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This chapter offers the African cultural leaders, those involved in the management of their local arts sector, but also those that want to establish the continent and her heritage and current creative practice on the international field, some insight into how they are viewed by the rest of the world. To do this, a case of long-term exchange between a country from the geographical North (the Netherlands) and a country from the geographical South (Morocco) was chosen, especially for the fact that they do not share any historical colonial bonds but do have a shared history that dates back over 400 years. This history includes a large migration of Moroccans to the Netherlands in the previous century, which resulted in a large diaspora of North Africans making their mark on Dutch culture. The hope is that by using two different methods (content analysis and social network analysis) and looking at their shared heritage and the cultural relations between these countries, it is possible to shed some light on the themes of this book: neo-colonialism, diplomacy, soft power, and sustainability. This will be done based on contemporary cultural policies and some data on their current cultural exchange.KeywordsCultural relationsCultural policiesNorth AfricaThe NetherlandsAnd Morocco
Chapter
Nigeria and South Africa are two regional powers in Africa whose motivation for cooperation, collaboration, partnership, or competition has implications for Africa. In comparative terms, the two countries remain Africa’s regional economic and military powerhouses and possess extensive soft power resources as well. Despite the geographical distance separating them, both countries have continued to engage in diplomatic relations. However, the recurring Afrophobic/xenophobic incidences in South Africa have resulted in episodic diplomatic row between Pretoria and Abuja. Although the theme of cultural diplomacy is not novel in Africa regional discourse, the role of the creative industry in addressing the pervasive mistrust between Nigeria and South Africa remains underexplored. This paper argues that by emphasizing mutually admired cultural products between citizens of both countries, the shared suspicion that fuels xenophobic outbursts can be curbed significantly. The authors explore the role of certain arms of the creative industry such as film industry, afro-pop music, national festivals, and cultural troupes to enhance people-to-people interactions and mitigate the devastating effects of Afrophobia in the continent.KeywordsCultural diplomacyAfrophobiaNigeria-South AfricaForeign policyRegional powers
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This book develops a critical approach to understand the role of cultural diplomacy in Morocco’s foreign policy. It examines the possibilities and limitations of implementing the ‘cultural variable’ in the conduct of international relations through Soft Power practices. In an increasingly globalised world, the influence of culture in shaping international relations stems from its importance to cut across foreign publics’ values and world views, and its potential to humanise what politics demonises. The theoretical framework of the book draws upon the Social Theory of Constructivism which stresses the social dimensions of international relations and suggests that the way states interact has no reality outside the intersubjective understandings of one another.
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This study discusses several issues that museums face when utilizing social media in their international communication. This discussion is framed within the discourse of the new cultural diplomacy and this paper proposes a specific role for museums in cross-cultural diplomatic relations. This new model for contemporary museums as vehicles for a 'trans-cultural encounter', or a 'forum' is based on the shift within museum institutional structures across communication, educational and political dimensions. Drawing on empirical materials, this study identifies three specific ways in which museums can use social media in their international diplomatic endeavours. The first section discusses how social technology can aid museums in responding to issues and concerns originating from foreign communities. This is followed by a discussion of how social media can connect foreign audiences to the cultural content of museums through direct participation activities. Finally, social media can enhance cultural exchange among people from different cultural communities by bringing them together online for collaborative activities.
Book
Recent studies on the meaning of cultural diplomacy in the twentieth century often focus on the United States and the Cold War, based on the premise that cultural diplomacy was a key instrument of foreign policy in the nation's effort to contain the Soviet Union. As a result, the term "cultural diplomacy" has become one-dimensional, linked to political manipulation and subordination and relegated to the margin of diplomatic interactions. This volume explores the significance of cultural diplomacy in regions other than the United States or "western" countries, that is, regions that have been neglected by scholars so far-Eastern Europe, Asia, and the Middle East. By examining cultural diplomacy in these regions, the contributors show that the function of information and exchange programs differs considerably from area to area depending on historical circumstances and, even more importantly, on the cultural mindsets of the individuals involved. © 2010 Jessica C. E. Gienow-Hecht and Mark C. Donfried. All rights reserved.
Article
This article focuses on government policy aimed at the presentation of the nation abroad through cultural activities and its relation to national identity, external cultural policy. The methodological framework is offered by the discourse analysis of Wodak and the notion of identity of Laclau and Mouffe, treating policy as a discourse. A closer look is taken at the concept of cultural diplomacy and the closely related term nation branding. This article will show how the shift in paradigm also changes the role of ‘the other’ in the construction of national identity and how this influences the role of the arts in international cultural policy.
Article
This article builds on earlier conceptual analyses that have contrasted public relations with diplomacy and public diplomacy at conceptual and applied levels, to consider further the theoretical and global issues of public relations’ diplomatic work for states and organizations in the context of globalization. A key feature of such work is its intercultural nature, at the organizational, ethnic, and state levels. The discussion draws inspiration from a range of disciplines including public relations, international relations, strategic studies, media studies, peace studies, management studies, cultural studies, and anthropology. Linking public diplomacy to public relations usefully reconnects public relations to power, which has largely been ignored by dominant organizational-management approaches to the subject.
Article
Museums are increasingly recognised as having a role to play within international relations, to facilitate cultural exchange, assert national identity and foster mutual understanding. Whilst international work is perceived to be politically motivated and diplomatically advantageous, it can be highly beneficial to cultural institutions. In this paper, ‘cultural diplomacy’ is shown to be a strategy used by museums to enable organisational development and economic growth. This paper demonstrates how national museums adopted a political rhetoric and used strategic lobbying to formulate a new cultural policy, which expanded the scale and scope of their international work. By defining the parameters and principles of this policy, the institutions wield power, thus challenging the conventional perceptions of policy-making and contradicting commentators who accuse museums of political subservience. Throwing the notion of instrumentalism into disarray, this paper calls for a theoretical and conceptual rethinking, to revamp understanding and bring it in line with practice.
Article
At a time when cultural knowledge and understanding lie at the heart of every foreign policy challenge (and of many economic ones), and the Internet and the global economy have flattened the world to such a degree that young people everywhere need to become global citizens to succeed, the United States, effectively, conducts cultural diplomacy with the equivalent of one hand tied behind its back. Without a coherent strategy, interagency and public- private coordination, and increased funding from public and private sources, the potential of the world's most influential commercial creative sector and the most vibrant and varied independent arts sector to impact how the world views the U.S. and how Americans view the world, will never be realized. There is no need to reinvent the wheel, or for government to create content. Hundreds of effective programs - ranging from a dance and music academy that unites different factions in Iraq (American Voices) to arts management programs at the Kennedy Center, to film workshops (Sundance Institute) and schools (Red Sea Institute of Cinematic Arts Jordan), to a myriad of international performing arts festivals - have been developed despite limited budgets and infrastructure. But their impact could be so much greater. The lack of a coherent, public-private, interagency strategy for cultural exchange and cultural diplomacy, symptomatic.
Book
The study places the theme of export and internationalisation strategies for Cultural and Creative Industries (CCIs) at theintersection of a number of evolving trends and interests in Europe. There is a growing ecognition of the value and potential of the ‘creative economy’ which is bringing non-profit arts and cultural organisations, creative businesses, commercial producers and distributors of creative content and related intellectual property rights within a shared creative ‘ecosystem’. The process of engaging with the export and international potential of the CCIs is simultaneously galvanised and challenged by globalisation and digitisation, by a speeding up of external economic forces and fast-evolving consumption and communication habits that disregard slower policy and planning timeframes, by shifting patterns in the economic realities of so-called developed, developing, and transitional markets worldwide.
Article
The production of a new and attractive ‘Japan Brand’—one that resonates with the emerging global image of ‘Cool Japan’ associated with Japan's popular culture—is a national project incorporated in the Japanese Intellectual Property Strategy promoted by the state since 2002. This article critically examines the Japan Brand Strategy as a government-owned production site of Cool Japan imagery and as a cultural policy designed to promote a specific sense of cultural identity. Detailed reconstructions of the selective appropriation of cultural products in order to create a new cultural imagery for Japan, of the meanings attached to this imagery and of the tactics devised to spread it, highlight how problematical it is to appropriate market-made images of Cool Japan for national ends. Furthermore, by examining the various functions attributed to this national strategy, I show that while it is primarily promoted as a means for enhancing Japan's industrial policy and cultural diplomacy, it is also devised as a mechanism to mobilize the nation during unsettled times. Through examining the Japan Brand Strategy, this article highlights the challenges faced today by cultural policy makers, questioning the contemporary relevance of the modernistic approach to the state as a regulatory cultural planning apparatus.
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Jitka Jurková Department of Anthropology, Faculty of Humanities, Charles University Prague, the Czech Republic jujitka@gmail.com © 2015 Jitka Jurková http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10286632.2015.1042466
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