It has been suggested that there are several possible linkages between vascular calcification and osteoporosis. In addition, the processes of vascular calcification may have a common etiology with bone formation. Thus, we hypothesized that the serum levels of bone metabolic markers would be different between osteoporosis patients with and without vascular calcification. In this study, we showed ... [Show full abstract] that the serum level of bone-specific alkaline phosphatase activity in osteoporosis patients with abdominal aortic calcification had a higher value than in those without the calcification. On the other hand, there were no significant differences in the urine levels of type I collagen cross-linked N-telopeptides (a bone resorption marker), or in the serum levels of intact osteocalcin, Ca, and P. Bone-specific alkaline phosphatase is the most important marker for osteoblast differentiation; furthermore, the serum level of its activity may reflect the process of calcification of the aorta in osteoporosis patients.