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Screen Smart Parenting: How to Find Balance and Benefit in Your Child's Use of Social Media, Apps and Digital Devices , by J. Gold

Authors:
  • Rutgers Medical School,
Gold, J. (2015). Screen Smart Parenting: How to Find Balance and Benefit In Your Child’s Use
of Social Media, Apps and Digital Devices. New York: Guilford press, xii + 314 pp., $14.95
(paperback.
Jodi Gold, Clinical Assistant Professor at Weill Cornell Medical College, is a board-certified
child and adolescent psychiatrist with an interest in social media and the new digital world. Her
book is meant to give parents important insights as they attempt to raise children in a world that
may be foreign to them. The book is organized into three sections, the first being an introduction
to “the brave new digital world” in which Gold tries to educate parents on safety online, what she
terms digital citizenship and to create an understanding of how technology affects children’s
development. The second portion of her book is about growing up digitally where she breaks
down the developmental interface of children and digital media from ages 0 to 2, 3 to 5, 6 to 8, 8
to 10, 11 to 14 and the older teen years from 14-18. Part three consists of two chapters, the first
focusing on how electronic use may need to be modified with children with ADHD, anxiety and
depression. The second and last chapter is about digital limit setting and discusses the pros and
cons of using electronics as both an incentive and a consequence.
Gold believes that teaching family values and teaching children to be resilient can be extended
into the digital world. Children can be raised to ethically manage their peers when off-line and
Facebook, YouTube or whatever the current socially involved program happens to be when
online. Good citizenship can exist both “in the real world” and in the digital world. Regarding
resilience Gold coaches parents to have ongoing discussions regarding what is fantasy and what
is not, not only for TV and movies, but also for the Internet and social media. She encourages
parents to identify stereotyping and, because of the increasing amount of violence in all media, to
engage in dialogue with their children to violence and their reaction to it. Children will benefit
from being taught to be critical regarding advertising images and messages and to learn to be
critical consumers. It is most important that parents teach children to assess the credibility and
authenticity of websites. Almost any point that one wants to make can be “proven” on the
Internet Teaching children to recognize that the Internet, and even Wikipedia, should not be
immediately trusted becomes an essential developmental tool. Gold suggests that parents follow
their children on social media sites and that parents make any comments in person, rather than
online if errors are recognized. Errors made can be turned into teachable moments rather than
causes for punishment. Just as in the real world, children are encouraged to apologize and correct
online mistakes. It is important for parents to develop open communication with their children so
that they feel comfortable enough to come to parents regarding mistakes and concerns. Gold asks
parents to do introspection and to define their parenting style. She asks parents to think about
their own parents and to define what they believe their strengths and weaknesses might be and to
also be sensitive to what influence their parents may have had emotionally in their lives. Did
parents have lots of rules and expectations for you? Where you punished, even harshly, when
you did something wrong? Did you have adult role models other than your own parents? Parents
are asked to analyze how they would like to parent similarly and differently from their parents.
Gold reviews parental warmth and responsiveness, methods of parental control and even
provides a little quiz to help define current digital parenting style. Gold reviews the authoritarian,
authoritative, permissive and laissez-faire parenting styles, pointing out the effects of each and
citing the evidence that authoritative parents are in the best position to promote online resilience
and compliance with digital rules. Gold asks parents to assess their own technology utilization,
noting that it will be very difficult to limit children’s screen time if the TV is on in the
background all the time or if the parents themselves are always on their digital devices. Gold
suggests keeping a media diary for each member of the family to keep track of use and prevent
overuse.
Gold references information generated by the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) which
notes that having a TV in the bedroom can be linked to obesity. A study done in Britain noted
that the higher the mean daily hours of TV viewed on weekends, the higher the Body Mass Index
(BMI) was at age 30. For each additional hour of TV watching over 2, there was a 7% increase in
BMI. Even with very young children, children who at age 3 viewed more than eight hours of TV
per week had an increased risk for obesity by age 7. The AAP defines screen overuse as anything
more than two hours a day. Gold opposes placing TVs in children’s bedrooms. Not only does it
increase the risk of obesity by decreasing the time spent being physically active, children with
TVs in the room ate fewer family meals, were more prone to drink sweetened beverages and also
ate fewer vegetables. Studies seem to show that these days, 70% of children have TVs in their
bedroom. Young children who have TVs in their bedroom on average, watch one hour more per
day than children without TVs so readily available.
Children who have TVs in the room or even portable digital devices are at increased risk for
being sleep deprived or developing sleep disorders. One way that screened instruments, whether
they be televisions, tablets, smart phones or computers, disturbs sleep is that the light coming
from such devices impacts and delays the release of melatonin and can therefore disrupt the
normal sleep – wake cycle. Often, even aside from the negative impact on melatonin, nighttime
technology use is simply overstimulating. Sleeping with a smart phone has become a national
epidemic. Gold notes that it is not enough for teens to turn off their phone or tablet but urges that
they go to bed with such devices in another room.
The impact of technology on cognitive development has not yet been consistently determined.
Digital use in moderation is felt to positively impact intelligence and education. That said, the
AAP recommends no screen time for children under two years of age. These days, it would
appear that few parents of toddlers follow that guideline. In 2013 research suggested that 38% of
children under two have used a mobile device. Gold agrees with the AAP that children should
not be watching traditional TV, but does believe that developmental programs meant for very
young children can cultivate cognitive skills and positively impact educational performance.
Interactive technology has been shown to have a positive impact on intelligence. With older
individuals, digital media can enhance attention and concentration, visual memory, visual
perceptual skills, processing speed, expand knowledge bases, positively impact language and
literacy and also impact the ability to organize information. In older children, technology
increases the ability of children to use imaginative and creative play. Interestingly, social media,
due to its selective self presentation in profiles, has been shown to increase self-esteem ratings.
When people build profiles on the Internet, they tend to present their idealized self and this does
have an enhancing impact on ratings of self-esteem. Digital games have also progressed to the
point where they are not only interactive but are connected to other players, many of which
become the network of friends for users. In the past, children went out to the street corner to seek
their friends. Today the new street corner is digital.
The digital landscape can be viewed as having five platforms, those being TV, the computer,
video games, mobile media and social networking service. Web-based TV has greatly expanded
our ability to select from a very broad range of media as well as to watch original programming.
Interestingly, children often see TV as a foundation for multitasking, i.e. having the TV on and
doing homework or watching background material while doing other activities, like texting and
surfing the web. Gold notes that multitasking is in fact a misnomer but that being able to rapidly
shift the tension between various tasks can be a helpful skill. It also has its dangers which she
clearly defines.
In “the good old days” when you wanted to speak with someone you would either find them and
speak to them directly or call them. Today texting is often the communication mode of choice
with teens who now average 30 phone calls per week and 750 texts per week. Children 8 to 18
on average spend 30 minutes a day making voice calls, but one and a half hours per day texting.
Only about 14% of teens have parental rules over the number of text they can send in any one
day. Some teenage girls have been known to send up to 10,000 texts in a single day!
Scattered throughout the book, Gold provides hints and tips. She provides a lexicon of new terms
related to the digital world such as Podcasts, streaming video, emoticons, emoji, screenshots,
sexting, snapchat and many others. Terms are explained together with many texting
abbreviations.
Gold explores digital games and acquaints parents with their different genres. The original video
games were basic ball and paddle games such as the classic Pong. Next came platform games
where players travels between platforms by jumping, climbing ladders or other devices. These
games are typified by such games as donkey Kong and super Mario. It did not take long for
fighting games to be developed where fighting is between two characters, one of which is
computer-controlled. These developed into first-person shooter games where the video
presentation is from the perspective of the shooter, such as in games like Halo and Call of Duty.
Other game genres involve adventure games such as Myst, simulation games such as Minecraft
and SimCity, music games such as Guitar Hero and sports games such as Madden football. Many
children, when they graduate from Legos gravitate to Minecraft where they can extend their
architecture and planning skills. Many games are role-playing games and have grown out of the
Dungeons & Dragons tradition. Many newer games are called MMORPG’s which stands for
massively multiplayer online role-playing games, one example of which is World of Warcraft.
Social networking his opened up a brave new world with image sharing, video sharing, blogging,
video chat, messaging and networking and collaboration. These days, a child can take one picture
and instantly have it be seen, shared and commented on by everyone identified as a friend.
Devices are now being marketed directly to and designed specifically for children. As soon as
parents become familiar with a site such as Facebook, teens will find other ones to use. Not
always bad in that prosocial, time management apps have been developed. The UNICEF Tap
Project is mentioned as one such example, in that for every 10 minutes someone does not touch
their phone, UNICEF donors fund one day of clean water for a child in need (tap.unicefusa.org).
A debate exists currently as to when children are old enough to be given a phone. This question
has also developed into at what age is it okay for children to be given a smart phone where they
have access to the Internet? Interestingly, young children are often provided phones when their
parents divorce so that they can be in closer contact with the noncustodial parent. Gold very
much believes that from early childhood, it is important for children to understand that having a
phone is a privilege not a right and it is important for parents to teach children to respect
expensive devices.
Gold introduces parents to many issues faced by their children. Facebook with its “friends”
concept puts children in a position where they need to decide what is better, having a good real
friends or having many Facebook friends. Facebook often leads children to over-share
information. Children hopefully learn the lesson that once anything is put into cyberspace it is
irretrievable. Selfie is now a term that is found his way into even the Oxford English Dictionary!
Gold poses the conundrum as to whether Selfies indicate the way in which information can now
be instantly shared or whether it seems to suggest that individuals have become too self-
absorbed. Interestingly, Gold notes that children who are unable to post self-portraits may be the
ones at more risk, in that they could have body image and identity issues. That said, Gold
counsels parents to encourage the use of Selfies, but only in moderation. Selfies and their cryptic
messages have had an impact on how information is communicated, in that it has evolved into
shorter and more visually potent messages. Some parents worry that instant, cryptic
communication may have negative effects on the way children read and write. In actuality, some
children actually learn better spelling and grammar because of texting. Some studies have found
that the use of texting is linked to improvements in reading and spelling. Texting in 8 to 12-year-
olds helped improve phonological awareness.
Gold notes that it seems that children are introduced to sex and being sexy at an ever earlier age.
When using search engines, she notes that the first click is usually innocent and potentially
educational. With each subsequent click, the risk of ending up on a webpage that is either
violent, racist, sexist or pornographic increases. Children do not have to work very hard to find
sexually explicit content. Gold notes that children do not learn to use digital technology
responsibly on their own and that this is one clear area where parental guidance and open
communication becomes very important. Gold notes that these days, the “birds and bees” talk
needs to include information about body image, consent, the magic of Photoshop, violence and
sexting. 20% of teens report that they have sent a message with sexual content and 30% report
receiving one. Gold believes that these numbers are underestimates as many teens believe that
sexting only involves sending a nude picture rather than one that is just suggestive which many
teens now categorize as part of flirting and normal teen behavior. Children often use Snapchat to
send provocative messages, believing Snapchat’s statement that images will disappear in 10
seconds makes things really “disappear”. Anyone receiving such an image can take a screenshot
which will store that image forever. People’s inhibitions are often lowered when the person they
are communicating with is not directly in front of them. Teaching children that nothing is private
on the Internet is important. Gold suggests that parents should inform their children to conduct as
much of their relationship as possible in person. Gold notes that when teens have errors in
judgment in their Internet use, that simply taking their phone away may not be very effective.
Turning errors into a teaching opportunity may make children safer when they post, manage and
navigate the web.
When dealing with media devices and infants, Gold notes that the real problem is that these
devices not get in the way of growth and attachment. Parents who spend their efforts being good
parents need to worry less about how much digital media is “just right” for a child of any age.
Many parents do use digital media to calm their children or to occupy them when they are simply
too busy. Gold suggests that if a video is used to occupy children, it should be limited to one
show and then turned off. Gold does note that if parents have time to watch him video with their
very young child, it would be better spent playing with a real toy or reading a book with their
child. Under two, there are few educational programs or apps that have been documented to be
effective. Below two years of age, parental interaction is still paramount. If videos are to be used,
those that have music tend are preferable. Parents are urged to prescreen videos whenever
possible or to use sites like Common Sense Media which provide age-linked reviews of what is
available. Toddlers 1 to 2 years of age will respond to familiar and friendly characters so that
Thomas the Train, Dora the Explorer and Sesame Street are still recommended. One positive use
of screen time is for busy parents to encourage all the older children to watch TV or videos so
that the parent can have more free time with a baby or young toddler.
When children are between three and five their curiosity is often insatiable and video devices
provide a window for a great deal of interesting and educational activities. As with everything in
life, moderation is the key. Children learn to solve problems by trial and error, repetition and
observation. Toddlers can learn problem solving using digital devices but parents must make sure
that time is also dedicated to physical development. As noted above, Gold warns against putting
a TV or digital device in a child’s bedroom. She also suggest to not leave the TV on when no one
is watching it as it can detract from human interaction and increases screen time exposure. She
suggests that parents turn off all devices at least 30 minutes prior to bedtime. During the day, she
encourages providing lots of opportunities to run around and be physically active. It is important
that children be provided with many opportunities for real-life imaginative play. The use of
technology has burgeoned so that the number of children under age 8 who have used an app on a
digital device more than tripled to 50% in the two years between 2011 and 2013. When selecting
games or apps for toddlers look for easy to follow rules, lots of repetition, familiar themes, an
interactive format, those that mention or focus on toddler milestones such as nursery school or
potty training, games that focus on counting or colors and also letters and letter sounds. At this
age, avoid games that require keyboarding, contain advertising or that require in-game
purchases. Gold provides a page mentioning her favorite type of apps for toddlers and details
those that she believes are appropriate. Gold notes that technology is impossible to fight and
parents must except that it will be a part of their children’s life. Technology can be a tool for
learning. Interestingly, toddlers are often more engaged by simple e-books than by print books.
Apps for the 3 to 5-year-old can stimulate early learning and it can expose children to academic
subjects. No digital device can ever be a substitute for real-life interaction and children need
screen free time every day
The years between six and eight are the years when children make strides in their social skills,
their ability to abide by rules, their development of literacy and their development of
independence. Gold notes and is important for parents to take an interest in their child’s digital
life and to show children how technology can be used to develop and explore areas of interest.
Internet use guidelines and rules would best be established, these rules being flexible and
reasonable. Parents would best emphasize digital quality over quantity. Many digital games can
assist in the development of language, literacy, math and number skills, visual-spatial skills,
problem-solving, fine motor skills, executive planning and organization and creativity. Children
can be taken on “virtual field trips” and, as noted, interest areas can be further explored. Parents
can use some games to teach online etiquette and turn-taking. Providing children with e-books
can have its advantages in that, many have optional narration which can give 6 to 8-year-olds
increased independence to read on their own. Such features can be turned off if they are reading
out loud while with an adult. Some e-books have dictionaries built in so that when a word is
highlighted, how it sounds and what it means and be easily learned. Gold discourages use of
technology during play dates. When children are in other houses she suggests coaching them
before hand to ask to play a real board game or a game outside rather than a digital game. She
also suggests that children be coached to state that they are not allowed to watch “grown-up” TV
or movies and to define what games they are allowed to view. As with younger children, Gold
presents suggested applications to enhance online reading, math, creativity, physical activity and
beginning applications for social networking. Gold counsels parents to see technology as a tool
that can be used to cultivate interests. Children’s social skills are developing and technology can
be used to enhance social development as well as to encourage mastery and independence.
In the 8 to 10 year range digital usage tends to skyrocket. In this age range empathy for others
can be enhanced, gender roles and stereotypes tend to be internalized, children show increased
ability to think abstractly and children can internalize and understand the need for safety. About
one third of all 8 to 10-year-olds have their own cell phone. 20% of 8 to 10-year-olds use social
networking on a regular basis. Gold suggests that technology limits be put in place and the need
for parental controls begins at this point. Children need to be taught to take family rules with
them for sleepovers and camps. It is also at this age communications regarding cyber bullying
need to be introduced. Programs like Instagram can be established and Gold suggest that a parent
set up the account. Parents are encouraged to set privacy settings and require that children in this
age range ask permission to post pictures. Parents need to be sure that personal information is not
revealed. Gold suggests that copyright and credit for work be discussed with children she also
suggests that parents follow their children on whatever social media programs they sign up for so
that they can discuss with them anything that might be appropriate. For those children who do
have phones she suggests that the Internet not be activated. Gold suggests that phones be
programed so that only people on the contact list can be called. Children should be instructed
that, when outdoors, to keep their phone in their backpack or pocket and to not walk down the
street holding a phone. Phone use during school time is not to be permitted except for significant
emergencies. This is also the age where children can be taught to distinguish the difference
between perfect and real. With programs like Photoshop unreal expectations regarding physical
looks can easily be formed. Encourage children, especially girls, to wish healthy over sexy, fit
over thin, real over perfect and active over sedentary.
In the years between 11 and 14 cell phone use reaches 70%, videogame usage peaks and the
amount of time spent texting grows to about one hour a day. Children seldom text when they are
under 11. Children from 11 to 14 need help with time management both on and off line. Gold
suggests that both study time and sleep time be protected and that media usage be either
eliminated or supervised during study and sleep. Discussions based on family values about
friendship, technology and sex need to be ongoing. Parents need to establish clear rules and
boundaries for both on and off-line behavior and parents need to be good digital role models.
During homework, Gold suggests that phones be kept in another room. She also suggests that
homework be done in a public place and that computers be also kept in a public place. Today, so
many children have their own laptops or computers or tablets that it is hard to follow this
guideline. Parents should guide children into first complete homework that does not require a
computer or the Internet. In some schools, children can go online to confirm their assignments
before starting homework. When parents are home, it is suggested that they help their child
create a homework plan, together with time estimates for each subject. Gold suggests that parents
inform their children that they (the parents) must know all of their passwords and that cloud-
based storage be used so that parents have access to where their child has been digitally and what
texts are being sent. Children need to be taught to answer their phone if the call comes from one
of their parents. She suggests that phones be held during homework and during sleep time. Gold
also suggests that children be encouraged to actually speak in person to anyone from whom they
also receives texts. Between the ages of 13 to 17 teens send approximately 3400 texts per month
and that girls often send over 4000! Hypertexting is defined as sending over 3600 texts a month
which means that many teenage girls send for too many texts. Teens often can spend three hours
or more on social media sites where risks for smoking, risky sex, depression, eating disorders,
drug and alcohol abuse and school absenteeism can be too easily influenced. Children need to be
taught, especially when they are between 11 and12, that reading their texts is not an invasion of
privacy but is protective and educational. As children get older and have proved themselves
responsible, monitoring can decrease. Gold also suggests that children in this age still gain
permission to join social media networks, that parents keep all the child’s passwords and that
children gain permission to buy new apps and games. It is during this age that cyber bullying
becomes more common with 25 to 40% of all teenagers being victims. This number is
increasing. 5% of high school students avoid school due to safety concerns. 70% of all teens
report they have seen bullying online and 90% report that they have done nothing about it. Only
one in 10 tell their parents that they are being bullied. Sadly, cyber bullying has been linked with
increased risk for suicide. Parents are urged to be wary of declining grades in school, social
isolation and withdrawal, mood changes, increased physical complaints, nightmares and school
avoidance as these may all suggest problems in their child’s digital world. These same indicators
also suggest problems may exist in the real world.
Internet kindness can be taught so that teens understand to not post pictures of a party where
some friends have not been invited. Teens can be taught to delete mean or humiliating pictures or
posts sent to them and to send “kind” texts. Teens should be encouraged to stand up for friends
who are being attacked and to unsubscribe from groups where meanness prevails. Teens can be
taught to not make critical comments about others, to not forward mean or humiliating pictures,
to not “like” (as on Facebook) or forward embarrassing photos and to not trust “virtual” friends
who are not know in person. It is also at this age that children will discover pornography and find
themselves on inappropriate websites. Rather than leading to punishment this is another
opportunity for teaching values and to enhance communication.
For children in the 15 to 18-year-old range, their identity is very enmeshed in what has been
termed their digital footprint. Older teens care about the persona they create online and create
both online and off-line personas. Psychologically healthy teens can seamlessly go from one to
the next. In this age, it is important to continue to try to guide teenagers into using technology for
kindness and positive social impact. In terms of creating a digital persona, Selfies at this point
have become trendy and, for teens, are seen as developmentally appropriate. Gold suggests to
continue to counsel moderation and, most importantly, talk to your teen about not losing the
moment because they’re busy taking a selfie. Talk to teens about Selfies as if they were routine
and not problematic. Looking at your teens Selfies can give insight into their body image and of
their identity. If teens refuse to post Selfies inquire about their ambivalence and about negative
attributions towards their own body image. Model positive body image behaviors in front of
teenage children. Gold notes that it is important to have children’s online identity match their real
identity. It is important for children to be thoughtful about what they post to not endorse or “like”
hate speech, violent websites, homicidal links, terrorists or radical religious groups that aim to
harm others, anything that is related to buying selling or wanting drugs. Sexually explicit photos,
especially of those of children under 18, (the age of many teens) can be construed as child
pornography and carry stiff legal sanctions. Teens in this age group need to have discussions
about restrained self disclosure and to not use over-sharing as a way to seek reassurance.
Interestingly, individuals with poor interpersonal skills tend to not do well online with social
networking.
Often, Gold notes that some parents are very concerned that too much time on social media sites
can cause depression. She believes that such involvement does not cause depression but can play
a role in it. Gold also notes that teenagers should be taught to text their parents when out at night
and especially if they expect to be home later than planned. Teenagers are to be encouraged to
text their parents if they get into uncomfortable situations or need support. Of course this means
that parents would best be available to receive texts. Parents need also understand that teenagers
should not be asked to give hour by hour updates.
Children with ADHD can be at increased risk when involved in video games, either on or off line
because they are so visually compelling and such games represent one venue where affected
teens have limited negative feedback. The high potency of the video exposure is very
reinforcing. Such individuals are at higher risk for Internet addiction and being enthralled with
overstimulating games that often depicted violence. ADHD children often have difficulty turning
off games and have difficulty transiting from videogame play to other activities. Such
adolescents are also in danger of having impulsive behavior leads to over sharing or sexting. For
such children, Gold counsels to establish clear time limits and to use a big timer that is not
embedded in a phone or computer. She believes that children should be given warnings starting
15 minutes before the transition time and should be given prompts every five minutes until
ending time has arrived. Transitions can be assisted by clarifying the next activity, by providing
reinforcement when the child is able to successfully transition. Parents can also see transitioning
and shifting attention as an important learned skill. Gold recommends that parents add two years
of age to manufacturer’s recommendations when considering whether a game is age-appropriate.
Parents need to observe whether evening play leads to increases in agitated behavior and, if so, to
monitor the type of Internet activities done in the evening. Gold believes that teens should be
aware of their diagnosis and related symptoms so they may understand why parents take the
positions they do. With teens that have social anxiety or poor social skills, online activity can
become a haven as it assists them avoid real life exchanges. Parents need to be concerned if their
teen becomes overly involved with only one person online. Teens should be encouraged to
connect to real life friends and to avoid texting and using social media with unknown
individuals. Teens who seek excessive reassurance online or where online interactions are
replacing real life interactions may need additional assistance. Parents need to be cautious, in that
they often have a tendency to blame gaming and social media when there are emotional
problems. In reality, technology use is frequently a symptom and not the cause of problems.
Gold believes that it is a big mistake to take away phones and computer use if their child is
depressed. When parents are worried about their child they should talk to them and ask directly
about hopelessness, self-harm and suicidal ideation. Often teens will not speak with their parents
and if that is the case, parents would best find someone they will speak to. She suggests that
parents inquire about cyber bullying and check browser histories. Where concern exists, check
your child’s social media posts, set limits around sleep and technology use and inquire about
drugs and alcohol.
Gould does believe in digital contracts. Parents must be cautious when kids rush through
homework in order to get online and contingencies need to be established between quality of
work and access to the Internet. A “tech free” challenge needs to occasionally be introduced.
Children need to be taught that technology is a tool not an activity. Internet infractions need to be
clearly specified such as sending a mean text, sending an embarrassing picture of friends,
presenting oneself as overly tough or sexualized, taking credit for someone else’s work,
connecting with strangers online, giving out personal or family information, agreeing to meet an
online friends in person, downloading or buying games that are not permitted, stealing or sharing
passwords and engaging in any illegal activity. A model family digital technology agreement for
high school students is included.
This is a timely and very interesting book. The Internet has created quite a profound impact on
children and has, in some ways, made the job of parenting more difficult. Children tend to be
more tech savvy than their parents and parents are, at times, not aware of the pitfalls that digital
involvement can bring. Gold does a balanced job of pointing out the hazards of excessive online
activity as well as pointing out many of its benefits. For younger children, she provides a good
number of positive resources which parents can draw upon. The basic rules of good parenting
also apply to the online world and Gold very clearly emphasizes the need for good boundaries
both on and off line as well as for consistent, reasoned and non-overreactive parent management
of Internet errors. The inherent pluses and minuses of the Internet creates another avenue for
creating open communication with children. For any parent who is concerned about their
children’s digital experience and for those who wish more of knowledge of what their children
might be getting into, this can be a recommended book. $14.95 is remarkably reasonable given
the thought and expertise that went into this book.
Howard A Paul, Ph.D. A.B.P.P.
JCFBT Book Review Editor
... The parent-child relationship has an important role in preventing online risks. This relationship is thought to ensure that children are able to communicate directly with their parents when they make mistakes in online environments and not hesitate to tell what they have experienced (Paul, 2015). It has been stated that the more powerful the parent-child relationship is, the less likely it is that children will be affected by events such as cyberbullying and Internet addiction . ...
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Digital parenting enabled children to take advantage of the opportunities offered by digital media and online environments, while on the other hand it required the protection of children against the risk of these environments. In this context, it was aimed to present the online risks children are facing in the digital age, the strategies used by the parents to cope with such risks and the difficulties faced by the parents when using these strategies. To this end, a descriptive review was conducted. Thus, online risks and threats in the digital age were elaborated. In addition, the digital parenting approaches, strategies to cope with online risks and the difficulties parents face when dealing with these risks are discussed. Risks faced in social media and online games, and cyber bullying are determined as online risks. Parents often put restrictions and prohibitions as methods to cope with online risks. Furthermore, guidance and raising awareness in the use of online environments according to the age group of the child stands out. In case of difficulties faced by parents, there are situations such as privacy violations and parental complacency.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication.