Article

Spatial and social variations in cycling patterns in a mature cycling country: exploring differences and trends

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Abstract

Despite the Netherlands' position as a premier cycling country (mainly due to its high cycling mode share), there is scarce insight into the variations of bicycle use between different spatial and social contexts as well as changes and trends over time. This gap severely limits the understanding of the context-specific aspects of cycling trends and hinders the development of effective policies to promote cycling. In order to fill this gap, this paper explores the spatial and social differentiation of cycling patterns and trends in the Netherlands. First, an overview of the known spatial and social drivers of mobility behaviour in general, and of cycling behaviour in particular, is provided. Next, these insights are used to structure the analysis of data from the Dutch National Travel Survey (NTS). Mobility diaries allowed us to distinguish trends in mobility behaviour across different spatial contexts and social groups. Our findings revealed three important spatial and social differences in cycling patterns and trends. First, the spatial redistribution of the population towards urban areas ('re-urbanisation') has led to increasing aggregated cycling volumes in urban areas, and falling rates in rural areas. Second, the general mode share of cycling is mainly sensitive to changes in the composition of the population, especially elderly persons (higher rates) and immigrants (lower rates). Third, although per capita changes are minor, cycling shares among young adults living in urban areas and elderly baby boomers are growing. The results emphasizes the need for a differentiated approach to promoting cycling and developing policies that can respond to location-and group-specific threats and opportunities. An awareness of these spatial- and social differences is especially important when cycling is used as policy intervention for public health; some groups and places are likely to profit, while others might remain immune. Additional research is needed to further clarify the drivers behind the observed trends and to fine-tune the intervention strategies.

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... Cycling contributes to maintaining and improving physical activity and public health (Goetschi et al., 2016). Since using private cars as a mode of transport causes problems such as air pollution and traffic congestion, cycling is counted as the replacement mode of transport in order to resolve these problems (Harms et al., 2014). Thus, biking is considered an affordable and popular mode of transport in most of the developed countries around the world (Harms et al., 2014). ...
... Since using private cars as a mode of transport causes problems such as air pollution and traffic congestion, cycling is counted as the replacement mode of transport in order to resolve these problems (Harms et al., 2014). Thus, biking is considered an affordable and popular mode of transport in most of the developed countries around the world (Harms et al., 2014). ...
... The previous studies have shown that cycling behavior is influenced by individual and socio-demographic attributes. Men and youth are linked with cycling more than others (Garrard et al., 2008;Harms et al., 2014;Sallis et al., 2013). Women are less likely to ride partly due to concerns regarding private safety (Dill and McNeil, 2013). ...
Article
Introduction Cycling contributes to maintaining and improving physical activity and public health. Improvement of cycling behavior has been paid much attention in the developed countries, but it has received less attention in the developing nations. Shiraz in Iran, currently has a partial cycling network which has been unsuccessful and is rarely used for cycling. This research explored and classified the features and their inclusive factors in relation to cycling behavior and examined their impact on its improvement. Methods Delphi study was applied to revise and finalize the features and factors related to cycling behavior. Then, Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was used to give a weighting to these features and their related factors. Results Not surprisingly, Physical Infrastructure of Cycling Network proved to be the most important feature in regards to cycling behavior (22.3% of the total criteria). This feature was followed by Traffic Safety along the Cycling Network (13.1%), Density, Land uses and Accessibility (12.1%) and Personal Security along the Cycling Network (10.2%). In addition, “appropriate depth of view along the cycling network” emerged as the most important factor (sub-criteria) in relation to cycling behavior (5.4% of the total sub-criteria). Conclusions Present research supports the findings of previous studies regarding the contribution of the majority of the identified features and their related factors towards the improvement of cycling behavior. Beside, findings of this research as its novelties are:1) Certain factors implying on how to expand the current cycling network; 2) Emerging visibility and depth of view as the important factor for improvement of cycling behavior; 3) Relative certain cultural factors. The features and factors recognized in this research could be applied by associated authorities to expand the current cycling network as well as improve cycling behavior in this context.
... Studies on gender, age, and income level mostly found that men, younger people and more affluent people use bicycles more than others (Steinbach et al., 2011;Davison et al., 2013;Aldred, Woodcock & Goodman 2016;Tompkins, 2017;Goodman & Aldred 2018;Fuller & Winters 2017). However, an interesting finding of a study in the Netherlands, a mature cycling country, showed that in contrast to most of the studied cases, women in the Netherlands cycle more than men, especially for work and shopping purposes (Harms, Bertolini & Brommelstroet, 2014). This is the result of elimination of most of the common impediments to cycling in the Netherlands. ...
... As for ethnicity, studies reveal that ethnic minorities are using bicycles less than others. For instance, people of European ethnicity are the main bicycle users in western countries (Steinbach et al., 2011;Harms, Bertolini & Brommelstroet 2014;Tompkins, 2017;Goodman & Aldred 2018), along with people who were born in the country of study (Harms, Bertolini & Brommelstroet, 2014). ...
... As for ethnicity, studies reveal that ethnic minorities are using bicycles less than others. For instance, people of European ethnicity are the main bicycle users in western countries (Steinbach et al., 2011;Harms, Bertolini & Brommelstroet 2014;Tompkins, 2017;Goodman & Aldred 2018), along with people who were born in the country of study (Harms, Bertolini & Brommelstroet, 2014). ...
Conference Paper
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Fairness and justice in transport provision, or the lack thereof, is a growing concern among both researchers and policy makers, and it is vital for transport planners and decision-makers to undertake measures to tackle such issues. Fairness in transportation is defined based on the concepts of both equality and equity. Unequal usage of transportation modes can be one of the results of inequitable transport systems or arise from populations’ different desires about using bicycles. Understanding the differences between the two aforementioned causes of unequal usage of bicycles and implementing appropriate cycling policies can increase bicycle usage, as well as provide an equitable cycling environment. Primarily, researchers have focused on solving inequality of usage issues related to public transportation, however, there are a number of studies, albeit limitedly that consider inequality in bicycle usage. The aim of this study is to, firstly, provide a better insight into conceptual differences between inequality of usage and inequity, and also to highlight the importance of analysing unequal usage of bicycles. Secondly, this study attempts to review inequalities in usage of bicycles, including private bicycles and bicycle sharing systems, in order to highlight the differences between usage behaviour of different population groups and communities. Finally, recommendations to reduce inequality of usage of bicycles are provided, to support better policy-making, and further research needs are highlighted.
... Some useful knowledge on the general determinants of bike use is available (e.g. Harms, Bertolini, & Te Brommelstroet, 2014;Heinen, Van Wee, & Maat, 2010) but the key open question on the performance of different cycling policy interventions remains: Which strategies significantly contribute to increasing cycling rates and which do not (Handy, Van Wee, & Kroesen, 2014)? The answers can greatly enhance our understanding of what constitutes effective cycling policies and how to develop them, both in the Netherlands and abroad. ...
... In addition, their findings highlight the importance of social and spatial variations as explanations for bicycle use. For example, cities with low bicycle use 1 have substantially larger than average populations, which can be partly explained by the better quality of public transport systems in larger cities (Harms et al., 2014). They also note that the proportion of immigrants in the population is far above the average in cities with low bicycle use. ...
... Looking at socio-demographics, multiple studies report diverging trends in mode use within countries, notably between the largest cities and rural regions (Goodwin & Van Dender, 2013). Some researchers relate these different dynamics of mode choice in urban and rural areas to the growing numbers of people living in urban areas and the declining share of people living in rural areas (opposite developments in population density) (Harms et al., 2014;Headicar, 2013). The relative composition of the population also seems to be important, for example, the share of students, elderly 'baby-boomers', single-person households and immigrant groups, which have different impacts on cycling rates (Harms et al., 2014;Haustein et al., 2013;Pucher et al., 2011;Rietveld & Daniel, 2004). ...
Article
With its high cycling mode share, the Netherlands is often seen as a best practice for cycling policies. However, there is little insight into the drivers behind this phenomenon, specifically which policy interventions increased cycling rates and which did not. The knowledge gap on the effectiveness of cycling policies seriously limits the potential for learning from the Dutch experience. This paper will address this gap, by exploring the performance of Dutch cycling policies in 22 medium-sized cities since 2000. First, the existing ideas regarding the effectiveness of cycling policy are reviewed. These insights structure the exploration of data from Statistics Netherlands and the Dutch Cyclists' Union, complemented with a survey of local policy-makers by means of an explorative data-mining methodology called rough set analysis. Our findings support the following hypotheses regarding the performance of cycling policy in Dutch cities: first of all, the way cycling policy is implemented seems important: setting measurable and verifiable goals, following through with most of the proposed policy interventions, allowing for experimental measures to be explored and showing strong leadership. Second, providing adequate cycling infrastructure and decreasing the attractiveness of car use (e.g. by increasing parking tariffs and increasing the area of paid on-street car parking) seem to be key drivers. Finally, we found that external circumstances, such as demographic trends, seem to influence cycling policy outcomes. Future research is needed to test these hypotheses.
... Some useful knowledge on the general determinants of bike use is available (e.g. Harms, Bertolini, & Te Brommelstroet, 2014;Heinen, Van Wee, & Maat, 2010) but the key open question on the performance of different cycling policy interventions remains: Which strategies significantly contribute to increasing cycling rates and which do not (Handy, Van Wee, & Kroesen, 2014) understanding of what constitutes effective cycling policies and how to develop them, both in the Netherlands and abroad. In order to address this knowledge gap, this paper examines factors for the effectiveness of policies to improve conditions for cycling within the Dutch context of a mature cycling nation, by examining differences in cycling policies and policy performances between 22 medium-sized Dutch cities for the years since 2000. ...
... In addition, their findings highlight the importance of social and spatial variations as explanations for bicycle use. For example, cities with low bicycle use 1 have substantially larger than average populations, which can be partly explained by the better quality of public transport systems in larger cities (Harms et al., 2014). They also note that the proportion of immigrants in the population is far above the average in cities with low bicycle use. ...
... Looking at socio-demographics, multiple studies report diverging trends in mode use within countries, notably between the largest cities and rural regions (Goodwin & Van Dender, 2013). Some researchers relate these different dynamics of mode choice in urban and rural areas to the growing numbers of people living in urban areas and the declining share of people living in rural areas (opposite developments in population density) (Harms et al., 2014;Headicar, 2013). The relative composition of the population also seems to be important, for example, the share of students, elderly 'baby-boomers', single-person households and immigrant groups, which have different impacts on cycling rates (Harms et al., 2014;Haustein et al., 2013;Pucher et al., 2011;Rietveld & Daniel, 2004). ...
Article
Despite the Netherlands’ position as a premier cycling country (mainly due to its high cycling mode share), there is scarce insight into the variations of bicycle use between different spatial and social contexts as well as changes and trends over time. This gap severely limits the understanding of the context-specific aspects of cycling trends and hinders the development of effective policies to promote cycling. In order to fill this gap, this paper explores the spatial and social differentiation of cycling patterns and trends in the Netherlands.
... While most studies examine cycling environments in the North American context, increasingly academic and policy attention has turned to the Netherlands, which offers a context where cycling is a more mature, mainstream mode of transport (e.g. Harms et al. 2014Harms et al. , 2016Rietveld and Daniel 2004;Nello-Deakin and Harms 2019). ...
... This is seemingly a fundamental limitation, especially in the Netherlands. In the Dutch context, certain urban cores have local modal splits for cycling of above 50%, but high cycling levels are not only confined to cities, as evidenced by cycling's 25% modal share on the national level (Harms et al. 2014). Hence, the Netherlands' favourable conditions allow cycling to function on the scale of an entire country of 17 million people (PBL 2016). ...
Article
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The Netherlands seems to exhibit the unique conditions that allow cycling on the country level instead of only the city level. Moreover, the national transit system seemingly provides one crucial condition: citizens use the train and cycling systems in an integrated manner, with combined bicycle-train transport recently demonstrating strong growth. Relatively little is known about bicycle-train users, i.e. the people who combine the bicycle and the train in a single trip. In this paper, we investigate their profiles and travel choices, in terms of the modes they choose for access and egress travel, their choice of stations, and their choice of type of bicycles. Studying this specific group can add to our understanding of the role of the train system in the success of cycling in the Netherlands, in turn helping improve policy transfer to metropolitan areas in other countries. In 2017, in cooperation with the Dutch National Railways, researchers surveyed a sample of train travellers, ultimately resulting in more than 3000 completed questionnaires. Descriptive analyses revealed that, compared to train travellers who do not or rarely cycle to/from train stations, bicycle-train users are on average more likely to be young people who are engaged in full-time employment or entrepreneurs, commute to work and hold university degrees. As for their cycling behaviour, bicycle-train travellers use bicycles much more often on the home-end of train trips than on the activity-end. Furthermore, bicycle-train travellers infrequently use suburban stations on the home-end, preferring large stations in the centres of major cities instead. For those who use bicycles, shared bicycles claim a considerable share on the activity-end of a train trip.
... In the U.S., walking and cycling is less common in rural areas than in urban areas (Pucher and Renne, 2005). This is similar to the Netherlands, where the majority of trips in urban areas are made by active modes, but walking and cycling are lower in the least urbanized areas (Harms, 2008;Harms et al., 2014;KiM, 2015). E-bikes can provide a "third" alternative to car use in rural areas that may compensate some of the disadvantages of public transport and active modes. ...
... As in other rural areas in the Netherlands, cycling volumes in the study area are lower than in more urbanized parts of the country and have been declining for over a decade (Harms et al., 2014). Yet, a recent bicycle survey by the Province of Groningen revealed that 95% of the inhabitants of the province cycles at least once a week (Provincie Groningen, 2016). ...
Thesis
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The ascent of e-bike use comes at a time where sustainable mobility stands out in political and academic discourses around the world. The aim of this thesis is to provide insight in the potential of e-bikes as a means to achieve more sustainable and active transport systems, by studying actual and potential e-bike use in different populations and in different regions in the Netherlands.
... We also see growth in walking. Moreover, we observe that the locations where people walk or cycle frequently are changing, and also that the number of bicycle kilometres increasingly differs among the various groups of Dutch people (Harms et al., 2014). Hence, we observe that some people increasingly cycle more frequently and for longer distances, while others walk more frequently or more frequently use public transportation. ...
... Age, gender, personal income, education level, ethnic background and household composition are the six demographic characteristics routinely cited in literature in relation to the active modes (Harms, 2007; Heinen, 2011; Bonham & Wilson, 2012; Garrard et al., 2012; Scheepers et al., 2013; CROW, 2014; Harms et al., 2014). These personal characteristics also occasionally reveal the interactions that occur with other factors, such as spatial factors, or with each other, when we look at their relationships to mobility. ...
Book
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Cycling and walking play a key role in the Netherlands’ mobility system: half of all trips, a tenth of all the kilometres travelled, and one-third of the time we spend travelling involve cycling or walking. Since 2004, Dutch people cycle (+9%) and walk (+13%) more frequently and over longer distances. The use of e-bikes in particular is increasing, as they are no longer solely used by recreational senior citizens. The spatial differentiation in bicycle use and of walking has increased in recent years: bicycle use has particularly increased in urban areas. These are some of the findings of the KiM Netherlands Institute for Transport Policy Analysis’ publication, ‘Cycling and walking: the grease in our mobility chain’. This research study mapped the ways in which cycling and walking are intertwined in the mobility system, particularity in urban areas, and what the resulting effects are. The research is based on literature studies and the analysis of various mobility-related data sets. The report’s key findings are summarized in a separate infographic available for download.
... Ook in het lopen is een groei zichtbaar. Daarnaast zien we dat de locaties waar veel wordt gelopen of gefietst veranderen, en ook tussen groepen Nederlanders verschilt het gebruik van de fiets steeds meer (Harms et al., 2014). Zo zien we dat sommige mensen steeds meer en verder fietsen, terwijl anderen juist meer lopen of het openbaar vervoer gebruiken. ...
... Leeftijd, geslacht, inkomen, opleidingsniveau, herkomst/etnische achtergrond en samenstelling van het huishouden zijn de zes demografische kenmerken die in de literatuur steeds terug komen in relatie tot de active modes (Harms, 2007; Heinen, 2011; Bonham & Wilson, 2012; Garrard et al., 2012; Scheepers et al., 2013; CROW, 2014; Harms et al., 2014). Deze persoonskenmerken vertonen soms ook interactie met andere factoren, zoals ruimtelijke factoren, of met elkaar, als we kijken naar hun relatie met mobiliteit. ...
Book
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Fietsen en lopen spelen een belangrijke rol in het Nederlandse mobiliteitssysteem: de helft van het aantal ritten, een tiende van alle afgelegde kilometers en een derde van de aan mobiliteit bestede tijd leggen we per fiets of te voet af. Sinds 2004 zijn Nederlanders vaker en verder gaan fietsen (+9 procent) en lopen (+13 procent). Vooral de e-fiets wordt steeds vaker gebruikt en inmiddels ook niet meer alleen door recreërende ouderen. De ruimtelijke verschillen in het gebruik van fietsen en lopen zijn de laatste jaren toegenomen: met name in stedelijke gebieden groeit het aandeel van de fiets. Dit zijn enkele bevindingen uit de publicatie 'Fietsen en lopen: de smeerolie van onze mobiliteit' van het Kennisinstituut voor Mobiliteitsbeleid (KiM). In dit onderzoek heeft het KiM in kaart gebracht op welke manieren fietsen en lopen in het mobiliteitssysteem verweven zijn, met name in de stedelijke gebieden, en wat hiervan de effecten zijn. De studie is gebaseerd op literatuuronderzoek en analyses op verschillende datasets over mobiliteit.
... Similar variables were found to influence cycling and walking for work vs. leisure in the Netherlands (Rietveld & Daniel, 2004;Van Lenthe, Brug, & Mackenbach, 2005). For Finland (Harms, Bertolini, & Te Brömmelstroet, 2014) and the Netherlands , immigrant populations were significantly less likely to drive. However, these findings have not been consistently significant throughout the literature (Van Acker, Van Wee, & Witlox, 2010). ...
Article
Open access until January 2022: https://authors.elsevier.com/c/1e5ls4tTwCn6Qi. --- Large efforts and investments have been made into public transport, walking, and cycling in cities around Europe. Yet, cars remain the most ubiquitous mode of travel in urban areas. Often, research into the barriers facing active travel evaluates only one part of the problem, such as a person’s surrounding environment (the macro level), socially embedded practices that define the activity (meso level), or a person’s own beliefs and sense of identity (micro level). However, barriers and enablers to active travel exist on multiple levels, and interventions to increase walking and/or cycling are less likely to work when implemented in isolation. Hence, a multilevel socio-ecological model is developed to demonstrate and test the importance of assessing these barriers together, and identify interrelationships among them. Using the Physical Activity Through Sustainable Transportation Approaches (PASTA) dataset on the travel behaviour of people in seven different European cities, this paper identifies the constructs that correlate with active travel most. Within PASTA, psychosocial constructs influence the decision to take a trip by bicycle or walk more than built environment variables. In addition, trip purpose and the meso level influence the importance of built environment and attitudinal variables in explaining active travel. These relationships do not vary significantly between cities. This research further supports the use of multi-faceted interventions to increase walking and cycling, rather than focussing on a single policy.
... Akar et al. (2013) also found that women were less likely to ride a bicycle relative to men. In Netherlands, in contrast, more women than men use bicycles (Harms et al., 2014). ...
Article
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mobility analysis, in early 2011, by the Netherlands Institute for Transport Policy Analyses showed that following the remarkable growth in the 1980s and 1990s, the total amount of national mobility of people in the Netherlands had not increased since 2005. This particularly appeared to apply to car use. Except for the credit crisis around 2008–09, the reasons for this development remained unclear at the time. Based on further analyses of the developments in mobility over the last ten years and some findings from other countries, several hypotheses related to the apparent levelling off of the growth in car use were formulated and investigated in further research. In the first part of this paper, a detailed description of the developments in mobility between 2000 and 2010 is presented, with emphasis on specific trends for various user categories (by travel mode, by age group, by gender). This part can be seen as a description of recent developments in mobility growth. In the second part of the paper, we present the findings of our in-depth research into the causes behind the levelling off of growth in car use.
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There is emerging evidence that personal daily travel, particularly by car, has ceased to grow in the developed economies. This can be attributed to saturation of demand, given high levels of access and choice now widely available, together with constraints on higher speeds. We are therefore at a time of transition from an era of growth of per capita travel to an era of stability, in which the future factors determining the growth of total travel demand are demographic — population growth, increasing longevity, and urbanisation. The peak car phenomenon, which marks this transition, is seen in successful cities that attract a growing population whose travel needs are increasingly met by investment in rail-based transport, the revival of which is a characteristic of the new era.
Article
This editorial overview of the Special Issue on ‘Peak Car’ previews the seven papers, drawing out common themes and differences. It starts with a brief overview of the emergence and characteristics of the ‘peak car’ idea, including recent research and discussions. It draws out the key themes from each of the seven papers in turn and discusses implications for research and policy. It concludes that there is now little doubt that young peoples’ car use has reduced, but there is still doubt about how younger people will travel as they age, or how the next generation will travel; that location and settlement density effects are very important, meaning that future population distributions will be significant; and that while ‘economic’ factors are still seen to be important, elasticities with respect to price and income are falling, with signs of differential responses by population categories and location. In policy terms, it concludes that with the current level of uncertainty about future car use levels, rather than developing policy based on one forecast, we should be developing policy for a range of plausible scenarios.
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At the aggregate level, the growth in individual car use (in vehicle*kilometres per adult) over time has considerably slowed down in France in the 2000s, but is this tendency observed whatever the area and standard of living? Relying on annual data drawn from the French Household Continuous Surveys (1974–1994) and the Car Fleet surveys (1994–2010), time-series of annual mileage per adult is compared in the four quartiles of the household income scale, in three types of zone: core cities, suburbs and low-density areas. We observe that the recent stagnation of individual car use is a general phenomenon, as it has occurred in all the income groups and in all the areas, but at different levels and moments in time nonetheless. In the 2000s, fuel price has dramatically increased, providing a likely explanation for the slowdown observed in the time-series. Using a Chapman–Richards growth model where the saturation level depends on economic factors, we disentangle their effect from the diffusion process of individual car use over time. As expected, the saturation level is found to be an increasing function of income, and a decreasing function of fuel price and population density. Besides, the estimation results show that the diffusion of individual car use among low-income households in 2010 was still ongoing in all the types of zone, while it was ending for high-income households. Moreover, the model assumes that the fuel price sensitivity of individual car use is decreasing as the standard of living raises: it is probably the combination of these effects that has led the annual mileage per adult to stabilize in the 2000s.
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The paper analyses the environmental correlates of cycling based on Danish transportation and urban form micro-data. The results show that established walkability factors such as density, connectivity and diversity are related to cycling, but access to retail concentrations/centres, public transportation level-of-service, as well as competition between walking and cycling depending on environmental features can be added. Attractive conditions for using public transportation or walking are related to less cycling. The findings quantify the effects of urban form on the probability of cycling and the distance cycled. A high probability of cycling generally implies short cycling distances leading to non-uniform, non-monotonous relationship between environmental indicators such as walkability and cycling.
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Empirical studies that include travel‐related attitudes to identify the role of residential self‐selection in the relationship between the built environment and travel behaviour display a wide variety in the type of attitudes that they include, the relationships between the variables that they analyse and the ways they measure attitude. This paper discusses what theories on attitudes and behaviour can contribute to examining the role of self‐selection and reviews those studies on residential self‐selection and travel behaviour that explicitly include attitudes. Although several studies state that residential self‐selection is accounted for by the inclusion of attitudes, the complexity of the inclusion and the measurement of attitudes often leads to an underestimation of the role of residential self‐selection. Because of their relevance to the reliability of results, the options for measuring travel‐related attitudes are also discussed. When attitudes are included in questionnaires, it is essential to consider reliability, efficiency, response and the number of variables.
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Links between life stage and travel behaviour are explored using Scottish Household Survey non-motorised mode data for Edinburgh. Employing cluster analysis, the sample is split into ten population segments, largely based on life stage. The life stage of having children is shown to affect individual travel behaviour. Households with children present have distinctive travel behaviour characteristics: they are particularly car dependent, tend to own but not use bicycles, and favour leisure cycling trips. A concerted, targeted policy effort is recommended in order to reduce motor car usage and encourage non-motorised modes.
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Cycling is cheaper, healthier and in urban environments often faster than other transport modes. Nevertheless, even at short distances, many individuals do not cycle. This thesis aims to explain why commuters vary in their decision to bicycle. Results indicate that the individual (day-to-day) choice to commute by bicycle is affected by personal attitudes towards cycling to work, social norms, work situation, weather conditions and trip characteristics. Additionally, this thesis provides evidence that different groups of bicycle commuters exist: non-cyclists, part-time cyclists and full-time cyclists. The mode choice of individuals within these groups (partly) depends on a number of different factors. Non-cyclists seem not to cycle because they consider it impossible, either due to the distance involved, their need to transport goods, the need for a car during office hours, or a negative subjective norm. The decision to cycle among part-time or full-time cyclists is also affected by these factors, but additional factors can be identified. Finally, the day-to-day choice to cycle is based on work characteristics, weather conditions and trip characteristics. Part-time cyclists who cycle only occasionally are encouraged by pleasant weather conditions, while frequent cyclists are found to be discouraged by more practical barriers, such as where they need to work on that day.
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With federal policy beginning to shift from auto-centric planning, provision for pedestrian and bicycle access is now mandated in federally supported projects. However, the field of transportation planning has little in the way of theory and methods to guide design and planning for walkable cities. Walkability is increasingly valued for a variety of reasons. Not only does pedestrian transportation reduce congestion and have low environmental impact, it has social and recreational value. Recent research suggests that walking also promotes mental and physical health. The quality of the pedestrian environment is key to encouraging people to choose walking over driving. Six criteria are presented for design of a successful pedestrian network: (1) connectivity; (2) linkage with other modes; (3) fine grained land use patterns; (4) safety; (5) quality of path; and (6) path context. To achieve walkable cities in the United States it will be necessary to assess current walkability conditions, revise standards and regulations, research walking behavior in varied settings, promote public education and participation in pedestrian planning, and encourage collaboration and interdisciplinary education between transportation engineers and the design professions. Journal of Urban Planning and Derveloping
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Purpose – The research reported in this chapter focuses on understanding the experiences of women who had decided to return to cycling in adulthood. It was anticipated these experiences could assist other women contemplating taking up cycling as well as cycling lobbyists, policy makers and planners. Methodology – The research targeted women returning to cycling in the city of Adelaide, South Australia. It was conducted using qualitative research methods including in-depth interviews, helmet-mounted video cameras and diary entries. Forty-nine women participated in the study ranging in age from early 20s to mid-70s. Findings – Respondents learned to cycle between the ages of 5 and 12 and most stopped in the early years of secondary school. Almost half the respondents had returned to cycling several times through the life course while another significant group had cycled occasionally up to the time of the interview. Women returned to cycling through a combination of circumstances but women in their early 20s emphasised the importance of social relationships while women in their late 30s (and older) stressed concerns about health and fitness. Becoming mothers or grandmothers was given as a reason for both taking up and giving up cycling. Although there was no pattern in the specific trigger that shifted women from ‘thinking about cycling to getting on a bike’, knowing someone who cycled – partner, family member, work colleague or acquaintance – featured in most women's experiences. Research implications – The findings suggest further research into mobility through the life course will be productive.
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Increasing regular physical activity is a key public health goal. One strategy is to change the physical environment to encourage walking and cycling, requiring partnerships with the transport and urban planning sectors. Economic evaluation is an important factor in the decision to fund any new transport scheme, but techniques for assessing the economic value of the health benefits of cycling and walking have tended to be less sophisticated than the approaches used for assessing other benefits. This study aimed to produce a practical tool for estimating the economic impact of reduced mortality due to increased cycling. The tool was intended to be transparent, easy to use, reliable, and based on conservative assumptions and default values, which can be used in the absence of local data. It addressed the question: For a given volume of cycling within a defined population, what is the economic value of the health benefits? The authors used published estimates of relative risk of all-cause mortality among regular cyclists and applied these to levels of cycling defined by the user to produce an estimate of the number of deaths potentially averted because of regular cycling. The tool then calculates the economic value of the deaths averted using the "value of a statistical life." The outputs of the tool support decision making on cycle infrastructure or policies, or can be used as part of an integrated economic appraisal. The tool's unique contribution is that it takes a public health approach to a transport problem, addresses it in epidemiologic terms, and places the results back into the transport context. Examples of its use include its adoption by the English and Swedish departments of transport as the recommended methodologic approach for estimating the health impact of walking and cycling.
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How do Mexican migrants experience and respond to policies designed to affect their migration and settlement plans in Los Angeles? Which policies prove most salient? Drawing on life history interviews with authorized and unauthorized migrants in Los Angeles, we find that a mix of federal, state and local level policies affect the daily lives and behaviors of our migrant informants. Once in the U.S., however, given the current state of federal level policy, it is routine encounters with restrictive local level policies that shape our informants' daily strategies and settlement considerations. The outcome of these encounters is further mediated by the local context and the personal circumstances of the migrants themselves. Our findings suggest that it is crucial to consider a broad range of policy and practice, beyond formal immigration policy, not only in assessing policy's impact on migration trends but also in constructing comparative research designs in future work.
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This paper uses in-depth interview data from Cambridge, England, to discuss the concept of the 'cycling citizen', exploring how, within heavily-motorised countries, the practice of cycling might affect perceptions of the self in relation to natural and social environments. Participants portrayed cycling as a practice traversing independence and interdependence, its mix of benefits for the individual and the collective making it an appropriate response to contemporary social problems. In this paper I describe how this can be interpreted as based on a specific notion of cycling citizenship rooted in the embodied practice of cycling in Cambridge (a relatively high cycling enclave within the low-cycling UK). This notion of cycling citizenship does not dictate political persuasion, but carries a distinctive perspective on the proper relation of the individual to their environment, privileging views 'from outside' the motor-car.
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Recent theories about social and demographic change, such as individualization and the Second Demographic Transition, embed the notion of a convergence towards a specific ideal-typical pathway to adulthood, which we define as late, protracted and complex. After a discussion of the relevant literature for and against such an idea, we empirically assess the convergence to this ideal-typical pattern using new retrospective data from the European Social Survey wave 3 (ESS-3). Our analysis of the timing and sequencing of demographic events among young adults offers qualified support for the emergence of a new pattern of transition to adulthood. Pathways to adulthood are changing in the same direction in most parts of Europe, but no convergence of trends is observed (yet).
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This article shows how the Netherlands, Denmark and Germany have made bicycling a safe, convenient and practical way to get around their cities. The analysis relies on national aggregate data as well as case studies of large and small cities in each country. The key to achieving high levels of cycling appears to be the provision of separate cycling facilities along heavily travelled roads and at intersections, combined with traffic calming of most residential neighbourhoods. Extensive cycling rights of way in the Netherlands, Denmark and Germany are complemented by ample bike parking, full integration with public transport, comprehensive traffic education and training of both cyclists and motor-ists, and a wide range of promotional events intended to generate enthusiasm and wide public support for cycling. In addition to their many pro-bike policies and programmes, the Netherlands, Denmark and Germany make driving expensive as well as inconvenient in central cities through a host of taxes and restrictions on car ownership, use and parking. Moreover, strict land-use policies foster compact, mixed-use developments that generate shorter and thus more bikeable trips. It is the coordinated implementation of this multi-faceted, mutually reinforcing set of policies that best explains the success of these three countries in promoting cycling. For comparison, the article portrays the marginal status of cycling in the UK and the USA, where only about 1% of trips are by bike.
Article
Immigrants to the United States—particularly new immigrants—are more likely than the native born to travel by bicycle. This paper explores the extent to which the use of bicycles by immigrants can be explained by variables such as income, age, automobile availability, and neighborhood characteristics. Results from multinomial logistic mode choice models suggest that, even after controlling for these factors, a large and significant “immigrant effect” remains. The effect size is large for all immigrant groups by sending country, though some immigrant groups—such as those from East and Southeast Asia—are more likely than are others to use bicycles after controlling for other factors. Several avenues for further research are introduced, and policy implications are discussed.
Article
As a form of 'active transport', cycling has been encouraged as a route to improving population health. However, in many high-income countries, despite being widely seen as a 'healthy' choice, few people do cycle for transport. Further, where cycling is rare, it is not a choice made equally across the population. In London, for instance, cycling is disproportionately an activity of affluent, White, men. This paper takes London as a case study to explore why the meanings of cycling might resonate differently across urban, gendered, ethnic and class identities. Drawing on qualitative interview data with 78 individuals, we suggest first that the relative visibility of cycling when few do it means that it is publicly gendered in a way that more normalised modes of transport are not; conversely, the very invisibility of Black and Asian cyclists reduces their opportunities to see cycling as a candidate mode of transport. Second, following Bourdieu, we argue that the affinities different population groups have for cycling may reflect the locally constituted 'accomplishments' contained in cycling. In London, cycling represents the archetypal efficient mode for autonomous individuals to travel in ways that maximise their future-health gain, and minimise wasted time and dependence on others. However, it relies on the cultivation of a particular 'assertive' style to defend against the risks of road danger and aggression. While the identities of some professional (largely White) men and women could be bolstered by cycling, the aesthetic and symbolic goals of cycling were less appealing to those with other class, gendered and ethnic identities.
Article
The substantial health-enhancing potential of physical activity can be realised on population level best if people can incorporate physical activity into their daily life routines. Physically active commuting to and from work provides a promising mode for such activity. In a series of three studies we explored more specifically the population prevalence, the physiological effectiveness, and the promotional possibilities of commuting to work by walking and cycling in a mid-size Finnish town. The results of the questionnaire survey indicated that while about one-third of the working-age sample commuted by walking or cycling an additional one-quarter were in a position to either begin or increase physically active commuting. The controlled intervention study showed that this kind of moderate-intensity, high-frequency activity improved the health-related fitness and selected indices of metabolic health. The promotion project in a large industrial plant demonstrated that walking and cycling during work trips can be successfully promoted by relatively low cost measures. These experiences suggest that physically active commuting to work offers substantial potential as a health-enhancing measure for working-age population.
Article
To determine the association of built-environment, social-environment, and personal-level factors with bicycling for transportation, among adult city dwellers. Survey of a representative sample of 1000 inhabitants of the city of Graz, Austria, using a computer-assisted telephone interview addressing cycling behavior and associated personal, social and environmental factors. The prevalence of biking for transportation was 22.5%. After adjustment for gender, age, education, physical activity level and distance from home to destination, cycling was positively associated with the presence of bike lane connectivity (OR=2.09) and social support/modeling (OR=1.62), and negatively associated with the perceived barriers of "physical discomfort" (OR=0.49) and "an impractical transport mode" (OR=0.50). Analysis of interactions indicated that the effect of the perceived benefit of "rapidity" was stronger in physically active persons than inactive individuals, and the effect of the perceived barrier of "an impractical mode of transportation" was stronger among women than men. In addition to cycling-related social support and perceived benefits and barriers, bike lane connectivity may be an important determinant of cycling as a means of transportation among adult city dwellers.
Experiences of Electric Bicycle Users in the Netherlands and UK: Implications for Promoting E-biking for Healthy and Sustainable Urban Mobility
  • T Jones
  • L Harms
  • E Heinen
Jones, T., Harms, L., Heinen, E., (submitted for publication). Experiences of Electric Bicycle Users in the Netherlands and UK: Implications for Promoting E-biking for Healthy and Sustainable Urban Mobility.
A new generation: travel trends among young Germans and Britons
  • T Kuhnimhof
  • R Buehler
  • J Dargay
Kuhnimhof, T., Buehler, R., Dargay, J., 2011. A new generation: travel trends among young Germans and Britons. Transp. Res. Rec.: Journal of the Transportation Research Board 2230, 58-67.
Mobiliteitsbalans 2013. The Hague: The Netherlands Institute for Transport Policy Analysis
  • Kim
KiM, 2013. Mobiliteitsbalans 2013. The Hague: The Netherlands Institute for Transport Policy Analysis.
Demographic Change and Transport. CONSOL, European Commission-Directorate-General for Mobility and Transport
  • S Haustein
Haustein. S., et al., 2013. Demographic Change and Transport. CONSOL, European Commission-Directorate-General for Mobility and Transport.