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Effects of Self-Selected Music on Maximal Bench Press Strength and Strength Endurance

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Abstract

-Listening to music during strength workouts has become a very common practice. The goal of this study was to assess the effect of listening to self-selected music on strength performances. Thirty-one resistance-trained men (M age = 24.7 yr., SD = 5.9; M height = 178.7 cm, SD = 4.7; M body mass = 83.54 kg, SD = 12.0) were randomly assigned to either a Music group (n = 19) or to a Control group (n = 12). Both groups took part in two separate sessions; each session consisted in a maximal strength test (1-RM) and a strength-endurance test (repetitions to failure at 60% 1-RM) using the bench press exercise. The music group listened to music in the second assessment session, while the control group performed both tests without music. Listening to music induced a significant increase of strength endurance performance and no effects on maximal strength. These findings have implications for the use of music during strength workouts.

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... respectively, and only music increased the number of repetitions by 42%. Bartolomei et al., found effect of application of music in well-trained men, the study showed a increased of 5.8% on number of repetition in the brench press exercise (Bartolomei, Michele, & Merni, 2015). Maybe this discrepancy in increase of performance in our study can be related with the lack of training of subjects in the resistance exercise, where the most part were practitioners, however, were not trained (Bartolomei et al., 2015). ...
... Bartolomei et al., found effect of application of music in well-trained men, the study showed a increased of 5.8% on number of repetition in the brench press exercise (Bartolomei, Michele, & Merni, 2015). Maybe this discrepancy in increase of performance in our study can be related with the lack of training of subjects in the resistance exercise, where the most part were practitioners, however, were not trained (Bartolomei et al., 2015). Deferring the results found, a preview study evaluated the influence of self-selected music on performance in squatting exercise followed by vertical jumping and bench press in trained men. ...
... Music may be able to activate the area of the prefrontal cortex by stimulating pleasure-related emotional responses and, as a consequence, increases the degree of arousal, regulates mood, and decreases vagal tone. Thus helping to prepare for exercise by increasing productive work capacity, decreasing inhibitions and stimulating rhythmic movements (Bartolomei et al., 2015;Biagini M , Brown L , Coburn J , Judelson D , Statler T , Bottaro M , Tran T, 2012;Bigliassi, 2015). According to Archana et al., music has shown positive effects in many physical aspects, highlighting the improvement of motor coordination, reduction the heart rate, muscular strength -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------JPES ® www.efsupit.ro ...
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Introduction: Regular practice of resistance training offer positive results on muscular and physical performance. Thus, some strategies have been developed to influence the increase of performance results. Therefore, the objective of this study was to verify the influence of music, placebo supplementation and biofeedback on the number of executions and total volume, as well as the myoelectric activity of the pectoralis major muscles and triceps brachii. Methods: Men between 18 and 40 years of age, practicing and not practicing bodybuilding, were selected for convenience. Data recording was performed in four different conditions: a. Without intervention, b. Placebo intervention, c. Music and d. Biofeedback. As for the variables, the number of repetitions, total load and myoelectric activity of the evaluated muscles were measured. Results: A significant increase in the number of repetitions (p = 0.008) and total load (p = 0.001) with music application was observed, although the condition biofeedback also significantly influenced (p < 0.05) the total load (p = 0.005). Conclusion: It was verified with this study that music and biofeedback increased the total load and only the music increased the number of repetitions. However, there was no change in myoelectric activity.
... The authors concluded that music might be a distractive stimulus during CrossFit exercise, and they attributed this to the complexity of the performed exercises. However, this explanation is questionable because other studies used similar exercises (e.g., bench press and squat) and reported an ergogenic effect of music (6,21). A more likely explanation is that music did not improve performance because of the protocol used. ...
... Although valuable, such a design does not provide us with information regarding the use of preferred music on exercise performance. To fill this gap in the literature, several studies compared the effects of preferred music versus no music on resistance exercise performance (6,7,11,12,18,20,21). Under such a design, the authors first conduct a music preference survey among the participants with instruction to rank genres (e.g., rock and roll/hard rock, rap/hip hop, pop, rhythm and blues, country, and dance/electronic) from their favorite to least favorite. ...
... For muscle endurance outcomes, most studies reported improvements in performance during the preferred music condition (6,11,12,18,20,21). Specifically, with music, participants were able to perform 1 to 4 more repetitions during a single set performed to muscle failure. ...
Article
This review aimed to summarize and critically evaluate the research on the effects of music on resistance exercise performance. Research in the field has consistently demonstrated an ergogenic effect of music on resistance exercise performance. Specifically, studies have demonstrated that listening to music pre-exercise or during exercise may enhance handgrip strength, muscle endurance, velocity, and power. While a performance-enhancing benefit has been observed in many (but not all studies), several factors such as music tempo, volume, and genre preference may modulate the ergogenic effect of music. An ergogenic effect is commonly reported with faster tempo music (>120 bpm) set to music volume of 70 to 80 decibels. Using individual preference regarding music genre appears to produce the most consistent performance-enhancing effect. Besides these factors, lyrical content, harmony, and melody are also factors that may determine the ergogenic potential of music. By using some of the recommendations outlined herein, individuals may harness and optimize the ergogenic effects of music on resistance exercise performance.
... Music has been studied extensively and evidence largely supports the use of music as an ergogenic aid (1,2,12,25,29). Many of these studies have largely focused on aerobic and endurance-based activities and commonly report dampened rating of perceived exertion (RPE) levels during exercise (32,40). ...
... A few studies on music, resistance exercise, and strength have focused on the effect of both predetermined and selfselected music selections on performance (2,4,24,31). For example, Karageorghis et al. (24) found that predetermined stimulatory music increased grip strength in both males and females, whereas others have reported that predetermined sedative music may cause a decrease in strength performance (31). ...
... These studies largely suggest that the type of music may be important in determining strength enhancement by music. The effect of self-selected music on resistance exercise and strength has been investigated by multiple groups (2,4). Biagini et al. (4) reported that listening to self-selected music vs. no music enhanced acute power performance but did not have an effect on bench press repetitions to failure. ...
Article
Ballmann, CG, McCullum, MJ, Rogers, RR, Marshall, MR , and Williams, TD. Effects of preferred vs. nonpreferred music on resistance exercise performance. J Strength Cond Res 35(6): 1650-1655, 2021-The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of listening to preferred vs. nonpreferred music on resistance exercise performance. Twelve resistance-trained college-aged males (age = 20.5 ± 1.24 years, height = 183.9 ± 6.8 cm, and body mass = 97.0 ± 18.2 kg) were recruited for this study. In a within-groups counterbalanced study design, subjects either listened to preferred or nonpreferred music during a bench press exercise test. Subjects completed as many repetitions as possible at 75% of their 1 repetition maximum with maximum explosive intent. Power and velocity of the barbell movement was measured for the first 3 repetitions using a linear position transducer. Motivation was measured using a visual analog scale immediately after exercise. Each exercise trial was separated by a 48-hour washout period. Results indicate that listening to preferred music increased overall bench press repetitions completed (p = 0.005; effect size [ES] = 0.84). During the first 3 repetitions, mean velocity (p = 0.001; ES = 1.6), relative mean power (p = 0.012; ES = 0.55), peak velocity (p = 0.011; ES = 0.99), and peak power (p = 0.009; ES = 0.35) were higher while listening to preferred music vs. nonpreferred music. Finally, motivation during the lift (p < 0.001; ES = 5.9) was significantly higher while listening to preferred vs. nonpreferred music. Current findings suggest that listening to preferred music by the individual results in greater performance than nonpreferred during resistance exercise. Athletes may benefit from the option to listen to their preferred music to increase motivation and resistance exercise performance.
... Few studies have examined the effects of music on isometric exercises Crust, 2004) or functional strength tasks (Bartolomei et al., 2015;Biagini et al., 2012). Music played during a portion of, or during the entire isometric task, resulted in longer contractions than music playing only prior to the exercise (Crust, 2004). ...
... Findings from studies using functional strength tasks indicated that the presence of self-selected music increased muscular endurance and power, but failed to influence muscular strength (Bartolomei et al., 2015;Biagini et al., 2012). Music decreased RPE and increased feelings of vigour, fatigue, and tension during muscular power exercises; however, these changes were not present during muscular endurance exercises (Biagini et al., 2012). ...
... Music decreased RPE and increased feelings of vigour, fatigue, and tension during muscular power exercises; however, these changes were not present during muscular endurance exercises (Biagini et al., 2012). While the studies of Bartolomei et al. (2015) and Biagini et al. (2012) used functional strength tasks with greater external validity compared to previous research (i.e., bench press, squat jumps), these studies included only male participants, lacked appropriate restrictions and/or guidelines for the music selection, and used tasks in which performance criteria may be subjective. For example, participants in Bartolomei et al.'s (2015) study were allowed to adjust the music volume throughout the study, and the only guideline for music selection was a tempo above 120 bpm. ...
Article
This study examined the effects of slow and fast music tempi on effort-related thoughts, rating of perceived exertion (RPE), affect, heart rate, and performance during isometric strength exercises. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three conditions (no-music control, fast-tempo music, and slow-tempo music) and performed two isometric strength exercises (wall-sit and plank). RPE, attention allocation, and affect were measured during each exercise task. Participants in both the fast- and slow-tempo music conditions maintained a dissociative state for longer than those in the no-music control condition during the wall-sit exercise; however, this effect did not manifest during the plank exercise. Neither music condition influenced HR, RPE, time to volitional exhaustion, or affect. Within the first few minutes of exercise, participants exhibited an increase in HR and perceived exertion, as well as a corresponding shift towards associative attention and a high arousal state. The results are discussed with reference to potential underlying mechanisms and current theories pertaining to RPE, attention allocation, and affect.
... Some prior studies have tried to elucidate how music influences exercise performance due to its apparently ergogenic effects. When comparing self-selected music with no music during the bench press exercise, Bartolomei et al. (2015) found no changes in maximum strength but showed that strength-endurance (maximal bench press repetition at 60% of one repetition maximal (1RM)) increased by 5.8% in the self-selected versus no music condition. ...
... Köse (2018) replicated Bartolomei et al. (2015) and found similar results of no significant differences between music versus no music, and significant strength-endurance improvement (+3.75%) for participants in the music versus no music group. Similarly, Ballman et al. ...
... As only a limited number of previous studies (Ballmann et al., 2018;Bartolomei et al., 2015;Köse, 2018) have investigated the influence of listening to music during strength training, further studies are needed to clarify remaining questions, including the ergogenic effect of music preference. Given that Bartolomei et al. (2015) and Köse (2018) used selfselected music, and did not evaluate the effect of non-preferred music, we cannot determine whether the obtained results were due to preferred music or simply the availability of music. ...
Article
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The ability to increase muscle strength seems to be influenced by extrinsic factors such as the characteristics of an exercise environment. Given that many people train while listening to music, the music environment is an important research topic. However, no studies have investigated whether a preferred music genre differentially affects strength production when compared to a non-preferred music genre. This study evaluated the influence of listening to varied conditions of musical genre preference on maximal strength and strength-endurance testing, and on ratings of perceived exertion (RPE). We submitted 20 young men to three different listening conditions during strength testing: (a) preferred music genre (PMG), (b) non-preferred music genre (NPMG), and (c) no music (NM), with the order of these conditions randomized. We measured maximal strength with a handgrip dynamometer, strength-endurance through the participant's maximal repetition execution in the lat-pulldown exercise, and RPE by participant-completed Borg's scales at the end of the strength tests. Using three-way analyses of variances (ANOVAs) and a significance level of p < 0.05, we found that participants produced higher maximal strength, performed more repetitions of the lat-pulldown exercise, and reported decreased RPE in the PMG condition, compared to the NPMG (maximal strength p < 0.01, strength-endurance p < 0.01, RPE p = 0.016) and NM (maximal strength p < 0.01, strength-endurance p < 0.01, RPE p = 0.023) conditions. Individually determined PMG appears to improve maximal strength and strength-endurance performance during exercise, and to decrease RPE in the PMG condition.
... In a study by Bartolomei et al., favorite music had a positive e↵ect on strength endurance in young men while performing bench press exercises. [25]. Biagini et al. also showed increased performances during an explosive exercise while listening to self-selected music [26]. ...
... Previous studies have shown the influence of music on different aspects of life, like movement, cognition, and psychological functions [9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26]. Stimulating music has been used in multiple trials regarding physical performance with generally positive results [13,14,19]. ...
... Stimulating music has been used in multiple trials regarding physical performance with generally positive results [13,14,19]. The use of self-selected favorite music during exercise has also shown positive effects [15,25,26]. These results are in line with our findings. ...
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Sarcopenia is a major problem occurring in the aging population. Based on previous research, music appears to have a positive influence on many aspects of life, including physical performance. This led to the question of whether listening to self-selected favorite music could improve peripheral muscle strength in older people. In this crossover study, community-dwelling people aged 65 and older were included. All participants performed handgrip strength measurements in three different circumstances: while listening to their favorite music, their most disliked music, and no music at all. As the primary outcome measurement, the within-person differences in maximum handgrip strength between the three music conditions were analyzed. A total of 153 participants (aged 73.0 ± 6 years) were included. Listening to favorite music resulted in an increase in maximum handgrip strength of +0.87 kgf (0.54–1.21, p < 0.001) compared to no music, and of +0.97 kgf (0.56–1.37, p < 0.001) compared to least favorite music. Thus, listening to favorite music has a positive effect on handgrip strength in older people. Apart from its implications for scientific grip strength measurements, this effect may be used as a fun and innocent stimulant in rehabilitation and workout classes with seniors, which could be further tested in a range of older people.
... The effects of music on exercise performance have been prodigiously investigated resulting in a plethora of evidence supporting ergogenic benefit [1,2]. Indeed, music has been shown to unequivocally provide ergogenic aid in endurance [3,4], anaerobic sprint [5,6], and resistance-based exercise [7,8]. Recent evidence has shown that individual preference related to music may be a key mediator to performance enhancement [2]. ...
... Preferred music genre has been shown to improve exercise performance compared to non-preferred in multiple modes of exercise [2,3,[7][8][9][10]. For example, Bartolomei et al. showed that preferred music increased repetition volume and strength-endurance during bench press exercise [8]. ...
... Preferred music genre has been shown to improve exercise performance compared to non-preferred in multiple modes of exercise [2,3,[7][8][9][10]. For example, Bartolomei et al. showed that preferred music increased repetition volume and strength-endurance during bench press exercise [8]. Furthermore, our lab has shown that listening to a preferred music genre during a warm-up results in higher power output and faster performance time while completing a 2000-m rowing trial [4]. ...
Article
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The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of preferred versus non-preferred music volume on relative power output, trial time to completion (TTC), heart rate (HR), rate of perceived exertion (RPE), and motivation during endurance rowing exercise. Physically active females (age 18–25) volunteered to participate. In a crossover counterbalanced design, participants completed two trials: non-preferred (NPV) and preferred (PV) music volume. Participants began with a rowing warm-up at 50% of HRmax for 5 min. Following this, participants completed a 2000 m rowing time trial as quickly as possible. Relative power output, HR, and RPE were documented each minute during the exercise bout. TTC and motivation levels were documented at the cessation of exercise. Results showed that there were no significant differences between NPV and PV for relative power output (p = 0.287; d = 0.17), TTC (p = 0.816; d = 0.01), and HR (p = 0.956; d = 0.08). However, RPE was significantly lower (p = 0.002; d = 0.86) and motivation was significantly higher (p < 0.001; d = 2.14) during the PV condition versus NPV. Findings suggest that while PV does not impart performance-enhancing effects during endurance exercise compared to NPV, it may improve psychological responses related to intensity and effort which could have important implications for enduring intense exercise and training.
... Some researchers predict that the reason why music does not increase maximal strength can be that music does not have an influence in maximal strength and that there is no rhythmical compound in one repetition at high load. Another reason predicted to decrease the effect of music on performance is the maximum intensity of 1RM test (Simpson and Karageorghis, 2006;Bateman and Bale, 2008;Bartolomei et al., 2015). Some researchers state that when work load is too high, the individual's attention is directed to the painful effects of effort and since the attention is not focused on music, the individual cannot make use of music during exercise (as cited in: Waterhouse et al. (2010)). ...
... An interesting result of this study is that motivational music increases strength endurance (bench press repetitions to failure with 60% of 1RM) by 3.9%. In a similar study, Bartolomei et al. (2015) found that music did not influence maximal strength but increased strength endurance by 5.8%. Crust (2004) reported that listening to music during strength workout would ensure higher muscle endurance and on the contrary to listening to music before exercise, listening to music during the whole workout increased strength endurance time. ...
Article
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The purpose of this study is to examine whether motivational music selected by participants has an effect on maximal bench press strength and strength endurance (number of repetitions to failure with a 60% of 1-RM). 26 healthy male students with an average age of 23.92±2.05, average weight of 73.57±4.14 and average height of 178.57±3.65 who were having at least three strength workouts a week participated in the study voluntarily. The participants were grouped in two as experimental group and control group. The measurements of the experimental group were taken in two different sessions as with music and without music with 1 repetition maximum and number of repetitions to failure with 60% of 1 repetition maximum. The two sessions of the control group were conducted without music. At the end of the study, it was found that in experimental group motivational music was not effective on maximal strength (1RM) (p>0.05), while it was found to increase strength endurance statistically by 3.9% (p<0.05). In the control group, no statistically significant difference was found in both sessions (p>0.05). As a conclusion, it is stated that listening to fast music creates an ergogenic acute effect and it is recommended to use music during strength workout to have a better strength endurance performance.
... Among the different types of ergogenic resources, one may highlight that music is an important ergogenic aid of psychological nature 1 . Athletes with different levels of experience use to listen to music to increase motivation during training sessions 3 . Among the beneficial effects of listening to music are the improvement of mood 4 , excitatory control 5,6 and improved physical performance 7 , as music seems to have important effects on psychological responses generated in the central nervous system (CNS) 8 . ...
... Still Bagliassi et al. 15 in another study tested the efficiency of different types of music in 5km run. The experimental situations were: 1) pre-test motivational music, 2) fast music during the test, 3) slow music during the test, 4) quiet music post-test and control (silence). The results showed a greater activation in the three regions of PFC (median, right and left dorsolateral), generating positive emotional consequences such as reduction of RPE and increase of positive affect, in addition to the increased performance in the initial 800m (conditions 2 and 3). ...
Article
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Music can be considered as an ergogenic aid of psychological nature. Currently, athletes of different training status regularly use music as an ergogenic aid to improve performance in different exercise models in their training sessions. In order to understand the effect of music on psychophysiological responses to physical exercise, a music-oriented search was performed on the Pubmed and Web of Science databases to select relevant articles to this theme, thus enabling to present a critical review to explain the three main suggested ergogenic mechanisms of music: 1) Music and perceptive responses during exercise; 2) Influence of music on exercise in different intensities; 3) Action of music on the central nervous system. One of the reasons to listening to music during training sessions is the strong motivational factor during the practice of physical activity. Studies have pointed out benefits such as an improved mood, excitatory control, reduced subjective perception of effort, increased motivation and improved physical performance. In this sense, although the real mechanisms that lead music to be considered as an ergogenic aid to improve performance remain unknown, music seems to have important effects on psychological responses generated in the central nervous system, thus acting as a stimulating agent for the release of excitatory neurotransmitters such as serotonin and endorphin. On the other hand, according to the theory of parallel processing / dissociation, the main mechanism of music to improve physical performance is the increased dissociative thoughts to exercise, thereby reducing perceptual responses processed through the brain that result in increased positive emotional responses to exercise. Key Words: Physical exercise; Central nervous system; Physical training. FRANCO-ALVARENGA PE, BRIEZTKE C, CANESTRI R, PIRES FO. Psychophysiological responses of music on physical performance: a critical review. R. bras. Ci. e Mov 2019;27(2):218-224. RESUMO: A música pode ser considerada como um recurso ergogênico de natureza psicológica. Atualmente, atletas de diferentes níveis de treinamento utilizam a música como um recurso ergogênico em suas sessões de treinamento em diferentes modelos de exercício para melhorar o desempenho. Para entender o efeito da música nas respostas psicofisiológicas no desempenho físico foi realizada uma busca intencional nas bases de dados 'Pubmed' e 'Web of Science' de artigos relevantes ao tema, desse modo, a presente revisão foi conduzida de maneira crítica para explanar os principais mecanismos sugeridos para a ação ergogênica da música em 3 tópicos: 1) Músicas e respostas perceptivas durante o exercício; 2) Influência da música sobre o exercício em diferentes intensidades; 3) Ação da música sobre o sistema nervoso central. Um dos motivos da utilização da música durante as sessões de treinamento é o forte fator motivacional durante a prática da atividade física. Estudos apontam alguns benefícios como a melhora do humor, controle excitatório, redução da percepção subjetiva de esforço, aumento da motivação e melhora do desempenho físico. Nesse sentido, embora os reais mecanismos que levam a música a ser considerada um recurso ergogênico ainda permanecem desconhecidos, a música parece ter importantes efeitos sobre as respostas psicológicas geradas no sistema nervoso central, atuando como um agente estimulante para a liberação de neurotransmissores excitatórios como a serotonina e endorfina. Por outro lado, de acordo com a teoria do processamento paralelo/dissociação, o principal mecanismo da música sobre o desempenho físico é o aumento da dissociação durante o exercício, reduzindo as respostas perceptivas processadas no cérebro, com a resultante do aumento de respostas emocionais positivas ao longo da tarefa. Palavras-chave: Exercício físico; Sistema nervoso central; Treinamento físico. 219 Psychophysiological responses of music on performance R. bras. Ci. e Mov 2019;27(2):218-224.
... Among the different types of ergogenic resources, one may highlight that music is an important ergogenic aid of psychological nature 1 . Athletes with different levels of experience use to listen to music to increase motivation during training sessions 3 . Among the beneficial effects of listening to music are the improvement of mood 4 , excitatory control 5,6 and improved physical performance 7 , as music seems to have important effects on psychological responses generated in the central nervous system (CNS) 8 . ...
... Still Bagliassi et al. 15 in another study tested the efficiency of different types of music in 5km run. The experimental situations were: 1) pre-test motivational music, 2) fast music during the test, 3) slow music during the test, 4) quiet music post-test and control (silence). The results showed a greater activation in the three regions of PFC (median, right and left dorsolateral), generating positive emotional consequences such as reduction of RPE and increase of positive affect, in addition to the increased performance in the initial 800m (conditions 2 and 3). ...
... Para avaliar a força muscular dos membros superiores e inferiores, o teste de uma repetição máxima (1RM) é comumente utilizado, pois requer equipamentos de baixo custo e não laboratoriais, sendo considerado padrão de referência no âmbito da saúde e desempenho 3 . Vale ressaltar que apesar do custo-efetividade do teste de 1RM, alguns fatores podem influenciar o desempenho na avaliação da força, seja atenuando ou maximizando o resultado dos testes, como: realização do aquecimento previamente ao teste de 1RM, intervalo de recuperação entre as tentativas, a temperatura ambiente, a desidratação do indivíduo e a forma de encorajamento, seja por estímulo verbal ou musical 3,4 . ...
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The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of verbal, musical and control stimulus on the performance of the 1RM test. Twenty women with age (21.35 ± 3.05 years), and minimum one-year experience in strength training participated in a cross-over design. Initially, each volunteer underwent two sessions of familiarization with a 48-hour interval. The 1RM test was performed for the exercises bench press and leg press 45o, in different conditions (verbal stimulus, musical stimulus and no stimulus) in a randomized way. In the condition of verbal stimulus, the following expression was used (eg "come on, you can!"), while in the musical stimulus volunteers were asked to choose songs that they considered motivating them freely. In the control group, the volunteers performed the 1RM test without any stimulus. The tests in the different conditions were separated by a washout period of one week. ANOVA for repeated measurements was used to determine differences between 1RM test conditions. The level of significance was set at p ≤ 0.05 and all analyzes were performed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences software version 20.0. Our results demonstrated a better performance in the 1RM test for the bench press exercise (p<0.001) and leg press 45o (p<0.001) in favor of the verbal and musical stimuli when compared to the control condition. In this sense, we concluded that the use of verbal and musical stimuli promoted an acute ergogenic effect at maximum strength in trained women, being able to optimize the prescription and adjustment of loads during the strength training sessions.
... [4][5][6] Thus, it is not surprising that many surgeons utilize music to improve concentration and to mask the noise in the OR. 1 In other areas, such as exercise, music has been studied extensively and evidence largely supports the use of music: Many of these studies have focused on aerobic and endurance-based activities and commonly report improved performance. 6,7 The studies suggest a "distraction effect" by which music reduces attention from exercise. Especially preferred music is hypothesized to alter ones focus to external information (i.e., music) rather than focusing on discomfort and fatigue. ...
Article
Background: Acoustic distractions have been shown to increase the level of stress and workload in the operating room. Noise significantly reduces surgical performance, but experienced surgeons are able to reduce the acoustic perception of their surroundings to maintain a high level of performance in complex surgical tasks. However, music has been shown to improve learning and performance of complex motor skills. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of music on transferability and long-term acquisition of laparoscopic suturing skills. Methods: To evaluate the effects of music on training, subjects were asked to perform four surgeon's square knots on a bowel model within 30 minutes - prior and post 3 hours of hands-on training. To examine long-term skills, the same students were asked to perform a comparable, but more complex, task (four slip knots in a model of esophageal atresia) 6 months post initial training, as a follow-up measurement. Total time, knot stability (evaluated via tensiometer), suture accuracy, knot quality (Muresan scale), and laparoscopic performance (Munz checklist) were assessed. Results: Twenty-four students were included in the study; after simple randomization, sixteen were trained while exposed to music (eight to Bach and eight to Bushido) and eight with traditional methods. Seven were lost due to follow up. Both groups had comparable baseline characteristics and significantly improved after training, in all parameters assessed in this study. Subjects that trained with classical music were superior in terms of speed (p=0.006), knot quality (p=0.014), and procedural performance (p=0.034) compared to controls. Conclusions: Music during acquisition of complex motor skills, like laparoscopic suturing and knot tying, is superior to traditional training. Especially music considered non-disturbing significantly improved speed, knot quality, and performance. Thus, incorporation of pleasant music into surgical skills training and the OR should be considered.
... In studies where participants selected their own music to accompany physical tests, close analysis revealed that some participants made appropriate choices for the activity in which they were engaged (e.g., Boutcher & Trenske, 1990;Stork et al., 2015), whereas others apparently did not (e.g., Annesi, 2001;Nikbakhsh & Zafari, 2012). A general methodological limitation among studies that used self-selected music is that participants received little or no guidance in how to select appropriate music for the situation or task under consideration and therefore the psycho-acoustic properties of music differed markedly across participants (e.g., Bartolomei, Di Michele, & Merni, 2015;Miller & Donohue, 2003). Moreover, as previously highlighted, there is a greater likelihood for the emergence of Hawthorne and experimenter effects in studies where self-selected music is used (see, e.g., Chanda & Levitin, 2013;Karageorghis & Priest, 2012b). ...
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Regular physical activity has multifarious benefits for physical and mental health, and music has been found to exert positive effects on physical activity. Summative literature reviews and conceptual models have hypothesized potential benefits and salient mechanisms associated with music listening in exercise and sport contexts, although no large-scale objective summary of the literature has been conducted. A multilevel meta-analysis of 139 studies was used to quantify the effects of music listening in exercise and sport domains. In total, 598 effect sizes from four categories of potential benefits (i.e., psychological responses, physiological responses, psychophysical responses, and performance outcomes) were calculated based on 3,599 participants. Music was associated with significant beneficial effects on affective valence (g = 0.48, CI [0.39, 0.56]), physical performance (g = 0.31, CI [0.25, 0.36]), perceived exertion (g = 0.22, CI [0.14, 0.30]), and oxygen consumption (g = 0.15, CI [0.02, 0.27]). No significant benefit of music was found for heart rate (g = 0.07, CI [−0.03, 0.16]). Performance effects were moderated by study domain (exercise > sport) and music tempo (fast > slow-to-medium). Overall, results supported the use of music listening across a range of physical activities to promote more positive affective valence, enhance physical performance (i.e., ergogenic effect), reduce perceived exertion, and improve physiological efficiency.
... However, grip strength is not influenced by music volume or by music played at fast tempos (Ͼ120 beats/min) (206,207,311). Also, music played at fast tempos does not influence the bench press 1RM (29). Two studies have reported music played at slow tempos (Ͻ100 beats/min) reduces grip strength (206,311), but a more recent study reported no effect (207). ...
Article
Muscle strength - the maximal force generating capacity of a muscle or group of muscles - is regularly assessed in physiological experiments and clinical trials. An understanding of the expected variation in strength and the factors that contribute to this variation is important when designing experiments, describing methodologies, interpreting results, and attempting to replicate methods of others and reproduce their findings. In this review (Cores of Reproducibility in Physiology), we report on the intra- and inter-rater reliability of tests of upper- and lower-limb muscle strength and voluntary activation in humans. Isometric, isokinetic, and isoinertial strength exhibit good intra-rater reliability in most samples (correlation coefficients ≥ 0.90). However, some tests of isoinertial strength exhibit systematic bias that is not resolved by familiarization. With the exception of grip strength, few attempts have been made to examine inter-rater reliability of tests of muscle strength. The acute factors most likely to affect muscle strength and serve as a source of its variation from trial-to-trial or day-to-day include: attentional focus, breathing technique, remote muscle contractions, rest periods, temperature (core, muscle), time of day, visual feedback, body and limb posture, body stabilization, acute caffeine consumption, dehydration, pain, fatigue from preceding exercise, and static stretching >60 seconds. Voluntary activation - the nervous system's ability to drive a muscle to create its maximal force - exhibits good intra-rater reliability when examined with twitch interpolation (correlation coefficients > 0.80). However, inter-rater reliability has not been formally examined. Methodological factors most likely to influence voluntary activation are: myograph compliance and sensitivity; stimulation location, intensity, and inadvertent stimulation of antagonists; joint angle (muscle length); and the resting twitch.
... Συμπερασματικά, αναφέρεται ότι η ακρόαση της αυτό-επιλεγόμενης μουσικής δημιουργεί μία εργογόνα επίδραση που επιφέρει αποτέλεσμα και συνιστάται η χρήση της μουσικής κατά τη διάρκεια προπόνησης δύναμης ώστε o αθλητής / ασκούμενος να έχει καλύτερη απόδοση στη μυϊκή αντοχή. Το γεγονός ότι η μουσική επηρεάζει τη μυϊκή αντοχή, ενισχύουν οι Bartolomei, Michele, & Merni (2015), οι οποίοι εξέτασαν στην έρευνα τους την επίδραση της αυτόεπιλεγόμενης μουσικής κατά την διάρκεια επιδόσεων στην δύναμη. Τριάντα ένας προπονημένοι άνδρες κατατάχτηκαν τυχαία σε 2 ομάδες: α) ομάδα μουσικής και β) ομάδα ελέγχου. ...
Conference Paper
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Η χρήση της μουσικής κατά τη διάρκεια προπονήσεων είναι ένα συχνό φαινόμενο. Σκοπός της έρευνας ήταν να εξετάσει την επίδραση του «δυνατότερου» περιεχομένου ενός αυτο-επιλεγόμενου μουσικού κομματιού στην απόδοση της μέγιστης ισομετρικής συστολής των εκτεινόντων μυών του γόνατος. Δεκατέσσερις υγιείς φοιτητές της Σ.Ε.Φ.Α.Α.-Δ.Π.Θ., πραγματοποίησαν μέγιστες ισομετρικές συστολές των εκτεινόντων μυών του γόνατος του κυρίαρχου ποδιού σε γωνιακή θέση 70ο, σε τέσσερις διαφορετικές συνθήκες: α) βαλλιστική μέγιστη ισομετρική συστολή, σε συγχρονισμό με το «δυνατότερο» σημείο του μουσικού κομματιού (π.χ. ρεφρέν, σόλο, “drop” κ.λπ.), β) βαλλιστική μέγιστη ισομετρική συστολή, χωρίς μουσική, γ) προοδευτικά αυξανόμενη μέγιστη ισομετρική συστολή, σε συγχρονισμό με το «δυνατότερο» σημείο του μουσικού κομματιού, δ) προοδευτικά αυξανόμενη μέγιστη ισομετρική συστολή, χωρίς μουσική. Όλες οι προσπάθειες έγιναν σε δυναμόμετρο με τυχαία σειρά και διάλλειμα 3 λεπτών. Σε κάθε προσπάθεια καταγράφονταν, εκτός από τη μέγιστη ισομετρική ροπή, η μυϊκή ενεργοποίηση των εκτεινόντων του γόνατος και του δικέφαλου μηριαίου μυός με έναν ασύρματο ηλεκτρομυογράφο. Βρέθηκε πως η μουσική αυξάνει στατιστικά σημαντικά (p<.02) τη μέγιστη ισομετρική ροπή των εκτεινόντων μυών του γόνατος στις βαλλιστικές προσπάθειες κατά την άμεση μέγιστη ισομετρική συστολή τους, όταν αυτή συγχρονίζεται με το «δυνατότερο» σημείο του αυτό- επιλεγόμενου μουσικού κομματιού. Δεν βρέθηκαν στατιστικά σημαντικές διαφορές στις προοδευτικά αυξανόμενες προσπάθειες μεταξύ των συνθηκών. Δεν βρέθηκαν στατιστικά σημαντικές διαφορές στη μυϊκή ενεργοποίηση στις βαλλιστικές αλλά και στις προοδευτικά αυξανόμενες προσπάθειες, μεταξύ των συνθηκών. Από τα παραπάνω διαπιστώνεται ότι η μουσική μπορεί να αποτελέσει σημαντικό εργογόνο βοήθημα για την αύξηση της μυϊκής απόδοσης σε ισομετρικές συνθήκες
... All studies cited above have used SM as auditory stimuli. Furthermore, all studies on more complex movements have used self-selected SM (2,3,7). In conclusion, selfselected SM may be particularly appropriate when investigating the effects of music on high physical outputs. ...
Article
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International Journal of Exercise Science 15(6): 15-24, 2022. Most research concerning the effects of music on physical performance was conducted using endurance parameters. This study investigated the effects of relaxing (RLX) vs. self-selected stimulating music (SM) vs. no music (NM) on jump height (JH), jump power (PWR), and average rest period between jumps (RP) in 13 athletes (age: 25.5 ± 2.6 years). After a warm-up and listening to music (1 min) or NM, participants completed five squat jumps on a force plate. Psychological ratings of mood were assessed using a questionnaire before warm-up and after jumping. A one-way ANOVA was conducted to compare effects of music on JH, PWR, and RP. A Friedman test with Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to detect changes in mood. There were no significant effects of music on JH (p = 0.162) and PWR (p = 0.162). A trend towards longer RP in RLX when compared to SM was detected (+2.72 s, +22%, p = 0.059, d = 0.35). Participants felt more "relaxed" (+3 ranks) and more "powerful" after listening to SM (+2 ranks). Following NM and RLX, athletes felt more "energetic" (each +3 ranks) but less energetic (-3 ranks) after SM. In conclusion, this study did not find any performance-enhancing effects of self-selected SM on jump performance. The influences of music on psychological ratings were inconclusive. For this reason, no evidence-based guidelines for the practical application of music in elite jumping athletes can be made, and more studies are warranted.
... During all isometric and isokinetic measurements, the participants were verbally encouraged by the study investigators. In addition, to avoid any possible ergogenic effect [20], they were not allowed to listen to music during the assessment session. ...
Article
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Muscle architecture has been proposed as one of the most important determinants of muscle strength and power performance. The purpose of the present investigation was to correlate the muscle architecture with power, agility and maximal strength in Italian division I Field Hockey (FH) players. Twenty players (age = 25.4 ± 5.2 y; body mass = 78.5 ± 9.0 kg; body height = 179.6 ± 7.8 cm) were assessed for body composition, agility, sprint and maximal isometric force in squat (ISQ). The pro-agility test (PRO) and 30-m sprint (SPRINT) were used for agility and speed assessments, respectively. In addition, the pennation angle (PA), fascicle length (FL) and muscle thickness (MT) of the vastus lateralis were assessed via B-mode ultrasound. Large positive correlations were found between PRO and both PA and MT (r = 0.62; p = 0.006 and r = 0.51; p = 0.032, respectively). Moreover, SPRINT was positively correlated with PA and negatively correlated with FL (r = 0.50, p = 0.046; and r = −0.50; p = 0.034, respectively). Large positive correlations were also detected between body fat and both PRO and SPRINT (r = 0.58; p = 0.012 and r = 0.61; p = 0.009, respectively), indicating detrimental effects of the body fat on specific performances. The present findings showed the existence of large relationships between the muscle architecture of the vastus lateralis and physical characteristics related to elite performance in FH. Low PA and long FL of the vastus lateralis appear important parameters for agility and sprint performances.
... [4][5][6] Thus, it is not surprising that many surgeons utilize music to improve concentration and to mask the noise in the OR. 1 In other areas, such as exercise, music has been studied extensively and evidence largely supports the use of music: Many of these studies have focused on aerobic and endurance-based activities and commonly report improved performance. 6,7 The studies suggest a "distraction effect" by which music reduces attention from exercise. Especially preferred music is hypothesized to alter ones focus to external information (i.e., music) rather than focusing on discomfort and fatigue. ...
Article
Background: Spaced learning consists of blocks with highly condensed content that interrupted by breaks during which distractor activities, such as physical activity, are performed. The concept has been shown to be superior in complex motor skill acquisition like laparoscopic suturing and knot tying. Preliminary studies have solely been conducted with medical students. Therefore, it therefore remained unanswered if the spaced learning concept would also work for pediatric surgery residents. Methods: To evaluate the effectiveness of spaced learning, students and residents were asked to perform four surgeon's square knots on a bowel model within 30 minutes - prior and post 3 hours of hands-on training. To examine the long-term skills the same subjects were asked to perform a comparable, but more complex task, twelve months later; without receiving training in the meantime. Total time, knot stability, suture accuracy, knot quality, and laparoscopic performance were assessed. Additionally, motivation was accessed using the Questionnaire on Current Motivation. Differences were calculated using mixed ANOVA, Mann-Whitney U test and MANCOVA. Results: Twenty medical students and fourteen residents participated in the study. After randomization, eighteen were trained using the spaced learning concept and sixteen via conventional methods. Both groups had comparable baseline characteristics and improved significantly after training in all assessed measures. The spaced learning concept improved procedure performance as well as knot quality and stability in both students and residents. However, residents that trained via spaced learning showed significantly better long-term results regarding knot quality and speed in comparison to students. Although anxiety was significantly reduced in both training groups over time, residents were significantly more interested regarding knot tying than students. Conclusion: This study dispels any remaining doubt that the spaced learning concept might only work for medical students. It appears that the spaced learning concept is very suitable for residents in acquiring complex motor skills. It is superior to conventional training, resulting in improved procedural performance as well as knot quality and speed. Hence, tailored training programs should not only be integrated early on in students’ curricula but also in surgical training programs.
... Music intervention might provide physiological and psychological recovery via respiratory rhythms with music tempo. Music has been documented as an optimal modality to enhance strength performance [4][5][6], swimming [7,8], cycling [9,10], running [11][12][13], circuit exercise [14,15], Wingate anaerobic test [16][17][18][19], and skills acquisitions [20,21]. This evidence demonstrates that music intervention is a useful tool to alter psychological responses and fatigue-related symptoms in association enhancing exercise performance and recovery status. ...
Article
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Music has been reported as a positive intervention for improving psychophysiological conditions and exercise performance. However, the effects of music intervention on golf performance in association with psychophysiological responses have not been well examined in the literature. The purpose of the study was to investigate the acute effects of self-selected music intervention on golf swing and putting performance, heart rate (HR), HR variability (HRV), and anxiety. Twenty collegiate golfers voluntarily participated in this study (age = 20.2 ± 1.4 years, height = 171.7 ± 8.0 cm, body weight = 69.5 ± 14.6 kg, golf experience = 7.5 ± 2.1 years). A cross-over and within-subject design was used in this study. Participants performed a non-music trial (T1), pre-exercise music trial (T2), and simultaneous music trial (T3) in a randomized order with 48-72 h apart. The participants were attached to a HR monitor to record the HR and HRV during the measurement. The golf swing and putting performance was assessed by using the Golfzon golf simulator system. The state-trait anxiety inventory-state questionnaire (STAI-S) was used to evaluate anxiety state. All measurements were taken during baseline (phase one) and after resting or music intervention (phase two). Repeated measurement of analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Cohen's effect size (ES) were used for statistical analyses. The results show no significant differences in golf swing and putting performance (p > 0.05). However, significant decrease in STAI-S score was found in T2 (p = 0.047, ES = 0.32). A significant increase in the standard deviation of normal R-R interval (SDNN), low-frequency power spectrum (LF), standard deviation of along the line-of-identity (SD2) in T2 and T3 were observed (p < 0.05). In conclusion, a single pre-exercise or simultaneous self-selected music intervention contributes minor effects to golf performance in collegiate golfers. The positive benefits of self-selected music intervention on the psychological condition and cardia-related modulation while practicing golf is warranted.
... Psychological arousal and mental preparation have been demonstrated to influence power and maximal strength performance (13). Furthermore, significant improvements in strength endurance have been reported when self-selected music was used to obtain optimal arousal in trained individuals (4). ...
Article
The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of ammonia inhalants on lower body power and maximal isometric strength in trained men. Twenty experienced resistance trained men (age = 26.7 ± 3.7 y; body weight = 80.59 ± 9.0 kg; body height = 179.5 ± 5.7 cm) were tested for counter movement jump power (CMJP), maximal force and rate of force development (pRFD20) expressed during an isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP). Assessments were performed using either an ammonia salt inhalants (AI), a placebo (PL) or no inhalants (N). One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures was used to compare strength and power performance between the different trials. A significant (p < 0.01) increase in pRFD20 was detected following the use of AI. No significant effects of trial were noted for CMJP and IMTP maximal force (p = 0.251 and p = 0.075, respectively). Results of the present study showed a potential ergogenic effect of AI on rate of force development (i.e, explosive force output), with a trend towards an improvement in maximal force production. The mechanism of action may be related to the stimulatory action of AI often reported by athletes as a "psyching-up" effect. The positive effect of AI on the rate of force development may represent an advantage in sports requiring high rates of force production.
... Music is a widely used training tool by strength competitors and competitive athletes in the field. Various studies have confirmed the ability of music to impart the enhancement of strength, repetition volume, and the attenuation of fatigue during resistance exercise, although some conflicting information exists [18,[85][86][87]. Recent evidence has suggested that disparities between findings may be due to differences in music preference. ...
Article
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Listening to music has been repeatedly shown to have ergogenic benefits during various modes of exercise, including endurance, sprint, and resistance-based activities. Music is commonly incorporated into training regimens by recreational exercisers and competitive athletes alike. While specific modalities of exercise elicit varying physiological responses, listening to music has been shown to modulate many of these responses (i.e., heart rate, catecholamines, muscle activation) often leading to improved performance. Furthermore, listening to music during exercise may positively impact psychological (i.e., mood, motivation) and psychophysiological (i.e., rate of perceived exertion, arousal) changes, which may allow for favorable responses during an exercise challenge. However, there is mixed evidence regarding music’s efficacy, which may be mediated through differences in music selection and preference. Emerging evidence has shown that, whether an individual prefers or does not prefer the music they are listening to during exercise greatly influences their ergogenic potential in addition to physiological, psychological, and psychophysiological responses to exercise. From a practical standpoint, music may be controlled by the individual through headphones but is often played communally over speakers in locker rooms, gyms, and health clubs, which may have consequences on performance and training. The following review will describe the physiological, psychological, and psychophysiological responses to exercise while listening to music and how music preference may particularly alter them. Current knowledge and new evidence on how music preference factors into enhancing performance in various modes of exercise will be further discussed, incorporating practical considerations for individuals and practitioners in real-world applications to optimize performance.
... The match between music and movement from a more scientific perspective was also proved to enhance sports quality amongst athletes. Much research was conducted, particularly in looking at how synchronous music enhances the athlete's performances in many ergogenic aspects including longer endurance in physical tasks [10], increase of strength endurance performance [11], enhanced in-task affect during an endurance task [12] and other qualities. Synchronous music also improves coordination and saves energy [13]. ...
Article
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Objectives: To investigate the influence of different music genres on the psychological, psychophysical and psychophysiological responses during power-based and strength-based resistance exercises. Design: Repeated-measures counterbalanced design. Method: Sixteen resistance-trained participants completed an explosive power test in the squat and bench exercises at 30% 1RM across no music, electronic dance music, metal and self-selected conditions. Peak and mean values were recorded for power and velocity. A progressive loading protocol assessed the impact of condition on repetitions to failure at 60, 70 and 80% 1RM in the squat and bench exercises. For all tests, recording of heart rate and rating of perceived exertion were completed after every set, blood lactate after protocol completion, and mood states before and after. Results: Using magnitude-based inferences, music either had no effect or a small detrimental effect on power and velocity, depending on the exercise. Repetitions to failure increased by a small to moderate amount for all music conditions compared to no music at low but not high intensities. Self-selected music provided additional small benefits in repetitions than other music conditions. Rating of perceived exertion was similar between self-selected, metal and no music conditions, whereas electronic dance music revealed higher responses. Vigour increased after all music conditions but remained unchanged in no music. Conclusions: Explosive power exercises either remain unchanged or are disadvantaged when completed to music. Various music genres could improve repetition to failure training at low to moderate intensities, although individuals might expect greatest improvements using self-selected music, without concomitant increases in perceived effort.
Article
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RESUMEN La música para hacer ejercicio se ha convertido en una herramienta de uso regular tanto para deportistas como para personas que llevan a cabo alguna actividad física más o menos ocasional, de ahí el objetivo de indagar sobre los efectos que la música tiene a nivel físico-motor. Para esto se llevó a cabo una búsqueda con la utilización de las palabras claves: " music and exercise " y " music and performance " en la base de datos de SPORTDiscus, donde se obtuvieron 442 artículos de texto completo de los que, tras ser revisados, se seleccionaron 39. Los criterios para excluir los artículos fueron: estudios con poblaciones clínicas, artículos que incluyeran temas de psicología como cohesión de equipo, ansiedad, entre otras, no incluir el rendimiento como variable dependiente o donde se combinaba la música con algún otro tipo de refuerzo, por ejemplo: baile, frases de apoyo o dinero. Entre los resultados más importantes están que la música mejora el rendimiento en ejercicio aeróbico y anaeróbico, disminuye la percepción de la fatiga y genera cambios a nivel cardiovascular y hormonal. En conclusión los beneficios que se encontraron en materia de música y ejercicio se obtienen tanto antes, como durante y después de haber llevado a cabo la actividad física. ABSTRACT The music for exercise has become a common tool used by athletes and people who do physical activity with more or less regularity; in this context, the aim of this paper is to look at the physical-motor effects produced by music. For this was conducted a search using the keywords: "music and exercise" and "music and performance" in the database SPORTDiscus, where 442 full-text articles were obtained, which were reviewed and only selected 39. The criteria to exclude articles were: studies with clinical populations, articles including issues of psychology (motivation, cohesion of team, anxiety, among others), not include the performance as dependent variable or where it was combined music with some other type of reinforcement, for example: dance, phrases of support or money. Among the most 1 Correspondencia en relación con este artículo:
Article
D'Agata, MN, Staub, JP, Scavone, DJ, and Kane, GM. The effect of external dissociative stimuli on plank duration performed by male collegiate soccer players. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2022-Individuals commonly use music as an external auditory stimulus to divert their attention away from aerobic endurance exercise tasks. Music generally results in lower ratings of perceived exertion, which may be the mechanism by which it increases aerobic exercise task duration. However, less is known regarding how music affects the performance of other forms of exercise, such as isometric exercise. Moreover, the effects of different external stimuli on isometric task duration, such as the use of virtual reality (VR), have yet to be investigated. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of self-selected music (SSM) and VR on isometric exercise task duration using a forearm plank. We hypothesized that both SSM and VR would effectively increase plank duration compared with no external stimuli. Seventeen male collegiate soccer players (19 ± 1 year) completed 3 planks to failure on 3 separate days, with 48-72 hours between the trials. The ordering of each exercise condition (SSM, VR, or None) was randomized for a total of 6 potential orders. A one-way repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to evaluate differences in plank duration and average heart rate (HRavg) between each trial, and significance was set at p < 0.05. There were no differences in plank duration (SSM: 200 ± 44, VR: 173 ± 38, None: 177 ± 37 seconds) or HRavg (SSM: 96 ± 18, VR: 92 ± 21, None: 87 ± 18 beats per minute) between the conditions. We conclude that there was no effect of external stimuli (SSM or VR) on isometric exercise task duration and the use of these modalities should be based on exerciser preference.
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The effect of using favorite music to improving maximum strength (1RM) on the course weightlifting students at the University of Jordan Abstract The study aimed to identify the effect of the using of favorite music on the improvement of the maximum strength (1RM) of the chest (upper body) and the lower part of the body (legs) of the training course using equipment and weights - Faculty of Physical Education University of Jordan. To achieve this, the researcher used Semi-experimental approach on the sample consisting of (n = 42) students divided into two groups: experimental (N = 20) and control (n = 22). Where they were chosen in a deliberate way to achieve the objectives of the study and its questions. The researcher used the favorite music for the experimental sample and did not use the favorite music for the control sample. To address data statistically, the researcher used percentages, arithmetic averages and standard deviations. The results of the study showed that there were statistically significant differences in the maximum force and for the experimental group. This was evident by the improvement in the maximum strength of the muscles of the chest and the lower part of the body (legs) in the experimental group which reached (17.57, 20.57) % respectively, Players when determining their maximum power to take advantage of the potential of the maximum players and invest in determining the intensity of their strength training, which is reflected positively on the effectiveness of the training process. Keywords: Favorite music, Maximum power (1RM), Weights, University of Jordan.
Article
Background: Music has been shown to improve aerobic and anaerobic exercise performance, however, music's effect on resistance training exercise, gender differences, and heart rate (HR) is less understood. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of self- selected music on anaerobic exercise performance using a bench press (BP) protocol and the Wingate anaerobic test (WAT). Methods: Fifteen (8 men; 7 women) healthy, college-aged students between 18-25 years old (20.1 ± 1.79 yrs) participated in this study. Testing consisted of two trials [music (M); no music (NM)] completed in a randomized order. Each participant performed the BP for a maximum number of repetitions using 70% one-repetition maximum for five sets. After a 10 min. rest period, a 30 sec. Wingate anaerobic test (WAT) was completed. Results: During the M condition, there was a significant increase in total work (M: 16121.8 ± 4287.3 kJ; NM: 15021.7 ± 4370.6 kJ; p= .024), relative peak power (M: 44.6 ±8.4 W; NM: 41.4 ± 8.4 W; p= .014), and the total number of bench press repetitions (M: 41.7 ± 8.7 reps; NM: 38.3± 8.1 reps; p=0.001). HR recovery following the WAT protocol was significantly quicker after the WAT protocol during the M condition (M: 256.2 ± 54.5 sec.; NM 293.3 ± 22.3 sec.; p=0.022). There was no significant condition * gender interaction for any of the variables assessed. Conclusions: Listening to self-selected music improved exercise performance during the BP and the WAT. Music also hastened HR recovery following the WAT.
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Background Strength training plays a crucial role in promoting healthy ageing and music might affect how individuals perform and perceive strength exercises. This study aimed to investigate the effects of self-selected music (SSM) on muscle strength and affective states during maximal isometric contractions on a customized leg extension. Methods Twenty-six healthy middle-aged males (50.8 ± 8.4 years) performed maximal and endurance isometric strength tests under three different conditions: SSM, motivational music (MM), and control condition (CC). Peak force and Rate of Force Development (RFD) were assessed during the maximal isometric strength test. The isometric endurance test evaluated the mean force and a fatigue index. Moreover, Felt Arousal Scale (FAS) was administered before the strength protocol, whereas the Rate of Perceived Exertion (RPE) and Feeling Scale (FS) at the end of it. Results Mean force was significantly higher in the SSM (507.3 ± 132.2 N) than MM (476.3 ± 122.4 N, p < 0.01) and CC (484.6 ± 119.2 N, p = 0.03). FAS was significantly higher in the SSM (4.0 [1.3] than MM (3.0 [2.3], p < 0.01) and CC (3.0 [1.3], p < 0.01) conditions. FS was significantly higher in the SSM (4.0 [2.0] than MM (3.0 [1.3], p < 0.01) and CC (3.0 [1.3], p < 0.01) conditions. No significant differences were found for peak force, RFD, fatigue index, and RPE. Conclusions Listening to SSM seems to influence isometric endurance strength performance in middle-aged adults positively. Moreover, listening to SSM might improve individuals’ affective states without affecting the level of perceived exertion.
Article
Bartolomei, S, Nigro, F, Malagoli Lanzoni, I, Masina, F, Di Michele, R, and Hoffman, JR. A comparison between total body and split routine resistance training programs in trained men. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2020-The purpose of the present investigation was to compare the effects of total body (TB) versus split routine (SR) resistance training workouts on maximal strength and muscle hypertrophy in trained men. Twenty-one resistance-trained men were randomly assigned to either a TB (TB: age = 24.1 ± 4.4 years; body mass = 78.7 ± 11.3 kg; body height = 177.0 ± 3.9 cm) or the SR group (SR: age = 24.9 ± 4.2 years; body mass = 79.2 ± 9.5 kg; body height = 175.2 ± 6.0 cm). Both groups performed a 10-week resistance training program. Isokinetic bench press at 75 and 25 cm·s (ISOK75 and ISOK25, respectively), isometric bench press (ISOBP), isometric squat (ISOSQ), and one repetition maximum BP and SQ assessments were performed before and after training. Muscle thickness of the pectoralis major (PECMT), superior part of trapezius (TRAPMT), and vastus lateralis (VLMT) muscles was also evaluated at the same timepoints using ultrasonography. Improvements were observed in both groups for all strength assessments and muscle thicknesses. Only changes in ISOK25 were significantly (p = 0.015) greater in TB than in SR, while significantly greater (p = 0.037) changes in VLMT were detected in SR compared with TB. Results indicated that a TB training paradigm may be more appropriate for maximal strength improvement, while an SR training protocol may be more optimal in stimulating muscle growth in experienced, resistance-trained men.
Article
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of listening to pre-exercise music on bench press performance. We recruited 10 resistance trained males (M age= 22.8, SD = 5.8 years; M height= 173.7, SD = 8.3 cm; M body mass = 81.0, SD = 18.2 kg) for this crossover counterbalanced research design. Participants completed two bench press exercise trials of (a) No music (NM), and (b) Pre-exercise music (PreExM) separated by at least 48 hours. For each trial, following a warm-up, participants listened to music or no music for three minutes. After this 3-minute period, they completed one set of bench press repetitions with maximum explosive intent at 75% one repetition maximum (1 RPM). We used a rotary encoder to measure power and velocity of barbell movement. After a 3-minute rest during which they again listened to music or no music, participants completed another set of repetitions to failure (RTF) at 75% of 1RM. Immediately following this second set of repetitions, we measured exercise motivation with a visual analog scale (VAS). We found that the PreExM condition increased mean power output (p = 0.005; d = 0.792) and barbell velocity (p = 0.015; d = 0.722). RTF were significantly higher during the PreExM versus NM trial (p = 0.002; d = 0.985), and motivation was significantly higher in the PreExM trial versus NM (p = 0.001; d = 0.932). These findings suggest improved muscle power explosiveness and strength-endurance when listening to music before a bench press exercise. From a practical standpoint, athletes who have the option of listening to music immediately prior to resistance exercise may benefit from its use.
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Music is made up of several features ( e.g ., melody and rhythm) and it accompanies our life in different daily activities. During the last years, there was a growing interest in research about the music-related effects in the exercise domain. Music stimuli could act as an ergogenic effect leading to improvements in health-related and physical fitness components like cardiorespiratory endurance and muscular fitness. Moreover, listening to music may positively affect individuals’ psychological state which could lead to increased exercise adherence. Conflicting data exist regarding the effects of music on cardiorespiratory and muscle-strengthening exercises indicating that music’s characteristics ( i.e ., rhythm and musicality), studied samples ( i.e ., athletes and amateur) and methodology ( i.e ., self-selected music and research-selected music) might influence the results. Listening to music while exercising is becoming more frequent also in recreationally active individuals. While literature mainly focused on the effects of music in elite and amateur athletes, little data are available regarding recreationally active participants. Therefore, this review aims to summarize evidence regarding the effects of music on health-related physical fitness components in recreationally active individuals, specifically referring to cardiorespiratory endurance and muscular fitness. These outcomes will be helpful to all recreationally active participants to optimize the exercise protocol with the use of music.
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Self-selected music intensity (i.e., volume) and perceived music usefulness were examined across a range of exercise intensities that were standardized around ventilatory threshold (VT). The influence of gender and athletic status (i.e., athletes vs. recreational exercisers) was also explored. Participants were male (n 23) and female (n 19) volunteers; 18 were recreational exercisers, and 24 were collegiate athletes. Participants completed a maximal treadmill graded exercise test (GXT) while listening to motivational music. Participants controlled the music volume, and could adjust it at any time during the GXT. Ratings of music usefulness were collected at 1-min intervals throughout the test. It was expected that both music intensity and perceived music usefulness would be highest at or immediately after VT, and lowest at the extreme beginning and end of the test. This quadratic trend was confirmed by our results. Recreational exercisers preferred louder music than athletes, and made more volume adjustments at points beyond VT. No gender differences were observed for music intensity. Music was perceived as increasingly useful up until the point of VT, after which ratings plateaued and then declined during cool-down; however, a gender task intensity interaction revealed that whereas males followed a clear quadratic trend, females rated music as increasingly useful until the end point of the GXT. The results of this study are supportive of the information processing framework. Individual differences in preferred music intensity and use of music should be considered in future investigations.
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The quest to increase lean body mass is widely pursued by those who lift weights. Research is lacking, however, as to the best approach for maximizing exercise-induced muscle growth. Bodybuilders generally train with moderate loads and fairly short rest intervals that induce high amounts of metabolic stress. Powerlifters, on the other hand, routinely train with high-intensity loads and lengthy rest periods between sets. Although both groups are known to display impressive muscularity, it is not clear which method is superior for hypertrophic gains. It has been shown that many factors mediate the hypertrophic process and that mechanical tension, muscle damage, and metabolic stress all can play a role in exercise-induced muscle growth. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is twofold: (a) to extensively review the literature as to the mechanisms of muscle hypertrophy and their application to exercise training and (b) to draw conclusions from the research as to the optimal protocol for maximizing muscle growth.
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Previous meta-analyses have compared the effects of single to multiple sets on strength, but analyses on muscle hypertrophy are lacking. The purpose of this study was to use multilevel meta-regression to compare the effects of single and multiple sets per exercise on muscle hypertrophy. The analysis comprised 55 effect sizes (ESs), nested within 19 treatment groups and 8 studies. Multiple sets were associated with a larger ES than a single set (difference = 0.10 +/- 0.04; confidence interval [CI]: 0.02, 0.19; p = 0.016). In a dose-response model, there was a trend for 2-3 sets per exercise to be associated with a greater ES than 1 set (difference = 0.09 +/- 0.05; CI: -0.02, 0.20; p = 0.09), and a trend for 4-6 sets per exercise to be associated with a greater ES than 1 set (difference = 0.20 +/- 0.11; CI: -0.04, 0.43; p = 0.096). Both of these trends were significant when considering permutation test p values (p < 0.01). There was no significant difference between 2-3 sets per exercise and 4-6 sets per exercise (difference = 0.10 +/- 0.10; CI: -0.09, 0.30; p = 0.29). There was a tendency for increasing ESs for an increasing number of sets (0.24 for 1 set, 0.34 for 2-3 sets, and 0.44 for 4-6 sets). Sensitivity analysis revealed no highly influential studies that affected the magnitude of the observed differences, but one study did slightly influence the level of significance and CI width. No evidence of publication bias was observed. In conclusion, multiple sets are associated with 40% greater hypertrophy-related ESs than 1 set, in both trained and untrained subjects.
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Although athletes frequently report using music while training or before an event, laboratory studies have not detected a beneficial effect, so the influence of positive and negative music on performance of a selected karate drill was investigated in this double-blind study using 14 volunteers from two Shotokan karate schools. Each subject performed a preselected drill three times following positive and negative music and white noise in a random order. Performance of the drill was rated on a 7-item, 5-point scale by 2 rates. Differences among conditions were assessed via a with-in-subject t test for paired scores. The subjects' self-evaluation of their performance was also examined. Enhancement of performance for both types of music over white noise was significant.
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The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of stimulative (energizing) and sedative (relaxing) music on grip strength. A 2 x 3 (gender x condition) repeated-measures analysis of variance and post hoc tests showed that participants (N = 50) evidenced higher grip strength after listening to stimulative music (M = 43.94 kg.force) than after sedative music or a white noise control condition. Sedative music yielded lower scores than white noise. Men evidenced higher grip strength than women, but there was no interaction between gender and music condition. It was concluded that a simple motoric task such as grip strength provides a sensitive measure of psychophysical responses to music.
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Equivocal results of the psychophysical effects of music have been explained in part by the insensitivity of researchers to important personal and situational variables when selecting music. The aim of the present study was to operationalize a conceptual framework for the prediction of psychophysical responses to music into a music rating inventory to assess the motivational qualities of music in exercise and sport environments. An initial item pool was developed and administered to 334 aerobics instructors. Exploratory factor analysis produced a 13-item, four-factor structure (association, musicality, cultural impact and rhythm response), which accounted for 59.2% of the variance. This model demonstrated acceptable fit indices when tested using confirmatory factor analysis on 314 exercise-to-music participants, and was better than an alternative two-factor model. When cross-validated using multisample confirmatory factor analysis, the model also showed an acceptable fit overall, although some invariance in the rhythm response factor was evident that can be attributed to the exclusive use of synchronous music by aerobics instructors. The Brunel Music Rating Inventory appears to be a valid and reliable tool for both researchers and practitioners to assess the motivational qualities of music in exercise and sport environments.
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This study evaluated the effect of music on the mood of women during exercise. 16 middle-aged women, aged 49.9 +/- 7.53 yr., performed 60-min. bench stepping exercise while listening to Japanese traditional folk song, aerobic dance music, or nonmusic. The subjects reported significantly less fatigue with aerobic dance music and Japanese traditional folk song than with nonmusic. Aerobic dance music was associated with significantly more vigor and less confusion than nonmusic.
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The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of music preference and exercise intensity on exercise enjoyment, perceived exertion (RPE), and attentional focus. Participants were assigned to 1 of 3 music preference conditions (most preferred, least preferred, or no music) and walked/ran on a treadmill at 1 of 3 exercise intensities (low, moderate, or high) for 20 minutes. Measures of exercise enjoyment, RPE, and attentional focus (association, dissociation, distress) were taken. A3 × 3 ANOVA on enjoyment revealed that when participants paid attention to the music, music accounted for roughly 5% of the variance in exercise enjoyment (p = .04). Results of a 3 (music) × 3 (intensity) repeated measures ANOVA on RPE showed a main effect of intensity (p < .001) but no main effect for music and no interaction effect. A 3 × 3 ANOVA on attentional focus revealed that those in the high intensity condition reported the greatest association (p < .001) and distress (p < .001). Although not significant, on average, participants in the most preferred music condition reported the highest levels of dissociation.
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The purpose of this study was to compare two different periodization models in strength and power athletes. Twenty-four experienced resistance trained man were randomly assigned to either a block periodization training program (BP; age = 24.2±3.1 years, body mass = 78.5±11.0 kg, height = 177.6±4.9 cm) or to a traditional periodization program (TP; age = 26.2±6.0 years; body mass = 80.5±13.3 kg, height = 179.2±4.6). Participants in both training programs performed four-training sessions per week. Each training program consisted of the same exercises and same volume of training (total resistance lifted per session). The difference between the groups was in the manipulation of training intensity within each training phase. Strength and power testing occurred before training (PRE) and following 15 weeks (POST) of training. Magnitude-based inferences were used to compare strength and power performance between the groups. Participants in BP were more likely (79.8%) to increase the area under the force-power curve than TP. Participants in BP also demonstrated a likely positive (92.76%) decrease in the load corresponding to maximal power at the bench press compared to TP group, and a possible improvement (∼ 60%) in maximal strength and power in the bench press. No significant changes were noted between groups in lower body strength or jump power performance following the 15 week training period. Results of this study indicate that BP may enhance upper-body power expression to a greater extent than TP with equal volume, however, no differences were detected for lower body performance and body composition measures.
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24 female undergraduates performed 3 18-min sessions on a cycle ergometer at light, moderate, and heavy workloads during which perceived exertion, affect, and heart rate were monitored. Each S participated in a control, deprivation, and music condition. No significant differences were found in heart rate between conditions. Significantly lower perceived exertion existed during the music compared with the deprived condition at the low workload. There was lower perceived exertion during the music compared with the control condition at the moderate workload. Significantly greater levels of affect were observed during the music compared with the deprived condition at the moderate and heavy workloads. The influence of music and deprivation on perceived exertion and affect appears to be load dependent. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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To determine whether different kinds of music have differential effects on arousal as measured by grip strength, the initial grip strength of 49 undergraduates was measured and retested while Ss listened to stimulative music, sedative music, and silence. ANOVA indicated that sedative music decreased strength relative to silence, while stimulative music had no effect on grip strength. (8 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Since a 1997 review by Karageorghis and Terry, which highlighted the state of knowledge and methodological weaknesses, the number of studies investigating musical reactivity in relation to exercise has swelled considerably. In this two-part review paper, the development of conceptual approaches and mechanisms underlying the effects of music are explicated (Part I), followed by a critical review and synthesis of empirical work (spread over Parts I and II). Pre-task music has been shown to optimise arousal, facilitate task-relevant imagery and improve performance in simple motoric tasks. During repetitive, endurance-type activities, self-selected, motivational and stimulative music has been shown to enhance affect, reduce ratings of perceived exertion, improve energy efficiency and lead to increased work output. There is evidence to suggest that carefully selected music can promote ergogenic and psychological benefits during high-intensity exercise, although it appears to be ineffective in reducing perceptions of exertion beyond the anaerobic threshold. The effects of music appear to be at their most potent when it is used to accompany self-paced exercise or in externally valid conditions. When selected according to its motivational qualities, the positive impact of music on both psychological state and performance is magnified. Guidelines are provided for future research and exercise practitioners.
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The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of motivating and oudeterous (neither motivating nor demotivating) synchronous music on 400-m sprint performance while controlling for the potential confound of pre-performance mood. A panel of volunteer Caucasian males ( n = 20; mean age = 20.5 years, s = 1.2) rated the motivational qualities of 32 musical selections using the Brunel Music Rating Inventory-2. An experimental group of volunteer Caucasian males ( n = 36; mean age = 20.4 years, s = 1.4) completed three 400-m time trials under conditions of motivational music, oudeterous music, and a no-music control. Pre-performance mood was assessed using the Brunel University Mood Scale (BRUMS). A series of repeated-measures analyses of variance with Bonferroni adjustment revealed no differences in the BRUMS subscales. A repeated-measures analysis of variance on the 400-m times showed a significant effect ( F 1.24, 42.19 = 10.54, P 2 = 0.24) and follow-up pair wise comparisons revealed differences between the synchronous music conditions and the control condition. This finding supported the first research hypothesis, that synchronous music would result in better performance than a no-music control, but not the second hypothesis, that performance in the motivational synchronous music condition would be better than that in the oudeterous condition. It appears that synchronous music can be applied to anaerobic endurance performance among non-elite sportspersons with a considerable positive effect.
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The global proliferation of MP3 players such as iPods means coaches have an opportunity to access a tool to enhance coaching that much of the population already use widely, without considerable increase in investment of time or money. Research evidence strongly indicates that music has the ability to influence psychological and physiological factors and can improve performance measures significantly. Additionally, the nature of athlete's self-talk could possibly be influenced through the use of 'digiprompts,' resulting in more focused and productive training sessions. Research evidence also indicates a limited effect on athlete adaptation during unsupervised training sessions related to decreased training frequency and intensity. Coaches should always look for ways to enhance their coaching, but new technologies and methodologies will only be widely accepted if seen by the coaching community as readily accessible and able to facilitate efficient improvement in coaching methodologies and athlete development. With technological advances in music delivery systems and digital editing, digital media and delivery systems for distance coaching should be explored. This paper reviews several fields of research in an attempt to highlight how the use of what is now common digital technology can create a 'surrogate coach.' Through the development of structured and specific digital training aids, the effects of music as an ergogenic aid means the use of MP3 players seems a logical step forward for coaches, and unsupervised training could potentially be made more effective.
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Music and sport are both highly significant cultural forms, yet the substantial and longstanding connections between the two have largely been overlooked. Sporting Sounds addresses this oversight in an intriguing and innovative collection of essays. With contributions from leading international psychologists, sociologists, historians, musicologists and specialists in sports and cultural studies, the book illuminates our understanding of the vital part music has played in the performance, reception and commodification of sport. It explores a fascinating range of topics and case studies, including: The use of music to enhance sporting performance. Professional applications of music in sport. Sporting anthems as historical commemorations. Music at the Olympics. Supporter rock music in Swedish sport. Caribbean cricket and calypso music. From local fan cultures to international mega-events, music and sport are inextricably entwined. Sporting Sounds is a stimulating and illuminating read for anybody with an interest in either of these cultural forms. © 2009 Selection and editorial matter, Anthony Bateman and John Bale. All rights reserved.
Article
The influence of music on physiological and affective exercise responses was studied in 8 trained and 8 untrained runners under three music conditions ("no", "sedative", and "fast") during low, moderate, and high intensity exercise. Repeated measures ANOVA revealed increased respiratory frequency (FR) during fast music as compared to the no music and sedative music conditions (p < 0.01). Plasma cortisol levels did not differ at baseline across the music conditions; however, following high intensity exercise, higher cortisol levels were associated with fast music as compared to no music and sedative music (music x intensity interaction, p < 0.01). Affective measures during exercise (FEELING scale) showed no overall training group differences; however, there was a music x group x intensity interaction (p < 0.05) in which untrained subjects reported more positive affect compared to trained subjects while listening to fast music during low and high intensity exercise. Data collected at voluntary exhaustion revealed significantly more positive affect and higher skin temperature (p values < 0.01) in untrained compared to trained subjects. Collectively, these results suggest listening to fast, upbeat music during exercise may be beneficial for untrained runners but counterproductive for trained runners.
Article
This study examined the effects of background music on test performance. In a repeated-measures design 30 undergraduates completed two cognitive tests, one in silence and the other with background music. Analysis suggested that music facilitated cognitive performance compared with the control condition of no music: more questions were completed and more answers were correct. There was no difference in heart rate under the two conditions. The improved performance under the music condition might be directly related to the type of music used.
Article
The effects of different types of music on ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) during 20 min. of moderate intensity exercise were examined. 27 physically active subjects (age 18-30 yr.) performed a graded exercise test on a cycle ergometer to establish peak aerobic power (VO2peak). Four 20-min. exercise sessions were performed at a power output equal to 70% of VO2peak in a soundproof visually sterile room. The sessions were randomly assigned from the conditions of fast upbeat music, classical music, self-selected music, and no music. Heart rate, peripheral RPE, central RPE, and overall RPE were measured every 5 min. during exercise. No significant differences were found in heart rate among the four conditions indicating similar exercise intensity during each condition. Each type of music resulted in a reduced peripheral, central, and overall RPE when compared with the no-music condition. The data indicate that different types of music can act as an effective passive distractor during exercise and are associated with lower ratings of perceived exertion.
Article
We examined the effect of listening to two different types of music (with slow and fast rhythm), prior to supramaximal cycle exercise, on performance, heart rate, the concentration of lactate and ammonia in blood, and the concentration of catecholamines in plasma. Six male students participated in this study. After listening to slow rhythm or fast rhythm music for 20 min, the subjects performed supramaximal exercise for 45 s using a cycle ergometer. Listening to slow and fast rhythm music prior to supramaximal exercise did not significantly affect the mean power output. The plasma norepinephrine concentration immediately before the end of listening to slow rhythm music was significantly lower than before listening (p < 0.05). The plasma epinephrine concentration immediately before the end of listening to fast rhythm music was significantly higher than before listening (p < 0.05). The type of music had no effect on blood lactate and ammonia levels or on plasma catecholamine levels following exercise. In conclusion, listening to slow rhythm music decreases the plasma norepinephrine level, and listening to fast rhythm music increases the plasma epinephrine level. The type of music has no impact on power output during exercise.
Article
This study tested the effects of exposure to self-selected motivational music both prior to and during performance of a muscular endurance task. 27 male undergraduate students in sports science completed an isometric weight-holding task on two separate occasions while listening either to self-selected motivational music or white noise. Participants were assigned to one of three groups on the basis of scores on a familiarization trial. The three groups were Prior Exposure, music or white noise played immediately before task commencement; Half Exposure, conditions initiated simultaneously with task commencement but terminated approximately half-way through the trial; and Full Exposure, conditions initiated simultaneously with trial commencement and continuing until voluntary cessation. A two-way mixed-model analysis of variance yielded a significant interaction and a main effect for condition. Participants held the weight suspended significantly longer when listening to music than with white noise. For the interaction, analysis of gain scores indicated participants' performance increased more for exposure to music during the entire session, than for exposure to music prior to the session. These results suggest that exposure to music during muscular endurance trials can yield significantly longer endurance times, but that exposure to music prior to task commencement may not carry over to influence performance.
Article
To assess effects of familiarity of music on treadmill endurance, 15 female undergraduates in sports science performed an incremental treadmill walking task on three separate occasions while listening to Familiar Music, Unfamiliar Music, and White Noise. A repeated-measures analysis of variance indicated that participants walked for significantly longer when accompanied by Familiar and Unfamiliar Music in comparison to White Noise (p<.01). Although participants rated Familiar Music as significantly more motivating than Unfamiliar music (p<.05), no significant differences were found between the two music conditions for treadmill endurance. Heart rates did not appear to be influenced by music during treadmill walking or on completion of the task.
Article
Previous research work on the ergogenic effects of music has mainly involved constant power tests to exhaustion as dependent variables. Time trials are more externally valid than constant power tests, may be more reliable and allow the distribution of self-selected work-rate to be explored. We examined whether music improved starting, finishing and/or overall power during a 10-km cycling time trial, and whether heart rate and subjective responses to this time trial were altered by music. Sixteen participants performed two 10-km time trials on a Cybex cycle ergometer with, and without, the presence of a form of dance music known as "trance" (tempo = 142 beats x min (-1), volume at ear = 87 dB). Participants also completed the Brunel music rating inventory (BMRI) after each time trial in the music condition. The mean +/- SD time to complete the time trial was 1030 +/- 79 s in the music condition compared to 1052 +/- 77 s without music (95 % CI of difference = 10 to 34 s, p = 0.001). Nevertheless, ratings of perceived exertion were consistently (0.8 units) higher throughout the time trial with music (p < 0.0005). The interaction between distance and condition was significant for cycling speed measured during the time trial (p = 0.007). The largest music-induced increases in cycling speed and heart rate were observed in the first 3 km of the time trial. After completion of the BMRI, participants rated the "tempo" and "rhythm" of the music as more motivating than the "harmony" and "melody" aspects. These results suggest that music improves cycling speed mostly in the first few minutes of a 10-km time trial. In contrast to the findings of previous research, which suggested that music lowers perceived exertion at a constant work-rate, the participants in our time trials selected higher work-rates with music, whilst at the same time perceived these work-rates as being harder than without music.
Article
The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of motivating and oudeterous (neither motivating nor demotivating) synchronous music on 400-m sprint performance while controlling for the potential confound of pre-performance mood. A panel of volunteer Caucasian males (n = 20; mean age = 20.5 years, s = 1.2) rated the motivational qualities of 32 musical selections using the Brunel Music Rating Inventory-2. An experimental group of volunteer Caucasian males (n = 36; mean age = 20.4 years, s = 1.4) completed three 400-m time trials under conditions of motivational music, oudeterous music, and a no-music control. Pre-performance mood was assessed using the Brunel University Mood Scale (BRUMS). A series of repeated-measures analyses of variance with Bonferroni adjustment revealed no differences in the BRUMS subscales. A repeated-measures analysis of variance on the 400-m times showed a significant effect (F1.24, 42.19 = 10.54, P < 0.001, eta 2 = 0.24) and follow-up pair wise comparisons revealed differences between the synchronous music conditions and the control condition. This finding supported the first research hypothesis, that synchronous music would result in better performance than a no-music control, but not the second hypothesis, that performance in the motivational synchronous music condition would be better than that in the oudeterous condition. It appears that synchronous music can be applied to anaerobic endurance performance among non-elite sports persons with a considerable positive effect.
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