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Stiphodon annieae, new species, is described on the basis of material collected from Halmahera (Indonesia). It is distinguished from all other congeners in having a bright blue and red color pattern in males, nine segmented rays in the second dorsal fin, 14 pectoral rays, 34-40 fine tricuspid premaxillary teeth, and a large head.
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Stiphodon annieae, a new species of freshwater goby
from Indonesia (Gobiidae)
by
Philippe KEITH* (1) & Renny K. HADIATY (2)
Cybium 2014, 38(4): 267-272.
(1) Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, UMR 7208 (MNHN-CNRS-UPMC-IRD-UCBN), DMPA, CP 026, 43, rue Cuvier,
F-75231 Paris c e d e x 05, France.
(2) LIPI, Zoology Division, MZB, Gedung Widyasatwaloka, Jl. Raya Jakarta Bogor Km. 46, Cibinong- Bogor 16911, Indonesia.
[renny_hadiaty@yahoo.com]
* Corresponding author [keith@mnhn.fr]
During the past 35 years numerous
sicydiine gobies have been collected
and identied from freshwater streams
throughout the tropical Indo-Pacific.
Nevertheless, many islands of this
re gion are undersamp led (Wats on,
1996; Watson et al., 2007; Keith et al.,
2010; Thuesen et al., 2011). Recently, a
number of expeditions led by the Indo-
nesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI) into remote areas of Indo-
nesia and in collaboration with the Institute for Research and
Development (IRD) and the National Museum of Natural
History of Paris (MNHN), resulted in the discovery of fur-
ther new species (Keith et al., 2011a; Pouyaud et al., 2012;
Keith et al., 2012).
Compared to other sicydiine genera, Stiphodon are
unique among the Sicydiinae in having three anal pterygi-
ophores anterior to the rst haemal spine (Birdsong et al.,
1988); in all the other genera belonging to the group, there
are only two. Stiphodon possesses tricuspid premaxillary
teeth in both sexes. The ascending process on the premaxilla
is narrow at the dorsal tip. The tongue is fused to floor of
the mouth. The pelvic disc is adherent to the belly between
fth rays only and there are 13-17 pectoral rays (Keith and
Marquet, 2007; Keith and Lord, 2011a; Maeda et al., 2011).
Taillebois et al. (2014) suggested that Stiphodon may be the
sister group of all other Sicydiinae species, based on molec-
ular evidence.
Stiphodon currently contains nearly 30 species, and is
distributed from southern Japan, Indonesia and Sri Lanka
to New Caledonia and French Polynesia (Keith et al., 2002;
Watson et al., 2005; Keith et al., 2007; Keith et al., 2009;
Keith et al., 2011b; Maeda and Tan, 2013; Maeda, 2014).
The purpose of this paper is to provide a description of a new
Stiphodon known from Halmahera (Indonesia).
METHODS
Methods follow Keith and Marquet (2007). Measure-
ments were taken with a dial caliper to the nearest tenth of
a millimeter. All counts were taken from the right side. The
size is given as standard length (SL). Teeth were counted
to the right of the premaxillary symphysis. Abbreviations
for institutions and collections cited follow Leviton et al.
(1985). Abbreviations for the cephalic sensory pore system
follow Akihito (1986).
Scale and n ray counts are reported as: A, anal n ele-
ments (includes exible spine and segmented rays); D, dor-
sal ns (D1, rst dorsal n spines; D2, second dorsal n ele-
ments); P, pectoral n rays; C, caudal n rays (only branched
rays are reported); LS, scales in lateral series counted from
upper pectora1 n base, or anteriormost scale along lateral
midline, to central hypural base; PD, predorsal midline scales
counted from scale directly anterior to rst dorsal n inser-
tion to the anteriormost scale; TRB, transverse series back-
ward, refers to scales counted from the rst scale anterior to
second dorsal n origin, in a diagonal manner, posteriorly
Abstract. – Stiphodon annieae, new species, is described on the basis of material collected from Halmahera
(Indonesia). It is distinguished from all other congeners in having a bright blue and red color pattern in males,
nine segmented rays in the second dorsal n, 14 pectoral rays, 34-40 ne tricuspid premaxillary teeth, and a large
head.
Résumé. – Stiphodon annieae, une espèce nouvelle de gobie d’eau douce d’Indonésie (Gobiidae).
Stiphodon annieae, espèce nouvelle, est décrite à partir de matériel collecté à Halmahera (Indonésie). Elle se
distingue des autres espèces du genre par les couleurs brillantes rouge et bleue du mâle, par neuf rayons segmen-
tés à la seconde nageoire dorsale, 14 rayons aux nageoires pectorales, 34 à 40 dents prémaxillaires tricuspides et
une grande tête.
© SFI
Received: 27 Mar. 2014
Accepted: 5 Sep. 2014
Editor: R. Causse
Key words
Gobiidae
Stiphodon annieae
Indonesia
Halmahera
Freshwater
New species
Stiphodon anniaeae, a new species of goby from Indonesia Ke i t h & ha d i a t y
268 Cybium 2014, 38(4)
and ventrally to the anal n base or ventralmost scale; TRF,
transverse series forward, refers to scales counted from the
rst scale anterior to second dorsal n origin, in a diagonal
manner, anteriorly and ventrally to the centre of abdomen or
ventralmost scale; ZZ, zigzag series, refers to scales on the
narrowest region of the caudal peduncle counted from the
dorsalmost scale to the ventralmost scale in a zigzag (alter-
nating) manner.
Stiphodon annieae, n. sp.
(Figs 1-2, Tabs I-III)
Comparative material
The new species is compared in text and tables with spe-
cies having 13-14 pectoral rays, nine segmented rays in the
second dorsal fin, and a red color pattern in males (bright
red on body sides and part of fins). These are Stiphodon
rubromaculatus Keith & Marquet, 2007, S. birdsong Watson,
1996, S. surrufus Watson & Kottelat, 1995 and S. mele Keith,
Marquet & Pouilly, 2009.
Stiphodon mele Keith, Marquet & Pouilly, 2009. Holo-
type: MNHN 2008-1920, male (27.2 mm SL), Efate, Mele
waterfall, 22 Jul. 2002,Vanuatu. Keith and Keith coll. Para-
types: MNHN 2008-1921, one male (21.1 mm SL), Gaua,
Solomul River, 21 Jul. 2005, Vanuatu. Keith, Marquet and
Keith coll. MNHN 2008-1922, two males, one female (21.1-
25.3 mm SL), Santo, Patunar’s Doline, Vanuatu, 14 Sep.
2006. Pouilly coll. MNHN 2008-1923, one female, (23.8
mm SL), Santo, Patunar resurgence, Vanuatu, 15 Sep. 2006.
Pouilly coll. MNHN 2008- 1924, one male, New Caledonia,
North Province (26.2 mm SL). Keith et al. coll.
Material for S. rubromaculatus, S. birdsong and S. sur-
rufus, is that listed in Keith and Marquet (2007).
Material examined
Two males collected from Halmahera (Indonesia) with a
size range of 21.5-22.7 mm SL.
Holotype. MZB 18930, male (21.5 mm SL), S. Wosea,
DS. Sawai, Weda Tengah, Halmahera, Maluku, Indonesia;
22 Jan. 2010, Hadiaty, Wowor and Sopian coll.
Paratype. MNHN 2014-0132, male (22.7 mm SL), same
data as holotype.
Figure 1. - Stiphodon annieae n. sp.,
Holotype, MZB 18930, male (21.5 mm
SL), Hamahera, Indonesia; Hadiaty et
al. coll. (Photo R. Hadiaty).
Figure 2. - Diagrammatic illustration of head in Stiphodon annieae
n. sp. (male) showing head pores and sensory papillae. A: Dorsal
view; B: Lateral view; C: Ventral view.
Ke i t h & ha d i at y Stiphodon anniaeae, a new species of goby from Indonesia
Cybium 2014, 38(4) 269
Diagnosis
The new species is a small Stiphodon with 14 pectoral
rays, nine segmented rays in the second dorsal fin, 34-40
premaxillary teeth. No scales in the head and nape. The head
and the jaw are long. The typical colouration of males is
bright red, mottled with a blue pattern on the back.
Description
Scale counts in Stiphodon annieae n. sp. and related spe-
cies are given in table II, number of premaxillary teeth in
table I, and morphometrics in table III. Below, the holotype
counts are given rst followed in brackets, if different, by
the paratype counts.
Dorsal ns VI-I,9; D1 separate from and higher than D2;
spine 3 elongate. Anal n I,10 and directly opposite to sec-
ond dorsal n. Pectoral n is with 14 rays, uppermost rays
extending beyond membrane but not appearing feathery or
silky, lowermost 1 or 2 rays simple; n oblong with posterior
margin rounded. Caudal n with 12-13 branched rays, pos-
terior margin rounded. Pelvic disc always with 1 spine and 5
stout and heavily branched segmented rays. Fifth rays joined
together in their entire length forming a strong adhesive
Table I. - Premaxillary teeth in Stiphodon annieae n. sp. and related species.
Premaxillary teeth 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45
S. annieae 1–––––1
S. mele 111111
S.rubromaculatus 1221–1
S. birdsong 1–2681014837213––1–1
S. surrufus 111––––1–2–1
Table II. - Scale counts in Stiphodon annieae n. sp. and related species.
Lateral scales 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36
S. annieae 1 1
S. mele 2––11–12
S. rubromaculatus 1121–2
S. birdsong 1–263758654242–222–111
S. surrufus 1––11––––11–––1
Transverse back 34567891011 12 13 14 15
S. annieae 2
S. mele 11321
S. rubromaculatus 241
S. birdsong 4 3 3 14 16 14 7 1
S. surrufus 2–221
Transverse forward 01234567891011 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
S. annieae 1 1
S. mele 32––––11
S. rubromaculatus 2212
S. birdsong 2–2627713954411––––1
S. surrufus 1–––1––––3––2
Predorsal (M: male, F: female) 0123
S. annieae M 2
S. mele M 5
S. mele F 1 1
S. rubromaculatus M 6
S. rubromaculatus F 1
S. birdsong M 32
S. birdsong F 55
S. surrufus M 3
S. surrufus F 2–1
Stiphodon anniaeae, a new species of goby from Indonesia Ke i t h & ha d i a t y
270 Cybium 2014, 38(4)
Table III. - Morphometric values for Stiphodon annieae n. sp. and related species expressed to the nearest whole percent of standard
length.
Predorsal length 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40
S. annieae 1–1
S. mele 2111––1
S. rubromaculatus 1222
S. birdsong 2 7 20 23 13 2
S. surrufus 2121
Preanal length 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59
S. annieae 1–1
S. mele 1–411
S. rubromaculatus 1–2–2–2
S. birdsong 1 – 3 9 6 10 9 11 10 7
S. surrufus 122–1
Head length 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26
S. annieae 1 1
S. mele 21121
S. rubromaculatus 3 4
S. birdsong 5 25 22 11 5
S. surrufus 2–4
Jaw length 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Caudal peduncle depth 7 8 9 10 11 12
S. annieae 1–1 S. annieae 1–1
S. mele 1231 S. mele 133
S. rubromaculatus 1–24 S. rubromaculatus 115
S. birdsong 6 37 23 1 S. birdsong 3 36 33 2
S. surrufus 1221 S. surrufus 1–41
Caudal peduncle length 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23
S. annieae 1 1
S. mele 221–1–1
S. rubromaculatus 2221
S. birdsong 1 5 12 25 15 10 2
S. surrufus 11–4
Body depth at second dorsal origin in males 9 10 11 12 13 14
S. annieae 2
S. mele 13–1
S. rubromaculatus 132
S. birdsong 20 11 – 1
S. surrufus 1–11
Second dorsal n length (M: male, F: female) 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41
S. annieae M 1–1
S. mele M 1–1–12
S. mele F 1––1
S. rubromaculatus M 11–111–1
S. rubromaculatus F 1
S. birdsong M 1–3586421–1
S. birdsong F 29995–1
S. surrufus M 111
S. surrufus F 11–1
Ke i t h & ha d i at y Stiphodon anniaeae, a new species of goby from Indonesia
Cybium 2014, 38(4) 271
disc; disc adherent to belly between fth rays only; between
spines a strong eshy frenum.
Scales in lateral series 18(19), those on caudal peduncle
and the anks below D2 are ctenoid and they become cycloid
below the rst dorsal n in males. Anteriormost scale along
midline nearly below posterior part of D1 or anterior part of
D2.
Scales in transverse backward series 9. Scales in trans-
verse forward series 6(7). Scales in zigzag series 9. No scales
in predorsal midline in male. Head, breast, nape, belly and
pectoral base are without scales.
Premaxillary teeth 34-40, ne and tricuspid, tridentiform
with central cup longer than lateral cups. Dentary symphy-
seal teeth in males 1-2, conical to caniniform, stronger and
larger than other teeth.
Cephalic sensory pore system A, B, C, D, F, H, K, L, N
and O; pore D missing in one specimen, single when present;
all others are paired (Fig. 2). Oculoscapular canal separated
into anterior and posterior canals between pores H and K.
Cutaneous sensory papillae developed over lateral surface of
head and body.
Urogenital papilla in males somewhat rectangular with a
rounded distal tip.
Colour in preservation
Male. Background of body whitish to yellowish; scales
along and above midline and below second dorsal n yel-
lowish; belly entirely blackish. Background of head, chin
and preopercle brownish. Inferior part of head and isthmus
entirely blackish to brownish. Top of head brownish. Pec-
toral fins hyaline with a black patch at their base. Occipi-
tal region with brownish pigment. Preopercle behind eye
brownish. First and second dorsal ns whitish; anal and cau-
dal ns whitish; pelvic disk whitish.
Female. Unknown, but male and female of Stiphodon
usually have different colour patterns (Watson et al., 2005;
Keith et al., 2007; Maeda and Tan, 2013; Maeda, 2014).
Colour in life (Fig. 1)
Male. Bright red on body sides. Many blue spotted areas
from different sizes on dorsal part of body, from below rst
dorsal n to caudal one. Top of head greyish with many red
spots. A blue to green line passes below the eye from snout
to pectoral n. Area below this line from chin and isthmus to
pectoral and pelvic n bases is black. Dorsal ns bright red
with few black spots on rays. Second dorsal n with a distal
blue line. Caudal n bright red with a half blue line along
margin, and a second one in the uppermost part. Pectoral ns
hyaline with a black patch at their base. Belly whitish.
Female. Unknown.
Comparison
Stiphodon annieae n. sp. differs from S. mele, S. rubro-
maculatus, S. birdsong and S. surrufus in having no black-
ish stripes (aligned spots) on dorsal ns (or just few irreg-
ular spots) vs. having well marked regular blackish stripes
(aligned spots), a longer head (25-26 vs. 18-23%SL) and jaw
length (10-12 vs. 6-10%SL), and a different colour pattern in
Anal n length (M: male, F: female) 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40
S. annieae M 1–1
S. mele M 2–11
S. mele F 1––1
S. rubromaculatus M 221––1
S. rubromaculatus F 1
S. birdsong M 168764
S. birdsong F 1 – – – 1 4 12 12 5 1
S. surrufus M 1–2
S. surrufus F 11––1
Caudal n length (M: male, F: female) 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27
S. annieae M 1–––1
S. mele M 1––12
S. mele F 2
S. rubromaculatus M 11–3–1
S. rubromaculatus F 1
S. birdsong M 133222
S. birdsong F 11861
S. surrufus M 1 2
S. surrufus F 1–2
Table III. Continued.
Stiphodon anniaeae, a new species of goby from Indonesia Ke i t h & ha d i a t y
272 Cybium 2014, 38(4)
male. It differs also from S. rubromaculatus in having more
premaxillary teeth (34-40 vs. 27-32), and from S. mele and S.
surrufus in having shorter second dorsal (30-32 vs. 33-38/37-
39%SL) and anal ns (30-32 vs. 37-40/38-40%SL) in males.
Distribution
Currently known only from Halmahera (Indonesia).
Ecology
Like other Sicydiinae, Stiphodon annieae n. sp. was
found in a clear, high gradient stream with rocky bottom. It
lives on the bottom of the river, on top of rocks. It is assumed
to be amphidromous (Keith, 2003; Keith and Lord, 2011b).
Etymology
The new species is named for Annie, the first author’s
wife, in recognition of her patience and unfailing support
during all eld trips in Pacic Islands.
Acknowledgments. – We wish to thank Daisy Wowor and Sopian
Sauri for their help during the eld sampling in Halmahera, Gono
Semiadi, the LIPI coordinator for the project, the Division Environ-
ment of Weda Bay Nickel, Gavin Lee, Eka and the staff. Part of
the present study was funded by Weda Bay Nickel and the Indone-
sian Institute of Sciences (LIPI), the French Ichthyological Society
(SFI) and the Fondation de France. Finally, we thank for the loan of
specimens: S. Morrison (WAM); P. Pruvost, R. Causse, Z. Gabsi,
C. Ferrara, and for X-rays, M. Hautecoeur (MNHN).
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... The recently described Stiphodon annieae (Keith & Hadiaty, 2015) was thought to be endemic to Halmahera Island, Indonesia. However, from August 2019 to January 2020, we collected several specimens during field trips to the Soho, Simpong, and Uso rivers in Luwuk Banggai, Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. ...
... Known only from and endemic to this island, information about S. annieae is limited. This species is known only from two male specimens from the type locality on the island of Halmahera (Keith and Hadiaty 2015;. Stiphodon annieae has not yet been evaluated using International Union for the Conservation of Nature criteria (IUCN 2020). ...
... These specimens were deposited in the laboratory of the Fish Quarantine Station of Luwuk Banggai, Luwuk (FCLB), the Marine Science and Fisheries Faculty, University of Hasanuddin, Makassar (MSFUH), the National Museum of Nature and Technology, Tokyo (NSMT), and the Museum Zoologicum Bogoriense, Cibinon (MZB). Identification of the specimens followed Larson (2010), Maeda and Tan (2013), Keith and Hadiaty (2015), and . ...
Article
Full-text available
The recently described Stiphodon annieae (Keith & Hadiaty, 2015) was thought to be endemic to Halmahera Island, Indonesia. However, from August 2019 to January 2020, we collected several specimens during field trips to the Soho, Simpong, and Uso rivers in Luwuk Banggai, Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. We describe specimens collected in the Soho River and discuss the ichthyofauna of Luwuk Banggai. This is the first report of S. annieae from Sulawesi. Our records represent a range extension of approximately 500-600 km west of this species' type locality on the island of Halmahera.
... Many sicydiine gobies have an amphidromous life cycle (McDowall 1999;Ebner et al. 2011;Keith and Lord 2012). The adults of several genera, including Stiphodon, are generally confined to clear, often fast-flowing streams (Ebner et al. 2011;Keith and Hadiaty 2014;Keith et al. 2015a). Amphidromous gobioid post-larvae recruiting to freshwater typically form multi-species shoals which can include Stiphodon species Sahami and Habibie 2020). ...
... Riverine gobies in the Indo-Pacific, including Indonesia, are understudied, as reflected by recent surveys of Indonesian riverine ichthyofauna which have resulted in the description of new species (Keith and Hadiaty 2014;Keith et al. 2015b, as well as range extensions for previously described species (Keith et al. 2015c;Gani et al. 2021a). Conversely, some nominal species are now regarded as synonyms; for example Stiphodon birdsong Watson, 1996 is now considered a junior synonym of Stiphodon surrufus Watson & Kottelat, 1995based on morphological (Keith et al. 2015a) and genetic (Lor 2016) characters. ...
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... Families of primary freshwater fishes such as Cyprinidae (241 species), for instance, dominate Sundaland ( Hadiaty 2001, 2005, 2011a,b, Hadiaty & Siebert, 1998, Hadiaty & Kottelat 2009, Kottelat 2013, Kottelat et al. 1993, Kottelat & Whitten 1996, Kottelat & Widjanarti 2005, Roberts 1989, Tan & Kottelat 2009. By contrast, Wallacea and Sahul host predominantly families with an ancestral marine origin or displaying larval marine stages such as the family Gobiidae ( Allen 1991, Hadiaty 1996, Hadiaty & Wirjoatmodjo 2003, Hadiaty et al. 2004, Hoese et al. 2015, Larson & Kottelat 1992, Larson et al. 2014, Keith & Hadiaty 2014, Keith et al. 2011, Figure 3. Emerged lands and palaeodrainages during the Pleistocene (modified from Woodruff, 2010). ...
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