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Stiphodon annieae, new species, is described on the basis of material collected from Halmahera (Indonesia). It is distinguished from all other congeners in having a bright blue and red color pattern in males, nine segmented rays in the second dorsal fin, 14 pectoral rays, 34-40 fine tricuspid premaxillary teeth, and a large head.
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Stiphodon annieae, a new species of freshwater goby
from Indonesia (Gobiidae)
Philippe KEITH* (1) & Renny K. HADIATY (2)
Cybium 2014, 38(4): 267-272.
(1) Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, UMR 7208 (MNHN-CNRS-UPMC-IRD-UCBN), DMPA, CP 026, 43, rue Cuvier,
F-75231 Paris c e d e x 05, France.
(2) LIPI, Zoology Division, MZB, Gedung Widyasatwaloka, Jl. Raya Jakarta Bogor Km. 46, Cibinong- Bogor 16911, Indonesia.
* Corresponding author []
During the past 35 years numerous
sicydiine gobies have been collected
and identied from freshwater streams
throughout the tropical Indo-Pacific.
Nevertheless, many islands of this
re gion are undersamp led (Wats on,
1996; Watson et al., 2007; Keith et al.,
2010; Thuesen et al., 2011). Recently, a
number of expeditions led by the Indo-
nesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI) into remote areas of Indo-
nesia and in collaboration with the Institute for Research and
Development (IRD) and the National Museum of Natural
History of Paris (MNHN), resulted in the discovery of fur-
ther new species (Keith et al., 2011a; Pouyaud et al., 2012;
Keith et al., 2012).
Compared to other sicydiine genera, Stiphodon are
unique among the Sicydiinae in having three anal pterygi-
ophores anterior to the rst haemal spine (Birdsong et al.,
1988); in all the other genera belonging to the group, there
are only two. Stiphodon possesses tricuspid premaxillary
teeth in both sexes. The ascending process on the premaxilla
is narrow at the dorsal tip. The tongue is fused to floor of
the mouth. The pelvic disc is adherent to the belly between
fth rays only and there are 13-17 pectoral rays (Keith and
Marquet, 2007; Keith and Lord, 2011a; Maeda et al., 2011).
Taillebois et al. (2014) suggested that Stiphodon may be the
sister group of all other Sicydiinae species, based on molec-
ular evidence.
Stiphodon currently contains nearly 30 species, and is
distributed from southern Japan, Indonesia and Sri Lanka
to New Caledonia and French Polynesia (Keith et al., 2002;
Watson et al., 2005; Keith et al., 2007; Keith et al., 2009;
Keith et al., 2011b; Maeda and Tan, 2013; Maeda, 2014).
The purpose of this paper is to provide a description of a new
Stiphodon known from Halmahera (Indonesia).
Methods follow Keith and Marquet (2007). Measure-
ments were taken with a dial caliper to the nearest tenth of
a millimeter. All counts were taken from the right side. The
size is given as standard length (SL). Teeth were counted
to the right of the premaxillary symphysis. Abbreviations
for institutions and collections cited follow Leviton et al.
(1985). Abbreviations for the cephalic sensory pore system
follow Akihito (1986).
Scale and n ray counts are reported as: A, anal n ele-
ments (includes exible spine and segmented rays); D, dor-
sal ns (D1, rst dorsal n spines; D2, second dorsal n ele-
ments); P, pectoral n rays; C, caudal n rays (only branched
rays are reported); LS, scales in lateral series counted from
upper pectora1 n base, or anteriormost scale along lateral
midline, to central hypural base; PD, predorsal midline scales
counted from scale directly anterior to rst dorsal n inser-
tion to the anteriormost scale; TRB, transverse series back-
ward, refers to scales counted from the rst scale anterior to
second dorsal n origin, in a diagonal manner, posteriorly
Abstract. – Stiphodon annieae, new species, is described on the basis of material collected from Halmahera
(Indonesia). It is distinguished from all other congeners in having a bright blue and red color pattern in males,
nine segmented rays in the second dorsal n, 14 pectoral rays, 34-40 ne tricuspid premaxillary teeth, and a large
Résumé. – Stiphodon annieae, une espèce nouvelle de gobie d’eau douce d’Indonésie (Gobiidae).
Stiphodon annieae, espèce nouvelle, est décrite à partir de matériel collecté à Halmahera (Indonésie). Elle se
distingue des autres espèces du genre par les couleurs brillantes rouge et bleue du mâle, par neuf rayons segmen-
tés à la seconde nageoire dorsale, 14 rayons aux nageoires pectorales, 34 à 40 dents prémaxillaires tricuspides et
une grande tête.
Received: 27 Mar. 2014
Accepted: 5 Sep. 2014
Editor: R. Causse
Key words
Stiphodon annieae
New species
Stiphodon anniaeae, a new species of goby from Indonesia Ke i t h & ha d i a t y
268 Cybium 2014, 38(4)
and ventrally to the anal n base or ventralmost scale; TRF,
transverse series forward, refers to scales counted from the
rst scale anterior to second dorsal n origin, in a diagonal
manner, anteriorly and ventrally to the centre of abdomen or
ventralmost scale; ZZ, zigzag series, refers to scales on the
narrowest region of the caudal peduncle counted from the
dorsalmost scale to the ventralmost scale in a zigzag (alter-
nating) manner.
Stiphodon annieae, n. sp.
(Figs 1-2, Tabs I-III)
Comparative material
The new species is compared in text and tables with spe-
cies having 13-14 pectoral rays, nine segmented rays in the
second dorsal fin, and a red color pattern in males (bright
red on body sides and part of fins). These are Stiphodon
rubromaculatus Keith & Marquet, 2007, S. birdsong Watson,
1996, S. surrufus Watson & Kottelat, 1995 and S. mele Keith,
Marquet & Pouilly, 2009.
Stiphodon mele Keith, Marquet & Pouilly, 2009. Holo-
type: MNHN 2008-1920, male (27.2 mm SL), Efate, Mele
waterfall, 22 Jul. 2002,Vanuatu. Keith and Keith coll. Para-
types: MNHN 2008-1921, one male (21.1 mm SL), Gaua,
Solomul River, 21 Jul. 2005, Vanuatu. Keith, Marquet and
Keith coll. MNHN 2008-1922, two males, one female (21.1-
25.3 mm SL), Santo, Patunar’s Doline, Vanuatu, 14 Sep.
2006. Pouilly coll. MNHN 2008-1923, one female, (23.8
mm SL), Santo, Patunar resurgence, Vanuatu, 15 Sep. 2006.
Pouilly coll. MNHN 2008- 1924, one male, New Caledonia,
North Province (26.2 mm SL). Keith et al. coll.
Material for S. rubromaculatus, S. birdsong and S. sur-
rufus, is that listed in Keith and Marquet (2007).
Material examined
Two males collected from Halmahera (Indonesia) with a
size range of 21.5-22.7 mm SL.
Holotype. MZB 18930, male (21.5 mm SL), S. Wosea,
DS. Sawai, Weda Tengah, Halmahera, Maluku, Indonesia;
22 Jan. 2010, Hadiaty, Wowor and Sopian coll.
Paratype. MNHN 2014-0132, male (22.7 mm SL), same
data as holotype.
Figure 1. - Stiphodon annieae n. sp.,
Holotype, MZB 18930, male (21.5 mm
SL), Hamahera, Indonesia; Hadiaty et
al. coll. (Photo R. Hadiaty).
Figure 2. - Diagrammatic illustration of head in Stiphodon annieae
n. sp. (male) showing head pores and sensory papillae. A: Dorsal
view; B: Lateral view; C: Ventral view.
Ke i t h & ha d i at y Stiphodon anniaeae, a new species of goby from Indonesia
Cybium 2014, 38(4) 269
The new species is a small Stiphodon with 14 pectoral
rays, nine segmented rays in the second dorsal fin, 34-40
premaxillary teeth. No scales in the head and nape. The head
and the jaw are long. The typical colouration of males is
bright red, mottled with a blue pattern on the back.
Scale counts in Stiphodon annieae n. sp. and related spe-
cies are given in table II, number of premaxillary teeth in
table I, and morphometrics in table III. Below, the holotype
counts are given rst followed in brackets, if different, by
the paratype counts.
Dorsal ns VI-I,9; D1 separate from and higher than D2;
spine 3 elongate. Anal n I,10 and directly opposite to sec-
ond dorsal n. Pectoral n is with 14 rays, uppermost rays
extending beyond membrane but not appearing feathery or
silky, lowermost 1 or 2 rays simple; n oblong with posterior
margin rounded. Caudal n with 12-13 branched rays, pos-
terior margin rounded. Pelvic disc always with 1 spine and 5
stout and heavily branched segmented rays. Fifth rays joined
together in their entire length forming a strong adhesive
Table I. - Premaxillary teeth in Stiphodon annieae n. sp. and related species.
Premaxillary teeth 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45
S. annieae 1–––––1
S. mele 111111
S.rubromaculatus 1221–1
S. birdsong 1–2681014837213––1–1
S. surrufus 111––––1–2–1
Table II. - Scale counts in Stiphodon annieae n. sp. and related species.
Lateral scales 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36
S. annieae 1 1
S. mele 2––11–12
S. rubromaculatus 1121–2
S. birdsong 1–263758654242–222–111
S. surrufus 1––11––––11–––1
Transverse back 34567891011 12 13 14 15
S. annieae 2
S. mele 11321
S. rubromaculatus 241
S. birdsong 4 3 3 14 16 14 7 1
S. surrufus 2–221
Transverse forward 01234567891011 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
S. annieae 1 1
S. mele 32––––11
S. rubromaculatus 2212
S. birdsong 2–2627713954411––––1
S. surrufus 1–––1––––3––2
Predorsal (M: male, F: female) 0123
S. annieae M 2
S. mele M 5
S. mele F 1 1
S. rubromaculatus M 6
S. rubromaculatus F 1
S. birdsong M 32
S. birdsong F 55
S. surrufus M 3
S. surrufus F 2–1
Stiphodon anniaeae, a new species of goby from Indonesia Ke i t h & ha d i a t y
270 Cybium 2014, 38(4)
Table III. - Morphometric values for Stiphodon annieae n. sp. and related species expressed to the nearest whole percent of standard
Predorsal length 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40
S. annieae 1–1
S. mele 2111––1
S. rubromaculatus 1222
S. birdsong 2 7 20 23 13 2
S. surrufus 2121
Preanal length 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59
S. annieae 1–1
S. mele 1–411
S. rubromaculatus 1–2–2–2
S. birdsong 1 – 3 9 6 10 9 11 10 7
S. surrufus 122–1
Head length 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26
S. annieae 1 1
S. mele 21121
S. rubromaculatus 3 4
S. birdsong 5 25 22 11 5
S. surrufus 2–4
Jaw length 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Caudal peduncle depth 7 8 9 10 11 12
S. annieae 1–1 S. annieae 1–1
S. mele 1231 S. mele 133
S. rubromaculatus 1–24 S. rubromaculatus 115
S. birdsong 6 37 23 1 S. birdsong 3 36 33 2
S. surrufus 1221 S. surrufus 1–41
Caudal peduncle length 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23
S. annieae 1 1
S. mele 221–1–1
S. rubromaculatus 2221
S. birdsong 1 5 12 25 15 10 2
S. surrufus 11–4
Body depth at second dorsal origin in males 9 10 11 12 13 14
S. annieae 2
S. mele 13–1
S. rubromaculatus 132
S. birdsong 20 11 – 1
S. surrufus 1–11
Second dorsal n length (M: male, F: female) 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41
S. annieae M 1–1
S. mele M 1–1–12
S. mele F 1––1
S. rubromaculatus M 11–111–1
S. rubromaculatus F 1
S. birdsong M 1–3586421–1
S. birdsong F 29995–1
S. surrufus M 111
S. surrufus F 11–1
Ke i t h & ha d i at y Stiphodon anniaeae, a new species of goby from Indonesia
Cybium 2014, 38(4) 271
disc; disc adherent to belly between fth rays only; between
spines a strong eshy frenum.
Scales in lateral series 18(19), those on caudal peduncle
and the anks below D2 are ctenoid and they become cycloid
below the rst dorsal n in males. Anteriormost scale along
midline nearly below posterior part of D1 or anterior part of
Scales in transverse backward series 9. Scales in trans-
verse forward series 6(7). Scales in zigzag series 9. No scales
in predorsal midline in male. Head, breast, nape, belly and
pectoral base are without scales.
Premaxillary teeth 34-40, ne and tricuspid, tridentiform
with central cup longer than lateral cups. Dentary symphy-
seal teeth in males 1-2, conical to caniniform, stronger and
larger than other teeth.
Cephalic sensory pore system A, B, C, D, F, H, K, L, N
and O; pore D missing in one specimen, single when present;
all others are paired (Fig. 2). Oculoscapular canal separated
into anterior and posterior canals between pores H and K.
Cutaneous sensory papillae developed over lateral surface of
head and body.
Urogenital papilla in males somewhat rectangular with a
rounded distal tip.
Colour in preservation
Male. Background of body whitish to yellowish; scales
along and above midline and below second dorsal n yel-
lowish; belly entirely blackish. Background of head, chin
and preopercle brownish. Inferior part of head and isthmus
entirely blackish to brownish. Top of head brownish. Pec-
toral fins hyaline with a black patch at their base. Occipi-
tal region with brownish pigment. Preopercle behind eye
brownish. First and second dorsal ns whitish; anal and cau-
dal ns whitish; pelvic disk whitish.
Female. Unknown, but male and female of Stiphodon
usually have different colour patterns (Watson et al., 2005;
Keith et al., 2007; Maeda and Tan, 2013; Maeda, 2014).
Colour in life (Fig. 1)
Male. Bright red on body sides. Many blue spotted areas
from different sizes on dorsal part of body, from below rst
dorsal n to caudal one. Top of head greyish with many red
spots. A blue to green line passes below the eye from snout
to pectoral n. Area below this line from chin and isthmus to
pectoral and pelvic n bases is black. Dorsal ns bright red
with few black spots on rays. Second dorsal n with a distal
blue line. Caudal n bright red with a half blue line along
margin, and a second one in the uppermost part. Pectoral ns
hyaline with a black patch at their base. Belly whitish.
Female. Unknown.
Stiphodon annieae n. sp. differs from S. mele, S. rubro-
maculatus, S. birdsong and S. surrufus in having no black-
ish stripes (aligned spots) on dorsal ns (or just few irreg-
ular spots) vs. having well marked regular blackish stripes
(aligned spots), a longer head (25-26 vs. 18-23%SL) and jaw
length (10-12 vs. 6-10%SL), and a different colour pattern in
Anal n length (M: male, F: female) 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40
S. annieae M 1–1
S. mele M 2–11
S. mele F 1––1
S. rubromaculatus M 221––1
S. rubromaculatus F 1
S. birdsong M 168764
S. birdsong F 1 – – – 1 4 12 12 5 1
S. surrufus M 1–2
S. surrufus F 11––1
Caudal n length (M: male, F: female) 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27
S. annieae M 1–––1
S. mele M 1––12
S. mele F 2
S. rubromaculatus M 11–3–1
S. rubromaculatus F 1
S. birdsong M 133222
S. birdsong F 11861
S. surrufus M 1 2
S. surrufus F 1–2
Table III. Continued.
Stiphodon anniaeae, a new species of goby from Indonesia Ke i t h & ha d i a t y
272 Cybium 2014, 38(4)
male. It differs also from S. rubromaculatus in having more
premaxillary teeth (34-40 vs. 27-32), and from S. mele and S.
surrufus in having shorter second dorsal (30-32 vs. 33-38/37-
39%SL) and anal ns (30-32 vs. 37-40/38-40%SL) in males.
Currently known only from Halmahera (Indonesia).
Like other Sicydiinae, Stiphodon annieae n. sp. was
found in a clear, high gradient stream with rocky bottom. It
lives on the bottom of the river, on top of rocks. It is assumed
to be amphidromous (Keith, 2003; Keith and Lord, 2011b).
The new species is named for Annie, the first author’s
wife, in recognition of her patience and unfailing support
during all eld trips in Pacic Islands.
Acknowledgments. – We wish to thank Daisy Wowor and Sopian
Sauri for their help during the eld sampling in Halmahera, Gono
Semiadi, the LIPI coordinator for the project, the Division Environ-
ment of Weda Bay Nickel, Gavin Lee, Eka and the staff. Part of
the present study was funded by Weda Bay Nickel and the Indone-
sian Institute of Sciences (LIPI), the French Ichthyological Society
(SFI) and the Fondation de France. Finally, we thank for the loan of
specimens: S. Morrison (WAM); P. Pruvost, R. Causse, Z. Gabsi,
C. Ferrara, and for X-rays, M. Hautecoeur (MNHN).
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... The recently described Stiphodon annieae (Keith & Hadiaty, 2015) was thought to be endemic to Halmahera Island, Indonesia. However, from August 2019 to January 2020, we collected several specimens during field trips to the Soho, Simpong, and Uso rivers in Luwuk Banggai, Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. ...
... Known only from and endemic to this island, information about S. annieae is limited. This species is known only from two male specimens from the type locality on the island of Halmahera (Keith and Hadiaty 2015;. Stiphodon annieae has not yet been evaluated using International Union for the Conservation of Nature criteria (IUCN 2020). ...
... These specimens were deposited in the laboratory of the Fish Quarantine Station of Luwuk Banggai, Luwuk (FCLB), the Marine Science and Fisheries Faculty, University of Hasanuddin, Makassar (MSFUH), the National Museum of Nature and Technology, Tokyo (NSMT), and the Museum Zoologicum Bogoriense, Cibinon (MZB). Identification of the specimens followed Larson (2010), Maeda and Tan (2013), Keith and Hadiaty (2015), and . ...
Full-text available
The recently described Stiphodon annieae (Keith & Hadiaty, 2015) was thought to be endemic to Halmahera Island, Indonesia. However, from August 2019 to January 2020, we collected several specimens during field trips to the Soho, Simpong, and Uso rivers in Luwuk Banggai, Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. We describe specimens collected in the Soho River and discuss the ichthyofauna of Luwuk Banggai. This is the first report of S. annieae from Sulawesi. Our records represent a range extension of approximately 500-600 km west of this species' type locality on the island of Halmahera.
... Many sicydiine gobies have an amphidromous life cycle (McDowall 1999;Ebner et al. 2011;Keith and Lord 2012). The adults of several genera, including Stiphodon, are generally confined to clear, often fast-flowing streams (Ebner et al. 2011;Keith and Hadiaty 2014;Keith et al. 2015a). Amphidromous gobioid post-larvae recruiting to freshwater typically form multi-species shoals which can include Stiphodon species Sahami and Habibie 2020). ...
... Riverine gobies in the Indo-Pacific, including Indonesia, are understudied, as reflected by recent surveys of Indonesian riverine ichthyofauna which have resulted in the description of new species (Keith and Hadiaty 2014;Keith et al. 2015b, as well as range extensions for previously described species (Keith et al. 2015c;Gani et al. 2021a). Conversely, some nominal species are now regarded as synonyms; for example Stiphodon birdsong Watson, 1996 is now considered a junior synonym of Stiphodon surrufus Watson & Kottelat, 1995based on morphological (Keith et al. 2015a) and genetic (Lor 2016) characters. ...
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Stiphodon surrufus Watson & Kottelat, 1995, with its recent synonym S. birdsong Watson, 1996, is recorded from widely separated locations in the Western Pacific, including Papua and Halmahera in eastern Indonesia. We collected a single specimen of male S. surrufus from the Bohi River, Banggai District, Central Sulawesi Province, Indonesia in 2019; this represents the first record of S. surrufus from Sulawesi, the largest island in the Wallacea biodiversity hotspot. Three additional specimens were collected in 2020, one in 2021, and two in 2022, all from the same site. These records expand the known distribution of a naturally rare but widespread sicydiine goby and contribute to the underexplored but increasingly threatened Sulawesian riverine ichthyofauna.
... Families of primary freshwater fishes such as Cyprinidae (241 species), for instance, dominate Sundaland ( Hadiaty 2001, 2005, 2011a,b, Hadiaty & Siebert, 1998, Hadiaty & Kottelat 2009, Kottelat 2013, Kottelat et al. 1993, Kottelat & Whitten 1996, Kottelat & Widjanarti 2005, Roberts 1989, Tan & Kottelat 2009. By contrast, Wallacea and Sahul host predominantly families with an ancestral marine origin or displaying larval marine stages such as the family Gobiidae ( Allen 1991, Hadiaty 1996, Hadiaty & Wirjoatmodjo 2003, Hadiaty et al. 2004, Hoese et al. 2015, Larson & Kottelat 1992, Larson et al. 2014, Keith & Hadiaty 2014, Keith et al. 2011, Figure 3. Emerged lands and palaeodrainages during the Pleistocene (modified from Woodruff, 2010). ...
Conference Paper
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Cimaja estuary has been well known as a fishing ground for fish larvae and juveniles of amphidromous fishes. The local people call this group of fish impun and collect them frequently for consumption. However, no information about fish diversity and recruitment of amphidromous goby in the Cimaja estuary is known. Therefore, this study aims to reveal species composition, recruitment pattern, and estimation of the abundance of fish larval and juvenile amphidromous goby in the Cimaja estuary day and night. Sampling was performed monthly during the new moon period from December 2020 to February 2021. Fish specimens were identified to the lowest taxon level through a morphological approach. A total of 23,331 larvae and juveniles of Gobiidae were collected, and most of them were Sicyopterus spp. The juvenile stage (11.9-21.8 mm BL) comprised 95.6% of the catches, postflexion larvae (6.9-11.8 mm BL) contributed 3.5% to the total yield and 0.9% of the total capture consisting of flexion larvae (3.9- 6.8 mm BL). Gobiid fishes are preferred to recruit and migrate into the Cimaja river during the day than at night time (p < 0.05), and their movement to the upstream are synchronized with the tidal cycle.
The species of Eleotris from Indonesia are reviewed and compared to the known species described from the area. Nine species are recognized including three new species in the melanosoma neuromast pattern group. These are described using genetic and morpho-meristic approaches. The new species differ by a high percentage of genetic divergence in partial COI gene (652 bp) and by several characters including the number of pectoral fin rays, the number of scales in lateral, predorsal, forward and zigzag series. The main characteristics of the other known species in the area in the melanosoma group, Eleotris melanosoma Bleeker, 1853 and Eleotris macrolepis (Bleeker, 1875), both belonging to this group, are given for comparison. A key for Eleotris species from Indonesia is provided.
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Abstract. Hasan V, Valen FS, Islamy RA, Widodo MS, Saptadjaja AM, Islam I. 2021. Short Communication: Presence of the vulnerable freshwater goby Sicyopus auxilimentus (Gobiidae, Sicydiinae) on Sangihe Island, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 22: 573-581. A single specimen of freshwater goby Sicyopus auxilimentus was photographed and collected using fish traps between 8 and 15 September 2019 in the Laine waterfall, Sangihe island district, North Sulawesi Province, Indonesia. S. auxilimentus is amphidromous that live in both freshwater and marine environments. This species is currently listed as Vulnerable (VU) within the IUCN Red List Status. The specimen was identified as male S. auxilimentus based on the coloration of the preserved specimen: background yellowish; scale edges brown; posterior flanks and caudal peduncle orange; first dorsal fin black, second dorsal fin dusky black; pectoral fin slightly brown; ventral fin slightly dusky; anal fin blackish; caudal fin dusky brown. Specific morphological features were as follows: the base of the first dorsal fin was not connected to the second dorsal fin base; distance between the base of first and second dorsal fin was generally less than half of eye diameter; ventral fin rays were fused to belly only between fifth rays; posterior margin of caudal fins rays was rounded; scales were all ctenoid; scales appeared on the caudal peduncle, and between anal and second dorsal fins; anterior to which, scales became widely spaced and did not imbricate. Meristic characters were as follows: first dorsal fin rays VI; second dorsal fin rays I+9; ventral fin rays I+5; pectoral-fin rays 14; anal-fin rays I+9; caudal-fin rays 13; scales in lateral series 13; scales in zigzag series 7; scales in transverse series backward 7; scales in transerves series forward 4. This finding is considered the first record in Sulawesi and the fifth from Indonesian waters after findings in Halmahera, Java, Bali and Lombok. This record enhances the understanding of the distribution of S. auxilimentus in Indonesian waters. Monitoring is needed to assess the possibility of Sangihe Island being a growth ground, spawning ground, and/or on the migration route of S. auxilimentus. In the Laine waterfall, Sangihe island, freshwater conditions were as follows: salinity 3.5 psu, temperature 23-25°C, and dissolved oxygen 7.7-9.2 mg/l, which were ideal habitat for S. auxilimentus. S. auxilimentus from Sangihe Island, had 0.000 genetic distance than from S. auxilimentus from Bali, while the next closest genetic distance was S. zosterophorus at genetic distance of 0.090. In addition to onsite conservation, domestication programs are needed to increase commercial availability without depending on natural catches
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Enggano adalah sebuah pulau yang tertetak di Samudra Hindia sekitar 100 km sebelah barat daya Pulau Sumatra. Karena kedudukan geografisnya, Pulau Enggano termasuk dalam jajaran pulau kecil terluar NKRI yang perlu mendapat perhatian serius. Pulau Enggano memiliki keanekaragaman ekosistem seperti hutan mangrove, pantai, riparian, hutan pamah, dan rawa air tawar. Sayangnya keanekaragaman hayati pulau ini belum banyak diketahui meskipun eksplorasi ilmiah telah dilakukan sejak tahun 1936. Ekspedisi Pulau Enggano ini memang diniatkan sebagai langkah awal dalam mengungkap potensi sumber daya hayati (bioresources) Pulau Enggano sebagai landasan dalam mengembangkan kebijakan pemanfaatan (bioprospecting) dan perlindungannya (konservasi). Hasil dari ekspedisi di Pulau Enggano ini diharapkan dapat memantapkan kontribusi LIPI untuk bangsa Indonesia. Buku ini dilengkapi informasi terkait keanekaragaman ekosistem, flora, fauna, dan mikrob di Pulau Enggano. Selain itu, juga diungkap tentang pemanfaatan sumber daya hayati, baik tumbuhan maupun hewan untuk memenuhi kebutuhan masyarakat. Hal ini untuk menggali pengetahuan lokal masyarakat dalam memanfaatkan kekayaan hayati di Pulau Enggano. Buku ini berusaha menampilkan keindahan Pulau Enggano sekaligus memotret surga tersembunyi potensi keanekaragaman hayati di sana. Semoga buku Ekspedisi Pulau Enggano ini dapat bermanfaat bagi masyarakat dalam memperkaya pengetahuan terkait keanekaragaman haati di pulau terluar Republik Indonesia, Pulau Enggano.
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Indonesia is one of the biggest archipelago country in the world, These islands lined up, stretching from Sabang to Merauke. Some government institutions studied the number of islands in Indonesia. In March 2nd 2017 President of Republic Indonesia issued Keppres No. 6 2017 about 111 numbers of outer islands. Two of the islands belongs to Bengkulu Province, i.e Enggano and Mega islands. Stretching in an east-west direction embracing nearly 18,000 islands, the Indonesian Archipelago features a seemingly endless array of marine habitats. The country is the global leader with regards to area occupied by coral reef, estimated at 51,090 km2. The total number of coral reef fishes around 2600 species. The highest diversity of coral reef fishes with about 1766 species is Papua Barat. The dominant family is Gobiidae with 405 species, Labridae about 200 species and Pomacentridae with about 176 species. The islands in Indonesia have a unique history and inhabit by numbers of endemic fish species, i.e Muna island, Aru islands, and Enggano island. LIPI conducted an expedition in Enggano in 2015, the result indicated some undescribed species there. The new species found in Indonesia since a long time ago, started on 16 century up to now. The research on freshwater fish in Indonesia found 66 new fish species. Until now there are still a lot of unexplore waters in Indonesia, and there are still awaiting undescribe fish species to be named. Fish conservation in the small islands need to be done, as most of them migrate to the sea. Some aphidromous species growth and reproduction in freshwaters but the juvenile migrate downstream towards the sea, spreading at sea, metamorphosis phase they enter upstream migration and settlement in the freshwater.AbstrakIndonesia merupakan negara kepulauan yang terbesar di dunia, pulau-pulau ini berjajar, membentang dari Sabang sampai Merauke. Kajian jumlah pulau di Indonesia telah diteliti oleh beberapa lembaga di negeri ini. Sebagai negara kepulauan, Indonesia seolah-olah merupakan habitat laut yang tak berujung. Terumbu karang negeri ini sekitar 51.090 km2 merupakan yang terluas di dunia. Jumlah total spesies ikan di perairan terumbu karang Indonesia sekitar 2600 spesies. Wilayah tertinggi keragaman jenisnya adalah perairan Papua Barat dengan 1766 spesies. Famili yang terbesar adalah Gobiidae 405 spesies, selanjutnya Labridae 200 species dan Pomacentridae 176 spesies. Banyak pulau mempunyai riwayat unik dan dihuni oleh spesies-spesies endemik, diantaranya Pulau Muna, Pulau di Kepulauan Aru, juga Pulau Enggano. Hasil penelitian LIPI di P. Enggano mengindikasikan adanya beberapa jenis baru ikan. Penemuan spesies baru telah berlangsung lama, sejak penelitian iktiofauna di Indonesia dimulai pada abad 16 sampai saat ini. Hasil penelitian ikan air tawar di perairan Indonesia telah mendapatkan 66 spesies baru, sampai saat ini masih banyak wilayah perairan belum diteliti dan kemungkinan besar ada spesies baru yang menanti diungkap keberadaannya. Konservasi spesies ikan di pulau-pulau kecil perlu dilakukan, mengingat banyak diantara-nya yang beruaya ke laut. Beberapa spesies gobiid bersifat amfidromus, memijah dan menetas di perairan tawar namun anakannya bermigrasi ke laut, mengalami metamorphosis dan kembali lagi ke perairan tawar.
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Enggano is an outer island of the archipelago country, Indonesia. A field survey of freshwater fish fauna conducted in Enggano island to get the information of the ichthyofauna of this island. The fish collected in 11 freshwaters. We got 457 fish specimens of 28 species in 11 families and three orders. One species, Stiphodon sp. suspected to be new to science and five species require further study to clarify their taxonomical status. All of the fish collected specimens deposited in 77 catalog numbers of Museum Zoologicum Bogoriense (MZB). The ichthyofauna of this island could be use as the basic data for the resource management of the Enggano island. AbstrakPulau Enggano merupakan satu pulau terluar dari negara kepulauan, Indonesia. Survei ikan air tawar dilakukan di Pulau Enggano dengan tujuan untuk mendapatkan informasi iktiofauna yang ada di pulau ini. Koleksi sampel ikan dilakukan di 11 perairan tawar. Kami memperoleh 457 spesimen dari 28 spesies yang termasuk dalam 11 famili dan 3 ordo. Satu jenis diantaranya, Stiphodon sp. diduga merupakan jenis baru dan lima jenis lainnya perlu dikaji lebih lanjut untuk mengetahui status taksonominya. Semua spesimen hasil koleksi dideposit di Museum Zoologicum Bogoriense (MZB) dalam 77 nomor MZB. Diharapkan data iktiofauna pulau ini dapat digunakan sebagai dasar pertimbangan pemerintah daerah dalam pengelolaan sumber daya P. Enggano.
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Stiphodon rubromaculatus, new species, is described from six males and one female collected from Futuna Island. It is distinguished from all other congeners in having 9 segmented rays in the second dorsal fin, usually 13 pectoral rays, 27-32 fine tricuspid premaxillary teeth, 0 small symphyseal teeth in female vs 1-2 stout teeth in males, no predorsal scales, and a low number of scales in transverse forward and back series. Males are bright red and female greyish to brownish.
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Three Stiphodon species are found on the western slope of Sumatra, Indonesia. They include a new species, S. maculidorsalis, distinguished from its congeners by second dorsal- and pectoral-fin ray counts (usually I, 9 and 15, respectively) and relatively high premaxillary teeth counts, pointed first dorsal fin of male, scalation on dorsum of head and trunk, black spots scattering dorsally on head and trunk of male and female, broad black bands on distal part of second dorsal fin and dorsal part of caudal fin of male, fine black spots on pectoral-fin rays of male, and dusky transverse bars laterally on trunk and tail of female. The other two species are S. ornatus and S. semoni; the latter is first reported from this region, expanding the westernmost limit of the range of this widespread species. These three species appear to form the major components of the Stiphodon gobies in the aquarium trade.
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Five new species of Sicyopterus, freshwater gobies, are described from streams of Papua New Guinea and Papua Province, Indonesia. They differ from other species belonging to the genus by a combination of characters including the upper lip morphology, the number of soft rays in the second dorsal fin, the scales in the lateral, predorsal, transverse back, transverse forward and zigzag series, sexual dimorphism, and live colours.
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A new species of Belobranchus, a freshwater Eleotridae, is described from streams of Indonesia. It differs from the other only species belonging to the genus by a combination of characters including the scales in transverse forward series (22-28 versus 27-35), in transverse back series (18-21 versus 20-23), in predorsal scales (16-23 versus 21-34), and the in vivo general colour pattern. Particularly the caudal fin is never spotted but generally translucent with some yellow or reddish zones.
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Based on characteristics of fin osteology, subfamily Sicydiinae is divided into two tribes. Sicydiini Gill, 1860 is defined as having a broad based pelvic disc, fused to belly between all 5 rays and Sicyopini, new tribe, is defined as having a short based pelvic disc, fused to belly between fifth rays only. Akihito n. gen., Sicyopini, is described based on material collected in freshwater streams in the island nation of Vanuatu. Akihito n. gen. is differentiated from all other genera in Sicydiinae by a combination of characteristics that include male with only conical and caniniform premaxillary and dentary teeth, female with few caniniform and numerous tricuspid premaxillary teeth and fine horizontal teeth in dentary; tongue free; large broad epural; male with midline scales much greater in height than length; and pelvic disc fused to belly between fifth rays only. Akihito vanuatu n. sp. is characterized by dorsal fins VI-I, 10, spines 4, 5 and 6 filamentous in male and not in female; anal fin 1, 10; pectoral fin usually 16 (15-17); scales in lateral series: male 14-18, female 24-32; predorsal scales: male zero, female 0-2; belly: male naked and female with few cycloid scales close to anus; cephalic sensory pores usually A, B, C, D, F, H, N and O, pores K and L and associated posterior oculoscapular canal not usually present, all pores paired except pore D which is singular.
A new goby species, Stiphodon alcedo, is described from 27 specimens collected in Okinawa and Iriomote Islands of the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. This species can be distinguished from its congeners by having a pointed, but not filamentous, first dorsal fin in males, nine soft-rays in the second dorsal fin, 15-17 rays in the pectoral fin, the number of teeth, and unique sexually dimorphic colouration. The new species is considered to have recently colonised the islands where it has established small populations, and is considered to have originated from regions to the south of the archipelago, with larvae occasionally being transported northward by the Kuroshio Current.