work outcomes, making them more coachable and motivating them to improve themselves out of the desire to prove that they deserve their organizational support (Eisenberger et al., 1986). In this way, a high POS facilitates a broaden-and-build process (Fredrickson, 2001(Fredrickson, , 2004 whereby leaders with trait gratitude pay attention to others' feedback and contributions and utilize these resources for self-learning and self-improvement. ...
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Although a leader’s affective characteristics are believed to influence team processes and outcomes, the impact of leaders’ discrete affective traits on team innovation remains unclear. This study addresses this issue by developing a multi‐stage team‐level model that explains how team leaders’ trait gratitude enhances team innovation. Specifically, we draw on the other‐praising perspective of gratitude to predict that leaders with trait gratitude tend to demonstrate humble behavior, which in turn promotes team voice and ultimately enhances team innovation. We also incorporate trait activation theory to theorize that leaders’ perception of organizational support enhances the impact of leaders’ trait gratitude on the leaders’ humble behavior and its indirect effect on team innovation (via humble behavior and team voice). We found support for our research model using data of 71 teams collected from three sources in four phases. This study offers important insights into how and when leaders with high trait gratitude can foster team innovation and advances the existing gratitude research in the team context.
... Gratitude is an important approach for deriving meaning in life. According to the broaden-and-build theory, gratitude broadens individuals' thought-action repertoires, which subsequently helps build their personal resources by making the cognitive process more flexible (Fredrickson, 2004(Fredrickson, , 2013. Moreover, gratitude helps people perceive unfavorable situations or events as less negative, thereby reducing their negative influence (Watkins, 2004). ...
... Gratitude expands individuals' thought-action repertoires, thereby contributing to enriching cognitive resources. Moreover, it causes people to reinterpret negative events or circumstances more positively, enabling them to find meaning in life (Fredrickson, 2004(Fredrickson, , 2013. From this perspective, participants in our study likely experienced gratitude when they were searching for meaning, which subsequently led them to find meaning in life. ...
... Moreover, those who experience growth after traumatic experiences tend to exhibit character strengths such as a greater appreciation of life, including gratitude (Tedeschi and Calhoun, 1995;Peterson et al., 2008). Our findings empirically tested the meaningmaking theory (Park, 2010) and the broaden-and-build theory (Fredrickson, 2004(Fredrickson, , 2013. Therefore, our study is consistent with extant research that tested the relationships between the search for meaning, gratitude, and the presence of meaning (Dursun et al., 2016;Liao and Weng, 2018;Russo-Netzer, 2019). ...
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Many studies demonstrate that finding meaning in life reduces stress and promotes physical and psychological well-being. However, extant literature focuses on meaning in life among the general population (e.g., college students or office workers) in their daily lives. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the mechanisms of how individuals living in life-threatening and stressful situations obtain meaning in life, by investigating the mediating roles of leisure crafting and gratitude. A total of 465 Army soldiers from the Republic of Korea (ROK) participated in two-wave surveys with a 2-week interval. Structural equation modeling analyses indicated that the direct effects between the search for meaning, presence of meaning, leisure crafting, and gratitude were significant, except for the direct relationship between the search for meaning and the presence of meaning, and between leisure crafting and the presence of meaning. We tested indirect effects using a Monte Carlo approach and found that leisure crafting and gratitude sequentially mediated the relationship between the search for meaning and the presence of meaning. Our findings highlight the importance of the motivation behind searching for meaning, the proactive use of leisure time, and gratitude for individuals in stressful situations and controlled lifestyles. Finally, we discuss the implications and limitations of this research and future research directions.
... However, studies have not explored the relationship between the effects of gratitude on psychological capital. According to the Broaden-and-Build Theory, gratitude is one of the most representative positive emotions that can expand an individual's thinking and cognitive scope; thus, constructing lasting psychological resources (e.g., resilience, optimism, etc.) (Fredrickson, 2004(Fredrickson, , 2013. Research has demonstrated gratitude as a significant positive predictor of psychological capital (Liao, 2016). ...
... Previous research has demonstrated that parent-child relationships affect academic performance by influencing gratitude and psychological capital (Carmona-Halty et al., 2020). Based on the Broaden-and-Build Theory and empirical studies, gratitude significantly predicts psychological capital (Fredrickson, 2004(Fredrickson, , 2013Fu, 2021). Therefore, this study speculated that the parent-child relationship affects the academic performance of college students through chain mediation of gratitude and psychological capital. ...
... This is a critical finding, indicating that people with higher levels of gratitude awareness are more optimistic and confident, and have higher levels of psychological resilience and responsibility than people with lower levels of gratitude awareness. The results support the Broaden-and-Build Theory that suggests that gratitude, as a positive personal emotion, can construct more lasting psychological resources (Fredrickson, 2004(Fredrickson, , 2013. In addition, this study remedies the lack of past research, examining the relationship between gratitude and the impact of psychological capital. ...
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This study used the Social Cognitive Theory and Broaden-and-Build Theory to propose and validate a chain mediation model. In total, 417 Chinese college students were studied to explore the effects of parent–child relationships on their academic performance. In addition, we investigated the chain-mediating roles of gratitude and psychological capital. The results showed that (1) the parent–child relationship significantly and positively affected the academic performance of college students; (2) gratitude partially mediated the parent–child relationship and the academic performance of college students; (3) psychological capital partially mediated the parent-child relationship and the academic performance of college students; and (4) gratitude and psychological capital exerted a chain-mediating effect between parent–child relationships and the academic performance of college students. Based on the results of the study, we conclude that the parent–child relationship not only directly affects the academic performance of college students but also indirectly affects it through the chain mediation of gratitude and psychological capital. Moreover, we proposed reasonable suggestions on how colleges and universities can guide students to deal with parent-child relationships, strengthen gratitude education, and improve psychological capital.
... Based on this, she contracted for a series of positive psychology coaching sessions. Given her presenting reasons, the coach and coachee, as part of the partnering process, decided to focus on gratitude, as it is effective in improving well-being as well as improving social ties (Fredrickson, 2004;Watkins et al., 2003) The coaching process ...
... This activity is said to increase happiness and stimulate positive behaviour change (Froh et al., 2009;Seligman et al., 2005). Moreover, in the context of broaden-and-build theory (Fredrickson, 2004), gratitude can serve to build social bonds. ...
... The positive emotional, physical and interpersonal changes that Janet reported in her life are consistent with Fredrickson's (2004) broaden-and-build theory. What was particularly striking was how she said she had become more outgoing and adventurous. ...
... Several psychologists like Algoe (2012), Fredrickson (2004), Watkins (2014), Garg (2020), and Garg and Gera (2019) have supported gratitude-based organizational culture for the efficient functioning of employees. And Indian spiritualism is considered to represent the pinnacle of gratuitous behaviour (Garg, 2017c). ...
... The proposed relationship between toxicity and workplace spirituality is theoretically premised in 'Conservation of Resources Theory (Hobfoll, 1989), 'Job Demands-Resources Theory' (Bakker & Demerouti, 2007), 'Broadenand-Build Theory of Positive Emotion' (Fredrickson, 2004), and the 'Effort-Recovery Model' (Meijman & Mulder, 1998). These theories suggest that workplace spirituality negates one's intention to indulge in toxic behaviour, and it also enhances resources for victims to cope with workplace toxicity. ...
... All these interventions require the active support of top management and leaders. For inference, gratuitous behaviours are contagious, and that of managers has a deep and profound impact on employees (Fredrickson, 2004;. So, gratuitous acts of leaders and managers will undoubtedly inspire other employees to follow suit. ...
Article
The study aimed to explore the effect of workplace spirituality on two dimensions of toxic work environments- incivility and ostracism in Indian public sector oil and gas companies. Six dimensions of workplace spirituality, namely Swadharma, Lokasangraha (Transcendence), Authenticity, Sense of community, Karma capital, and Gratitude, are explored here. The collected data is subjected to rigorous reliability, validity, multicollinearity, and common method bias tests. The association between six dimensions of workplace spirituality and two constructs of workplace toxicity is explored with the help of correlation and regression analysis. The study provides empirical evidence of a negative relationship between six Indian dimensions of workplace spirituality and two manifestations of workplace toxicity, i.e., incivility and ostracism in the workplace.
... A few mechanisms have been proposed regarding the beneficial effects of gratitude on psychological well-being and sleep. Fredrickson's (40,41) broaden-and-build theory posits that gratitude, like other positive emotions (e.g., joy, love), broadens one's "momentary thought-action repertoire" and builds one's "enduring personal resources." In other words, positive emotions enable individuals to pursue a wider range of novel or creative thoughts and actions in the moment (e.g., prosocial or reciprocal altruistic behaviors), resulting in an increase in one's social resources (e.g., more friendships and social bonds) and psychological resources, such as hope (30) and resilience (33). ...
... Building on Fredrickson's model, Alkozei et al. (42) suggest that, by increasing the experience of positive memories for past events, gratitude broadens one's ability to interpret seemingly negative or ambiguous situations with a more positive valence, thereby promoting psychological well-being. This is in opposition to negative emotions (e.g., fear, anxiety) which narrow one's momentary thought-action repertoire, promoting reflexive and adaptive responses (e.g., fight or flight) to threatening situations (40,41). As for sleep, a crosssectional study by Wood et al. (32) with over 400 participants found that gratitude predicted better subjective sleep quality and sleep duration, and less sleep latency and daytime dysfunction. ...
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The COVID-19 pandemic has led to diminished sleep and increased stress, anxiety, and burnout for many health professionals and health professions students. One simple approach that may be effective for bolstering personal well-being is consciously cultivating gratitude. Gratitude is positively associated with physical health, psychological health, hope, sleep, and health behavior engagement; and randomized studies indicate that gratitude interventions can improve psychological well-being and sleep. The primary aim of this study was to assess the impact of practicing Tiny Habits® on self-reported gratitude, as measured by the 6-Item Gratitude Questionnaire (GQ-6). In January 2021, 154 adult participants with GQ-6 <35/42 were randomized to one of 3 groups: Tiny Habits for Gratitude (n = 50), Tiny Habits Control (n = 52), and Inactive Control (n = 52). Both Tiny Habits groups chose 3 Tiny Habits Recipes to practice daily and participated in the free, email-based 5-Day Program with automated daily check-in emails and personalized feedback from a Certified Tiny Habits Coach. The Recipes for the Tiny Habits for Gratitude group focused on cultivating gratitude, while those for the Tiny Habits Control group did not. Post-intervention, the mean change in GQ-6 scores in the Tiny Habits for Gratitude (Δ = ↑6.9 ± 5.6; n = 37/50, 74%; p< 0.001, Cohen's d = 0.85) and Tiny Habits Control (Δ = ↑5.6 ± 4.1; n = 31/52, 60%; p = 0.009, Cohen's d = 0.71) groups were greater than that of the Inactive Control group (Δ = ↑2.5 ± 4.4; N = 42/52, 81%). At 1 month, the mean change in GQ-6 scores in the Tiny Habits for Gratitude group (Δ = ↑7.0 ± 5.3; N = 28/50, 56%) was greater than that of the Inactive Control group (Δ = ↑2.9 ± 5.4; N = 39/52, 72%; p = 0.002, Cohen's d = 0.78). These findings suggest that practicing Tiny Habits Recipes and participating in the 5-Day Program can significantly increase gratitude in the short term and focusing specifically on gratitude during this process can sustain the increase in gratitude for up to 1 month. Implementation is quick, simple, and free. This has significant implications for healthcare education stakeholders.
... In this regard, the broaden-and-build theory (Fredrickson, 1998(Fredrickson, , 2001(Fredrickson, , 2004Fredrickson & Joiner, 2002) explains how gratitude influences psychological wellbeing. The theory proposes that positive emotions broaden an individual's momentary thought-action repertoires and thus build enduring personal resources for them. ...
... In this vein, the study contributes to the ongoing research on gratitude in the positive psychology literature by expanding on existing knowledge from a different perspective. It builds on the well-developed construal approach to happiness (Lyubomirsky, 2001), hedonic adaptation prevention model (Sheldon & Lyubomirskys, 2012), broaden-and-build theory (Fredrickson, 2004), and positive affect hypothesis (Wood et al., 2010) to examine the relationship between gratitude and psychological wellbeing, mediated by spirituality, the gap in previous researches. Thus, the study expands the pertinent literature (Mairean et al., 2018;Portocarrero et al., 2020) by validating the mediating role of spirituality's dimensions in the relationship of gratitude and psychological well-being of emerging adults. ...
Article
Gratitude can play a significant role in enhancing the well-being of emerging adults since it armors them from the cold waves of psychological distress associated with emerging adulthood. Therefore, this study explored the association between gratitude and the psychological well-being of emerging adults. Further, the study examined the process underlying the association between these concepts through the lens of spirituality. The study investigated proposed relationships on a sample of 413 emerging adults ranging from 18 to 25 years with a mean age of 21.27 (SD = 1.60). First, the study applied structural equation modeling to establish the validity of the model (measurement model validity), and then the model's hypothesized relationships were tested (structural model). The findings illustrated both gratitude and dimensions of spirituality share a positive and significant association with psychological well-being. Spirituality’s dimensions emerged as possible mediators in the association between gratitude and psychological well-being. These results lead to a deeper understanding of the relationship between gratitude and the psychological well-being of emerging adults, concluding that gratitude influences psychological well-being both directly (b = 0.34, p < .001) and indirectly (b = 0.20, p < .001) through spirituality. The study also addresses the theoretical and practical implications of the findings.
... Meta-analytic findings based on studies across sub-developmental stages of adolescence (early, middle, and late adolescence) showed that the evidence for these mediating factors is mixed [8], and thus it is important to consider other potential mechanisms. Fredrickson's broaden-and-build theory [22,23] asserts that positive traits, like gratitude and forgiveness, broaden children's repertoire of problem-solving strategies and other adaptive social cognitive behaviors (i.e., increasing prosociality and using adaptive coping skills), which might enhance overall well-being and decrease the levels of dysfunctional negative emotions [22]. Gratitude and forgiveness are fostered by positive interpersonal experiences [24,25] and therefore could be enhanced in the context of secure parent-child relationships. ...
... Results revealed that The mean of dispositional gratitude is based on aggregated z-scores Consistent with previous work [26,28], early adolescents with greater dispositional gratitude reported lower levels of depressive symptoms. These findings lend support to the broaden-and-build theory [22,23], which asserts that positive traits such as gratitude and forgiveness may contribute to increased well-being and a reduction in dysfunctional negative emotions that are characteristic of depression. Further, Obeldobel and Kerns [26] proposed that children with more gratitude may experience more positive emotion, higher quality friendships, and positive perceptions of the self and others that might mitigate against depressive symptomology. ...
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Although greater parent-child attachment security is linked with children’s lower levels of depressive symptoms, little research has evaluated potential explanatory mechanisms. We investigated whether dispositional gratitude and interpersonal forgiveness explain the relation between attachment security with parents and early adolescents’ depressive symptoms. Early adolescents (N = 105; M age = 12.3 years; 51% girls) completed questionnaires assessing their attachment security to mother and father figures, depressive symptoms, and dispositional gratitude, and an interview assessing interpersonal forgiveness. Results revealed that greater attachment security to mothers and fathers was associated with fewer depressive symptoms and greater levels of dispositional gratitude and interpersonal forgiveness. Further, dispositional gratitude and interpersonal forgiveness were negatively associated with depressive symptoms. Dispositional gratitude emerged as a mediator between attachment security with each parent and depressive symptoms. Our findings suggest that greater parent-child security may promote early adolescents’ appreciation of positive events, which in turn may relate to fewer depressive symptoms.
... Research has shown that individuals with higher empathy tended to have higher levels of gratitude (Worthen and Isakson, 2007;Agnieszka et al., 2020;Oriol et al., 2020). Meanwhile, the Broaden-and-Build theory of positive emotions suggests that gratitude is a positive emotion that can increase individuals' mental flexibility, help construct psychological resources, and motivate prosocial behavior (Fredrickson, 2001(Fredrickson, , 2004. When individuals are in a positive emotional state, they will have a stronger prosocial motivation that inspires their prosocial behavior (Chen et al., 2020;Lasota et al., 2020;Yang et al., 2021). ...
... Further, this study demonstrated that different components of empathy (perspective-taking, fantasy, empathic concern, and personal distress) were associated with prosocial behavior via gratitude. The present findings offer a new perspective and contribute to the broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions (Fredrickson, 2001(Fredrickson, , 2004 and psychological mediation framework of college students' prosocial behaviors. According to this theory, gratitude may be an important mediator linking interpersonal factors to social adaptation. ...
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With the development of positive psychology, prosocial behavior has received widespread attention from researchers. Some studies have shown that emotion has a significant influence on individual prosocial behavior, but little research has studied the effect of different types of empathy on college students' prosocial behaviors. The current study examined the mediating effects of gratitude among the associations between different types of empathy (perspective-taking, fantasy, empathic concern, and personal distress) and prosocial behavior among Chinese college students. For the study, we used the Prosocial Tendency Measurement questionnaire, the Hebrew version of Interpersonal Reactivity Index-C, and The Gratitude Questionnaire that investigated 1,037 participants. The results indicated that gratitude played a mediating role between perspective-taking and prosocial behavior, fantasy and prosocial behavior, empathic concern and prosocial behavior, and personal distress and prosocial behavior, respectively. The current study contributes to a better understanding of the relationship between empathy and prosocial behavior.
... Theoretically, relationship forging constructs can be understood as binding (Roberts, 2004) or building (Fredrickson, 2004). Binding constructs describe relationships knit together by moral obligations, such as duty, parental responsibility, accountability, guilt, and indebtedness. ...
... In other words, gratitude and indebtedness work in tandem to build good will and remind (or bind) individuals to act prosocially and reciprocate in relationships. Most gratitude scholars would argue that gratitude both binds and builds relationships (e.g., Algoe et al., 2008;Fredrickson, 2004), but perhaps, it is indebtedness that binds, and gratitude builds-in a symbiotic process. ...
... Minnettarlık, yapılan iyiliklerin farkında olma ve bu iyiliklerin kaynağına karşı müteşekkir olma (McCullough, Emmons ve Tsang, 2002), yaşamdaki olumlu şeyleri fark etme, değerlerini takdir etme ve bunun sonucunda yaşama ve olaylara daha olumlu bakma eğilimi ve/veya duygusu olarak tanımlanmaktadır (Wood, Froh ve Geraghty, 2010). Yaşamla olan bu pozitif bağı sayesinde minnettarlığın, zihinsel odağımızı genişletip daha olumlu düşünmemizi ve davranmamızı sağlayabildiğine dikkat çekilmektedir (Fredrickson, 2004;McCullough, Kilpatrick, Emmons ve Larson, 2001). Araştırmalar bununla uyumlu olarak, minnettarlığın psikolojik iyi oluşa işaret eden mutluluk, yaşam doyumu, umut ve pozitif düşünce ve duygulanımı geliştirebildiğini; psikolojik kötü oluşa işaret eden stres, korku, kaygı, depresyon ve negatif düşünce ve duygulanıma karşı ise koruma sağlayabildiğini göstermektedir (Emmons ve Mishra 2011;Lau ve Cheng, 2011;Petrocchi ve Couyoumdjian, 2016;Wood ve ark., 2010). ...
... Covid-19'a ilişkin bu tür korku, tehdit ve kaygıların öznel iyi oluşun azalışıyla, Covid-19'dan kaynaklı stres, korku, kaygı ve umutsuzluğun artışıyla ise ilişkili oldukları görülmektedir (Kachanoff ve ark., 2020; Parades ve ark., 2020). Buna göre yaşamdan duyulan minnettarlığa ilişkin farkındalık artışının veya minnettar bir bakış açısı geliştirmenin, minnettarlığın zihinsel odağımızı olumsuz şeylerden olumlu şeylere çevirebilmesi görüşüyle (Fredrickson, 2004;McCullough ve ark., 2001) uyumlu olarak, Covid-19 kaynaklı yukarıda bahsi geçen kötü oluş işaretlerini azaltarak iyi oluşu destekleyeceği söylenebilir. ...
... Despite recent attention on gratitude in OB research, gratitude has a rich history outside of OB. Were one to trace a history of scholarly work on gratitude to modern day, it would begin with philosophers (e.g., Seneca, Adam Smith, Thomas Aquinas, David Hume), followed by sociologists (e.g., Blau, 1964;Gouldner, 1960) and social psychologists (e.g., Algoe, 2012;Algoe & Haidt, 2009;Fredrickson, 2004;McCullough et al., 2001;Wood et al., 2010), who variously noted the importance of gratitude to moral behaviors, social relationships, and personal wellness. Investigations of gratitude's role in social reinforcement, helping, and attributions were published throughout the late 20th century. ...
... Gratitude has long been examined as a tool of promoting wellness. The broaden-andbuild theory of positive emotions suggests that gratitude promotes wellness by broadening mindsets and building personal resources (Fredrickson, 2004). In line with this theory, empirical work demonstrates two main mechanisms by which gratitude promotes well-being and decreases ill-being: affective and cognitive resources. ...
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Though gratitude research in organizational behavior (OB) is nascent, this emotion has a rich history in the social sciences. Research has shown gratitude to promote prosocial behaviors, encourage personal well-being, and foster interpersonal relationships. However, gratitude research has been siloed among these three outcomes of gratitude (moral, wellness, and relational). Similarly, past reviews of gratitude have focused on only one group of outcomes, one of its forms (trait, state, or expressed), or empirical findings without emphasis on the theoretical underpinnings. In contrast, this review recognizes that each type of gratitude, its functions, and outcomes are part of a single process model of gratitude. As such, in the current review we provide a comprehensive assessment of gratitude in the social sciences by distilling and organizing the literature per our process model of episodic gratitude. Then, we translate the insights for management scholars, highlighting possible differences and synergies between extant research and workplace gratitude thereby helping advance “gratitude science” in the workplace. In all, this review (a) examines definitions and operationalizations of gratitude and provides recommendations for organizational research; (b) proposes a process model of episodic workplace gratitude as a conceptual map to guide future OB research on gratitude; (c) reviews empirical gratitude research through the lens of our process model; and (d) discusses the current state of the literature, important differences for workplace gratitude, and future directions for organizational scholars.
... Meaning seeking is the motive dimension of the meaning of life, i.e., trying to find the reason for their existence or the meaning of life. The lack of life meaning leads to the lack of life goal, sense of existence, and sense of meaning and feeling empty, bored, and frustrated, which will affect the self-cognition and identification of an individual, leading to addictive behavior, anxiety, depression, and even increase in the risk of suicide (Fredrickson, 2004;Lin, 2016;Xu et al., 2019). ...
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Objective: This study aimed to explore the influence of gratitude on the meaning of life of college students and the mediating effect of family function and peer relationships. Methods: A total of 1,049 college students (mean age: 18.59 ± 0.96 years) were investigated by gratitude scale, family function scale, peer relationship questionnaire, and meaning of life scale. Results: (1) Gratitude was positively correlated with meaning existence ( r = 0.39, P < 0.05), meaning seeking ( r = 0.23, P < 0.05), and peer relationship ( r = 0.32, P < 0.05); meanwhile, it is also positively correlated with family function ( r = 0.34, P < 0.05); (2) family function partially mediates the relationship between gratitude and meaning of life. Similarly, peer relationship partially mediates the relationship between gratitude and meaning of life. Conclusion: The mediating model showed that grateful individuals can better sense the meaning of life by perceiving good family function and good peer relationships.
... Fredrickson (1998) "gyarapodás" elmélete (broaden and build) azt veti fel, hogy a pozitív érzelmek, mint az öröm, büszkeség, elégedettség, szeretet és hála tágítják a személy tapasztalatainak terét, s ennek hatására az egyén pszicho lógiai és szociális erőforrásai is gazdagodnak. Amikor a másik segítő szándékát észlelve kialakul a hála, egyéb társas szituációkat is hajlamosabbak leszünk pozitívan értelmezni, másoknak jó szándékot tulajdonítunk, ami támogatja az altruista viselkedést, erősítve a társas kötelékeket (Fredrickson, 2004). A hála interperszonális helyzetekben tehát válasz lehet a morális viselkedésre, és egyben motiválója is annak (Haidt, 2003). ...
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Background and aims: Dispositional gratitude has many positive consequences for well-being. Studies have demonstrated a positive association of gratitude as a trait measure with some prosocial traits, while also confirming a significant negative association with a material value orientation. Little is known, however, about other variables that are thought to mediate the relationship between gratitude and well-being. The focus of our study is to examine the relationship between dispositional gratitude and some positive psychological variables – subjective well-being, social support, sense of coherence. We also explore the mediating role of peer support and materialistic value orientation in the relationship between gratitude and subjective well-being. Methods: Our online, quantitative study analyzed data from 216 people. In addition to two gratitude questionnaires (Gratitude Resentment and Appreciation Test and Appreciation Scale), the test battery included the Bern Subjective Well-Being Questionnaire, the Sense of Coherence Scale, the Social Support Survey, and the Materialistic Values Scale. The target population was selected as healthcare workers at high risk. Results: Our findings confirmed the multifaceted relationship of gratitude with other positive psychological variables and confirmed that its beneficial role may be partly through an increase in perceived peer support. Gratitude was inversely related to materialism, which appears as a mediating variable in the relationship between subjective well-being and gratitude. Conclusions: Consistent with the research history, our data also point to the potentially positive effects of gratitude-focused interventions on well-being, relationships, and values in the present target group. Keywords: dispositional gratitude, subjective well-being, social support, materialism
... Additionally, it promotes well-being by advocating for healthier habits connected with physical well-being, such as adequate sleep, exercise, and proper nutrition, as well as activities associated with increased cognitive and subjective well-being. Gratitude, social interaction, and helping others have been shown to improve well-being in non-clinical populations (Fiordelli et al., 2020;Fredrickson, 2004) and have been included in the program. ...
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Managing health and well-being issues can be challenging for college students. Alternative supports, such as online programs, have been identified as cost-effective and efficient methods of providing inclusive support to college students, removing numerous barriers to health and well-being promotion. The article summarized a novel, evidence-based approach to developing an online health and well-being program. The program is based on Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT), the positive emotion, engagement, relationships, meaning, and accomplishments (PERMA) construct, and the analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation (ADDIE) model. It discusses future directions in the evaluation, assessment, and documentation of the fitness-for-purpose process. Keywords: well-being, online health, physical health, college students, PERMA, CBT, ADDIE
... The relationship between gratitude, constructive deviance and stress could be explained in the light of Fredrickson's (2004) broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions. According to broaden-and-build theory, positive emotions such as gratitude "broaden people's momentary thought-action repertoires and build their enduring social resources" (Fredrickson, 2004, p. 147). ...
Article
Purpose The study explores the relationship between workplace spirituality and work stress among university teachers. It also investigates the mediating effect of constructive deviance amid the association between workplace spirituality and stress among Indian university teachers. Design/methodology/approach The association between spirituality and stress is studied using correlation and multiple regression. The mediating effect of constructive deviance is examined using the Sobel test and bootstrapping estimates using Hayes' PROCESS macro. The hierarchical regression is used to report direct and indirect effects. Findings Findings reveal a significant negative association between the six dimensions of workplace spirituality and stress. The results also concluded the mediation effect of constructive deviance, which means workplace spirituality promotes constructive deviance that influences educators' stress levels. Originality/value The study is based on primary data collected by the author. It is one of the first explorations of the mediating effect of constructive deviance in the relationship of six dimensions of workplace spirituality and work stress among teachers.
... Gratitude interventions have shown promise in improving mental well-being (Wood et al., 2010;Davis et al., 2016). Gratitude interventions also have been found to promote adaptive processes such as appreciating small pleasures resulting in experiencing more positive emotions, the use of positive reframing and interpersonal responsiveness and reduce barriers for adaptation such as repetitive negative thinking (Fredrickson, 2004;Lambert et al., 2012;Algoe, 2019;Heckendorf et al., 2019;Bohlmeijer and Westerhof, 2021). However, the question whether changes in gratitude explain the effects of gratitude interventions on well-being has been understudied. ...
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There is a gap of knowledge about the extent to which gratitude is indeed the working mechanism of change in gratitude interventions aiming to promote mental well-being. This study explores the mediational role of gratitude as mood in the context of a recently conducted randomized controlled trial on the effects of a 6-week gratitude intervention on mental well-being in comparison with a waitlist control group. Gratitude as mood was measured at 2, 4, and 6 weeks. Both simple and multiple mediation models were conducted as well as various sensitivity analyses. Results showed a gradual increase of gratitude as mood during the intervention. The effects of the 6-week gratitude intervention on mental well-being were mediated by increases of gratitude as mood at 4 weeks but not at 2 weeks. These findings suggest a dose-response relationship for gratitude interventions, but more research is warranted.
... The theory suggests that positive feelings broaden people's thinking and attention. Fredrickson (2004) noted that gratitude expands an individual's thinking through exchange of things for mutual benefits, which in turn boosts personal resources and consequently enhances individual life satisfaction. According to Fredrickson (2013), gratitude is able to influence life satisfaction because when individuals are thankful, they have a tendency to expand their thoughts and recognize that the role of other people is important in life. ...
Article
Gratitude has been linked with normal human functioning and well-being yet, its association with happiness and life satisfaction remains understudied among non clinical samples in collectivist cultures. Most studies on gratitude are focused on clinical settings and in individualist cultures. This study investigates the predictive strength of gratitude and purpose in life on life satisfaction among university undergraduates in Nigeria. Using a cross sectional research design, 390 university students were selected from 2 (public and private) universities. A questionnaire on socio-demographic profile, gratitude scale(r=0.84), purpose in life scale(r=0.96) and life satisfaction scale (r=0.90) was administered to participants. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, correlation analysis and regression analysis at 0.05 level of significance. Three hypotheses were tested. The results revealed that gratitude and purpose in life jointly and independently predicted life satisfaction (R 2 = .24; F = 62.56; p<.05). Being grateful and having purpose are crucial for a comprehensive examination of life satisfaction.
... These findings add to a growing body of literature from the veteran and general population, which has found trait gratitude to be inversely associated with suicidal ideation (Krysinska et al., 2015), suicide attempt (Kaniuka, Kelliher Rabon, et al., 2020), anddepression (McGuire et al., 2021). Several theories have proposed how gratitude may affect risk for suicidal thoughts and behavior, including its role in promoting cognitive flexibility, improving emotion regulation, modulating negative cognitions and expectancies, as well as impacting interpersonal functioning (e.g., increasing prosocial behavior; Fredrickson, 2004;. Yet, in contrast to prior cross-sectional research examining differences in protective correlates of suicide attempts among veterans, the current investigation did not find social connectedness (Kelley et al., 2019), religiosity/ spirituality (Smigelsky et al., 2020), or being married or having an intimate partner (Fanning & Pietrzak, 2013) to differ among veterans with suicide attempt histories. ...
Article
Background: Population-based data on risk factors for suicide attempts among veterans remains limited. Methods: A national probability sample of 2307 veterans was followed over the course of four timepoints spanning seven years to examine how a range of baseline risk factors predict incident suicide attempt. Suicide attempt data were aggregated into a single follow-up timepoint. Results: Sixty-two veterans (3.1%) reported attempting suicide during the 7-year period. The strongest risk factors for suicide attempts were higher baseline levels of loneliness, lower baseline levels of adaptive psychosocial traits (e.g., dispositional gratitude), baseline thoughts of self-harm, and greater post-baseline trauma exposures (12.3%–41.3% of explained variance). Veterans with multiple co-occurring risk factors were at greatest risk for attempts; of veterans with 0, 1, 2, 3, and all 4 of these factors, the predicted probability of suicide attempt was 2.0%, 5.3%, 13.5%, 30.4%, and 55.0%, respectively. Conclusions: Baseline loneliness, dispositional gratitude, thoughts of self-harm, and new-onset traumas emerged as the strongest risk factors for suicide attempts among veterans, underscoring the potential importance of targeting these factors in prevention efforts. Veterans with multiple co-occurring risk factors have substantially greater risk for suicide attempts, suggesting that examination of multiple coinciding vulnerability factors may help improve suicide risk prediction models.
... The relationship between gratitude, constructive deviance and stress could be explained in the light of Fredrickson's (2004) broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions. According to broaden-and-build theory, positive emotions such as gratitude "broaden people's momentary thought-action repertoires and build their enduring social resources" (Fredrickson, 2004, p. 147). ...
Article
The inclusion of spirituality at workplaces has yielded significant advantages for the employees and the organisations. The present study probes the optimistic facet of workplace spirituality (WPS) to identify its linkages with one of the most daunting issues for organisations, occupational stress (OS). Police officers from Himachal Pradesh, a hilly state in Northern India, were approached and responses were collected from 385 participants. The study utilises the three-dimensional WPS measure conceptualised by Milliman et al. (2003) . Sense of community and value alignment was found to be explaining significant variance in occupational stress. The findings demonstrate the importance of embracing WPS as an effective tool for alleviating OS, thereby augmenting the performance and morale and guiding strategy formulation of future human resource development activities.
... Examples of gratitude, meaning making and positive reappraisal were commonly noted in the qualitative analysis, all of which are interconnected and foster positive emotions. According to redrickson's broaden-and-build model, the cultivation of positive emotions such as gratitude is a cognitive-emotional process that broadens the individual's thought-action repertoires, which over time fosters the building of emotional, social, and physical resources, which in turn enhance wellbeing [28]. Finally, participants expressed the ability to let go of the desire to change what was outside of their reach, focusing instead on the smaller changes and adaptations that they had the power to make within their daily lives. ...
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In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, social distancing measures were put into place to flatten the pandemic curve. It was projected older adults were at increased risk for poor psychological and health outcomes resulting from increased social isolation and loneliness. However, little re-search has supported this projection among community-dwelling older adults. While growing body of research has examined the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on older adults, there is a paucity of qualitative research that captures the lived experience of community-dwelling older adults. The current study aimed to better understand the lived experience of community-dwelling older adults during the first six months of the pandemic. Semi-structured one on one interviews were conducting with independent living older adults aged 65 years and older. After achieving saturation, 22 interview were analyzed using inductive thematic analysis. Following a recursive process, two overarching themes emerged from the data: perceived threat and challenges of the pandemic and coping with the pandemic. Specifically, participants reflected on the threat of contracting the virus and challenges associated with living arrangement, social isolation, and financial insecurity. Participants shared their coping strategies to maintain health and wellbeing, including behavioral strategies, emotion-focused strategies, and social support. Overall, this re-search highlights resilience among older adults during the first six months of the pandemic.
... Nonetheless, dependent on the PP development in instruction, there has lately been a growing extent of the literature on constructive emotions in SLA (Dewaele and MacIntyre, 2014;MacIntyre et al., 2019; provoking analysts to move their enduring attention from negative emotions (L2 stress and boredom) to positive ones (L2 satisfaction; Khajavy et al., 2018;Dewaele et al., 2019;Derakhshan et al., 2021;Dewaele and Li, 2021). As opposed to negative emotions, which trigger limited attitudes, positive emotions encourage the expansion of mentalities and discovery of inventive and novel notions, which can prompt the foundation of one's physical, mental, scholarly, and social assets (Fredrickson, 2004). Moreover, positive emotions are helpful for individual investigation, permitting one to procure new experiences and learn successfully (Dewaele and MacIntyre, 2014;Xie and Derakhshan, 2021). ...
Article
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Thanks to the inflow of positive psychology (PP) in language education in general and language learning in particular, extensive consideration has been drawn to the role of emotion in second language acquisition (SLA). Enjoyment as a mutual constructive sensation experienced by students has engrossed academic attention. Likewise, teachers are redirected as the most remarkable figure of any educational association, and their enthusiasm is substantial for students in the classroom. In line with the inquiries of teacher enthusiasm, principles of PP, and classroom enjoyment, the current review strives for this form of connection and its impacts on learners’ achievement. Subsequently, the suggestions of this review for teachers, learners, and educator trainers are deliberated.
... If people who have encountered pandemic-related place attachment disruption are able to consistently increase their experience of grateful emotions over the short-term, gratitude could develop into an enduring psychological resource that becomes useful when future resource loss occurs. More generally, broadenand-build theory suggests that increasing grateful emotions through targeted activities might contribute to building other resources (e.g., social bonds, spirituality) that a person can draw on to successfully deal with subsequent adversity (Fredrickson, 2004). ...
Chapter
In Chapters 3 and 6, we discussed the principle that people are naturally driven to invest resources in order to regain, restore, or rebound from resource loss (Hobfoll, 2012). Attempts at offsetting resource loss can take different forms, most of which are functionally adaptive in that they are employed as means of dealing with the challenges a person encounters (Holmgreen et al., 2017). However, the consequences of how a person responds to loss can vary on a spectrum ranging from adaptive to maladaptive. A functionally adaptive approach to recovering from a loss might be useful in the short-term, but it could have unfavorable long-term implications for health and well-being (Wadsworth, 2015). Resource investment responses that balance both short- and long-term ideals may be particularly useful for dealing with resource loss in a way that promotes a more enduring level of positive adjustment. This chapter provides an overview of how resource loss that accompanies place attachment disruption during the COVID-19 pandemic might be transformed into a character-building process that supports short-term adaptation and long-term well-being. Using the virtue of transcendence as a framework (Peterson & Seligman, 2004), it considers three interconnected character strengths—gratitude, hope, and spirituality—that can support exploration and integration of past, present, and future experiences connected to a place of attachment that has been disrupted by the public health crisis. It also outlines some targeted activities that engage each of these transcendent character strengths, the benefits of which could facilitate sustainable adjustment to pandemic-related place attachment disruption experiences and enable people to recover more quickly in the aftermath of the COVID-19 pandemic.
... Auf der Grundlage der Broaden-and-Build Theory of Positive Emotions von Fredrickson (2004), in der Dankbarkeit primär als ein positives Gefühl betrachtet wird, das in zwischenmenschlichen Beziehungen entsteht, entwickelte Algoe (2012) ...
... People with high levels of resilience have sufficient self-confidence, good self-efficacy, and are capable of managing and solving issues. Furthermore, they are positive, pliable, and bounce back swiftly from distressing circumstances (Fredrickson, 2004). In addition, a robust sense of self-efficacy and perceived social support enhances people's confidence, leading to positive health results, stimulating them to investigate potential interactions between these two variables regarding resilience (Karademas, 2006). ...
Article
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The growth of positive psychology has generated different perceptions and concepts on the authorization of learners, such as the construct of resilience and buoyancy. It has been argued that buoyancy has a central function in the educational process as buoyant pupils are more about to participate in activities presented in the classroom and also they are interested to cope with stress in challenging situations especially in English as a foreign language (EFL) learning context. Moreover, to protect against these adversities in reactions to unexpected situations, a related concept exists in positive psychology, labeled resilience that designates persistence and underlines people’s capabilities in face of adversities. The expansion of factors such as self-efficacy and social support seem to have great impacts on different aspects of learners. To this end, the present review attempts to highlight these two noteworthy elements in managing learners’ resilience and buoyancy. Consistent with this review, some recommendations for future inquiries are presented and instructional implications are offered.
... In general, positive correlations between gratitude and behavioral activity have been reported (Wood et al., 2008(Wood et al., , 2009. This association may be causal given the following pathway: Gratitude improves affect (Dickens, 2017), and positive affect encourages more frequent and more diverse types of activity (Fredrickson, 2004b). Therefore, behavioral activation fosters gratitude, which in turn encourages positive behavior. ...
... First, according to Fredrickson's (1998Fredrickson's ( , 2001 broaden-and-build theory, positive emotions broaden temporary thought-action repertoires and build lasting personal resources. Consistent with the broaden-and-build model, it might be that gratitude helps to broaden and build emotional intelligence, which in turn is associated with greater life satisfaction in adults (see also , Fredrickson, 2004;. For example, in considering the multifaceted nature of emotional intelligence, as measured by the Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence Scale (WLEIS; Law et al., 2004), one might distinguish between elements that are more focused on the presence of resilience and agency, from those that are more focused on the use of thought-action repertoires. ...
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The present study was concerned with how gratitude and facets of emotional intelligence (i.e., self-emotions appraisal, others-emotions appraisal, use of emotion, & regulation of emotion) are related to life satisfaction in older adults. Two models were examined in a sample of 191 Spanish older adults: (1) a broaden-and-build model, in which gratitude might be associated with greater life satisfaction by broadening and building facets of emotional intelligence; and (2) an amplification model, in which gratitude might interact with facets of emotional intelligence to amplify life satisfaction. In examining a broaden-and-build model, mediation analysis indicated that gratitude was associated with greater life satisfaction in older adults via broadening one’s use of emotions. In addition, in examining an amplification model, we found evidence of an Others-Emotions Appraisal × Gratitude interaction effect, such that the life satisfaction of older adults with an adept understanding of others’ emotions was enhanced by dispositional gratitude. The present study contributes to the extant literature by delineating specific pathways by which gratitude and emotional intelligence influence life satisfaction among older adults. Our findings provide evidence of potential strengths-based mechanisms to support older adult life satisfaction. In addition to existing therapies and psychoeducational interventions, it would seem valuable for practitioners to not only consider ways to promote older adults’ gratitude, but also the use of emotions, and adept appraisal of others’ emotions to facilitate their life satisfaction.
... In this context, wellbeing is characterized as the accrediting result that can enable both individual and social changes. Seligman's wellbeing hypothesis emphasized constructive feelings that expand a person's chances and build their abilities and skills (Fredrickson, 2004;Seligman, 2011). In line with Seligman (2011), the goal of the wellbeing hypothesis was to advance prosperity by enhancing constructing feelings, involvement, significance, constructive connections, and achievements. ...
Article
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Studies have shown that teachers’ wellbeing has a positive effect on teachers’ learning quality and learners’ performance. Nevertheless, teaching is a stressful and exhausting profession at all academic level with special difficulties about the nature of language education. Tension and fear are still classic challenges in learning, though the concepts such as hope and optimism are core issues in assisting teachers to feel happy during instruction and work longer. The present review makes efforts to provide the most current confirmation on the interface of hope and optimism with educational issues since they are progressively documented as significant emotional capitals for educational success, job growth, and presentation. It is worth mentioning that the current review of research can benefit educational administrations, and other stakeholders and officials in the educational community to contemplate the functions of constructive emotions in the process of learning to decrease and even diminish stress and apprehension that consequently lead to flourishing.
... Gratitude is a positive emotion evoked by receiving favors, which promotes relationship quality and prosocial behavior (Emmons and McCullough, 2004;Algoe et al., 2013). Indebtedness is a negative emotion experienced when people receive helps from others and feel an obligation to repay the "debts, " which is often undesirable (Greenberg and Westcott, 1983;Fredrickson, 2004;Shen et al., 2011). Both emotions are rooted in social interactions and are interpersonal emotions. ...
Article
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Previous study suggests that gratitude intervention evokes indebtedness among people from an interdependent society. This study furtherly hypothesized that perceived social distance moderates the effect of gratitude intervention on felt indebtedness. A total of 275 adolescents were randomly assigned to three gratitude intervention conditions, namely, writing gratitude to significant others, the health of one’s own, or nothing. After completing the writing task, they rated their experienced emotions on ten dimensions, including gratitude and indebtedness. They also reported perceived social distance from surrounding people and other demographical information. Results indicated that participants in the condition of writing about gratitude to significant others felt indebted regardless of perceived social distance, while those in the condition of writing about gratitude to his/her own health and those in the control condition experienced lesser indebtedness as the perceived social distance with others becomes closer. Gratitude increases as perceived social connectedness increases across all conditions. Theoretical and practical implications were discussed.
... According to the gratitude coping hypothesis, individuals with high gratitude respond positively to stresses and difficulties; on the contrary, individuals with low gratitude adopt more negative attitudes to deal with the hardships in life, resulting in negative behaviors such as avoidance, and thus adversely affect individual physical and mental health (58). Fredrickson (59) believes that individuals with high gratitude are good at dealing with interpersonal relationships and can get help and support from interpersonal resources in the face of difficulties, thus reducing irritability and depression. During the pandemic, grateful individuals may be better able to cope with COVID-19-related stress and are more likely to seek support from others (60). ...
Article
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The present study examined a moderated mediation model between life satisfaction and suicidal ideation among Chinese college students during the recurrent outbreak of COVID-19. Seven hundred and ninety college students participated in the study and completed questionnaires on life satisfaction, suicidal ideation, depression, and gratitude. Findings indicated that (1) Depression played a partial mediating role between life satisfaction and suicidal ideation. Life satisfaction was not only directly affected suicidal ideation, but also indirectly affected suicidal ideation through the mediating effect of college students' depression; (2) Gratitude played a moderating role in the effect of life satisfaction on depression, and the link between life satisfaction and suicide ideation was only significant for those with higher gratitude. This study provides practical implications for the prevention of suicidal behavior among Chinese college students during the recurrent outbreak of COVID-19.
... Studies have also shown that gratitude intervention can reduce academic burnout (Chan, 2011). According to the broaden-and-build theory, gratitude can broaden individuals' thought-action repertoires, which expands their cognitive scope and inspires more creative thought (Ashby & Isen, 1999;Fredrickson, 2004aFredrickson, , 2004b. Therefore, this cognitive advantage can not only promote a deeper engagement in students during learning but also motivate the exchange of resources, which helps individuals obtain more supportive social resources. ...
Article
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The present study examined the association between trait gratitude (a tendency to experience gratitude in daily life) and academic engagement (a fulfilling and positive state of mind that is study-related), with a primary focus on confirming the mediating role of avoidance of temptation (commitment to long-term goals by avoiding situations in which they might be threatened by short-term goals) in Chinese college students. A total of 348 university students volunteered to participate in the study. The participants completed the Trait Gratitude Scale, Avoidance of Temptation Scale, and the Academic Engagement Scale. The results show that people with higher levels of gratitude reported higher levels of avoidance of temptation (r = 0.31, p < 0.01) and academic engagement (r = 0.27, p < 0.01). Structural equation modeling revealed that avoidance of temptation fully mediated the associations between gratitude and academic engagement [CFI = 0.974]. The results show that 16.8% of the variance for academic engagement could be explained by this model. These results suggest that people with higher levels of gratitude tend to adopt proactive self-control strategies such as situation selection to avoid temptation, which might contribute to positive functioning (i.e., academic engagement). Implications and directions for future research on academic engagement are discussed.
... This leads to an additional benefit called Upstream Reciprocity, which may encourage the exchange of ideas between colleagues. Positive emotions lead to widening up of creative thoughts and actions; hence, it could be proposed that gratitude will result in positive emotions, which will generate creative ideas for the welfare of the organization (Fredrickson, 2004). Practicing gratitude would lead to satisfaction of the need of autonomy. ...
Article
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Purpose This study aims to identify the various dimensions of workplace spirituality (WPS) and determine whether these dimensions act as predictors of innovative work behaviour (IWB) among bank employees. This study also aims at studying the moderating role played by sense of God (SOG) between WPS and IWB. Design/methodology/approach The methodology involved both qualitative and quantitative approaches. This study was carried out in two phases. Item generation, questionnaire development and exploratory factor analysis (EFA) were conducted in phase 1. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted in phase 2. Seven WPS dimensions originated through EFA, which got validated through CFA later. Structural equation modelling was used for hypotheses testing. To explore the proposed relationships, cross-sectional survey was done on a sample of bank employees from public, private and foreign banks. Findings The findings reveal that WPS is a seven-factor construct and affects the IWB of bank employees. The results indicated that four dimensions of WPS significantly increase IWB, and that SOG moderates the relationship between WPS and IWB. Research limitations/implications With increasing globalization, there is a growing concern as to whether Indian employers would be able to meet employees’ spiritual needs. Indians tend to have high inclination towards God; through their religious associations, they try to develop a sense of spiritualism. Awareness about the effect of SOG and also the dimensions of WPS on IWB will help organizations in designing effective interventions for making employees more innovative. Originality/value The authors believe that the empirical studies testing the consequences of WPS on IWB in the banking industry are limited; also, SOG’s role as a moderator remains unexplored; thus, this study is an attempt to fill the gaps.
... Sometimes accepting involved personally acknowledging one's own humanness and vulnerability. Receiving the expressions of gratitude involved much more than an emotional response as reported by some authors (Fredrickson, 2004;McCullough et al., 2008). The deeply meaningful, yet unexpected recognition of their work, entailed processing and treasuring the feedback from their most important evaluators. ...
Article
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Providing palliative care can be both challenging and rewarding. It involves emotionally demanding work and yet research shows that burnout is lower than in other fields of health care. Spontaneous expressions of gratitude from patients and family members are not uncommon and are highly valued. This study explored the experience of Spanish palliative professionals who received expressions of gratitude from their patients and families. A phenomenological approach was used to better understand the role of receiving gratitude in participants' lives. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and a phenomenological approach to analysis was undertaken using macro-thematic and micro-thematic reflection. Two team members independently engaged in this reflection with an inductive approach. The analysis was shared and discussed at periodic meetings to identify the key themes and sub-themes of the gratitude experience. Ten palliative professionals were interviewed. Participants engaged in a process of recognizing, internalizing, and treasuring the expressions of gratitude which they then used for reflection and growth. These expressions were a powerful and deeply meaningful resource that the palliative professionals revisited over time. Receiving expressions of gratitude invited a stronger sense of the value of one's self and one's work that was motivational and protective, particularly during challenging times.
... Showing that LMX augments the negative relationship between gratitude and withdrawal behavior, our findings emphasize the importance of the social exchange norm between the benefit giver and the receiver in strengthening the positive impacts of gratitude (Ma et al., 2017). As prior research suggested, even though an individual does not have a positive, close relationship with others, he or she can still feel gratitude toward them in certain circumstances (Fredrickson, 2004). Being aware of this phenomenon in the feedback and LMX settings, we differentiate the employees with a close, reciprocal relationship with the leader (i.e. ...
Article
Purpose This study investigates why and when leader favorable feedback inhibits employees’ withdrawal behaviors. The authors propose that leader favorable feedback reduces employees’ withdrawal behaviors via employees’ gratitude toward the leader. The authors further posit that this mediation is contingent on leader-member exchange, arguing that as the quality of leader-member exchange increases, employees are more likely to feel grateful and are less likely to withdraw from work. Design/methodology/approach Two-wave, multisource field data collected from 662 employees were used to test our hypotheses. Findings Employees’ feelings of gratitude mediated the negative relationship between leader favorable feedback and employees’ withdrawal behavior. The negative effect of gratitude on withdrawal behavior was stronger under higher levels of leader-member exchange, as was the indirect effect of leader favorable feedback on withdrawal behavior via employees’ gratitude. Originality/value These results contribute to a social exchange-based understanding of gratitude as an emotional mechanism underlying the feedback and withdrawal relationship and provide important practical implications for managers.
... Positive emotions influence individuals processing faculties and help them to in approaching behaviors that facilitate collaboration and interaction in learning (Fredrickson, 2004). Acquiring and learning L2 requires specific mental processing abilities that can be affected by the attitudes or emotional states of the learners (MacIntyre & Gregersen, 2012). ...
Article
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Positive emotions (pleasant or desirable situational responses) are proliferated in recent years and their effect on academic achievement has been documented in the literature, while their effect in the specific domain of second language learning (L2) remains underexplored. Since successful mastery of an L2 is highly dependent on learners' positive emotions, therefore , enhancing these emotions can result in a higher level of proficiency. The current study was an effort to examine the role of well-being, grit, emotion regulation, and resilience interventions on both L2 learners' writing achievement and enhancement of their positive emotions well-being, grit, emotion regulation, and resilience in analysis. To this end, two intact classrooms (N Experimental ¼ 36 and N Control ¼ 34; age M ¼ 21.67, SD ¼ 1.23) were selected in an English language institute and received 10 sessions of writing instruction (both groups) and intervention (only experimental group). Data were gathered through writing tasks and questionnaires. Results suggest that positive emotions interventions have a positive and significant effect on L2 learners' well-being, grit, emotion regulation, and resilience in a writing classroom. Furthermore, we found that well-being, grit, emotion regulation, and resilience intervention can significantly improve L2 learners' writing skills. In sum, it can be suggested that employing positive emotions intervention not only can improve individu-als' emotions but also can improve their learning skills. This study proposed that developing positive psychology may offer opportunities to improve affective, personal, and educational gains.
... This is consistent with previous research. [51][52][53] Grit had no significant inhibitory effect on depression for college students with low gratitude. But for college students with high gratitude, grit has a significant inhibitory effect on depression, that is, the higher the quality of grit, the lower the level of depression. ...
Article
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Purpose: COVID-19 has been exerting tremendous influence on an individual's physical behavior and mental health. In China, prolonged isolation may lead to depression among college students during the recurrent outbreak of COVID-19. We conducted this study to explore the relationship among stressful life events, grit, gratitude, and depression in college students during the recurrent outbreak of COVID-19. Methods: We investigated 953 college students from across China, with an average age of 20.38 (SD=1.39) years. Participants completed four scales (Stressful Life Events Scale, Oviedo Grit Scale, Gratitude Questionnaire, and Patients' Health Questionnaire Depression Scale-9 item). Results: The present study found that (1) stressful life events were positively correlated with depression in college students; (2) grit mediated the positive relationship between stressful life events and depression; (3) gratitude moderated the relationship between grit and depression, and such that there was a stronger association between grit and depression for college students with high gratitude. Conclusion: This study was of great significance for studying the relationship between stressful life events and depression in Chinese college students during the recurrent outbreak of COVID-19. Results indicated that grit and gratitude of college students may be the main targets of depression prevention and intervention. The research conclusion has theoretical and reference value for solving and preventing depression in college students during the recurrent outbreak of COVID-19.
Article
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Teaching in contemporary societies is an extremely multi-faceted and specialized task. Teachers have been known to have important influence on students' academic achievement and they also play a crucial role in educational attainment. Research consistently shows that teachers have the greatest potential to influence children's education. The objective of this study is to examine the relationship between gratitude and psychological capital among high school teachers. The researchers have employed simple random technique for data collection through survey method. There were 65 teachers who participated in this study. The Gratitude questionnaire (McCullough et al., 2002) and Psychological capital questionnaire (Luthans et.al, 2007) were used for assessing gratitude and the dimensions of psychological capital. Results showed that there is a significant relationship between gratitude and psychological capital among teachers. Gratitude and each of the psychological capital domains (hope, optimism, resilience, and self efficacy) are statistically correlated. Further, the findings revealed that psychological capital domains are significantly interrelated with all other variables except self-efficacy and resilience. Limitations and implications of the study are also discussed.
Article
The COVID-19 pandemic and the lockdown forced business firms to undertake employee work from home (WFH). The pandemic situation created a general negative sentiment. Employees, while practicing WFH, worked remotely. They worked collectively using network technology in the virtual context and achieved job efficacy even in challenging times. Employees’ achievement of job efficacy helped achieve better results in terms of work performance at organizational team levels. Data were collected from Indian managers during COVID-19 unlock phase. Three hundred twenty-six managerial responses were collected and analyzed using structured equation modeling. The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions was applied for the study. A theoretical model was developed with a positive feeling as an antecedent variable, effort as a mediating variable, and collective technology in virtual team efficacy as the dependent variable. The findings of the study adhered to the perspectives of broad and build theory.
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Although gratitude is typically conceptualized as a positive emotion, it may also induce socially-oriented negative feelings, such as indebtedness and guilt. Given its mixed emotional experience, we argue that gratitude motivates people to improve themselves in important life domains. Two single-time point studies tested the immediate emotional and motivational effects of expressing gratitude. We recruited employees (N = 224) from French companies in Study 1 and students (N = 1,026) from U.S. high schools in Study 2. Participants in both studies were randomly assigned to either write gratitude letters to benefactors or outline their weekly activities (control condition). Expressing gratitude led to a mixed emotional experience (e.g., greater elevation and indebtedness) for both employees and students relative to controls. Students also felt more motivated and capable of improving themselves, as well as conveyed stronger intentions to muster effort towards self-improvement endeavors.
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