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A Review on Ruminant and Human Brucellosis in Somalia

  • Abrar University


This review article aims to describe the prevalence of brucellosis in ruminants and humans in Somalia and also guides policy makers to draw sound decisions regarding brucellosis control policies. It is concluded that brucellosis is of no public health importance in Somalia. Nevertheless, it is suggested that a stronger inter-sectoral collaboration among veterinary, medical and public health professionals at the federal and country level in terms of one-health approach should be promoted.
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine, 2015, 5, 133-137
Published Online June 2015 in SciRes.
How to cite this paper: Hassan-Kadle, A.A. (2015) A Review on Ruminant and Human Brucellosis in Somalia. Open Journal
of Veterinary Medicine, 5, 133-137.
A Review on Ruminant and Human
Brucellosis in Somalia
Ahmed Abdulkadir Hassan-Kadle
College of Veterinary Science, Abrar University, Mogadishu, Somalia
Received 11 May 2015; accepted 8 June 2015; published 11 June 2015
Copyright © 2015 by author and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.
This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution International License (CC BY).
This review article aims to describe the prevalence of brucellosis in ruminants and humans in
Somalia and also guides policy makers to draw sound decisions regarding brucellosis control poli-
cies. It is concluded that brucellosis is of no public health importance in Somalia. Nevertheless, it is
suggested that a stronger inter-sectoral collaboration among veterinary, medical and public
health professionals at the federal and country level in terms of one-health approach should be
Brucellosis, Domestic Ruminant, Human, One-Health, Review, Somalia
1. Introduction
Brucellosis is a worldwide bacterial zoonotic disease affecting both animals and humans. It causes heavy eco-
nomic losses to the livestock industry and also poses serious human health hazards. The disease is caused by
members of genus Brucella that are gram-negative, facultative intracellular, coccobacilli, non-motile and non-
spore-forming bacteria [1]-[5]. The genus Brucella currently consists of ten classified species [5]-[7]. In humans,
Brucella melitensis is considered the most virulent species followed by B. suis, B. abortus and B. canis. How-
ever, several of other species are also pathogenic for humans [1] [7].
Brucella infection is transmitted by direct or indirect contact
with infected animals. The organism is most
frequently acquired by ingestion. Respiratory route, conjunctival and genital inoculation, skin contamination, in-
trauterine and venereal transmissions are other possibilities of the organism [1] [8]. Humans can become in-
fected indirectly through contact with infected animals or by consumption of animal products. Person-to-person
transmission is extremely rare. Vertical transmission, breastfeeding, blood transfusion or tissue transplantation
A. A. Hassan-Kadle
has been reported. Sexual transmission of the disease and accidental self-inoculation with live Brucella vaccine
strains can result disease in humans [1] [8]-[10].
Clinically, in general, the animals do not exhibit overt systemic illness. The disease is characterized by abor-
tion, retained placenta, uterine infection, foetal death, mummification and delayed maturity. Infertility, arthritis,
hygroma and other conditions are also reported. After the first abortion, the animals will deliver normally but
they continue to shed large numbers of the bacteria into the environment [1] [11]-[13]. The clinical signs of hu-
man brucellosis are not specific and can be acute febrile illness to chronic disease with severe complications. In
pregnant women, the brucellosis may lead to abortion in early pregnancy and in men may lead to orchitis and
epididymitis [5] [8].
The diagnosis of brucellosis is confirmed by bacteriological isolation and identification of the causative or-
ganism. However, this method is complicated and time-consuming [4] [14]. Presumptive diagnosis can be made
by serological tests. The most commonly used serological tests which are suitable for screening herds and indi-
vidual animals are: Rose Bengal test (RBT), standard agglutination test (SAT), complement fixation test (CFT),
linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and milk ring test (MRT) [14] [15].
In Somalia, there is a little information of animal and human brucellosis. The serological investigations and
bacteriological isolations of Brucella carried on the country are very scarce. The first report on the isolation of
Brucella strains in the country were recorded by Andreani and his colleagues in 1982 [16]. In spite the disease is
reported in all domestic ruminants of the country, Somali people lack awareness about the zoonotic potential of
the disease with their existing habit of raw milk consumption and close contact with domestic animals. This re-
view article aims to describe an overview on brucellosis situation of the country and supports brucellosis inter-
esting researchers to more understand the disease situation in the country. It also guides policy makers to draw
sound decisions regarding brucellosis control policies.
2. Brucellosis in Somali Ruminants
2.1. Camel Brucellosis
Very few serological investigations of camel brucellosis in Somalia were available. However, no Brucella
strains were isolated from camels in the country. Salim Alio and his colleagues in 1985 were tried to isolate
Brucella from 75 camels taken at random in Mogadishu abattoir but no strains were isolated
[17]. Andreani et al.
(1982) carried out sero-agglutination test on 250 serum samples from camels slaughtered at Mogadishu and
Kisimayo abattoirs and camel herds kept on free range in the South of the country (Upper and Lower Jubba and
Benadir regions). They found that 26 of 250 (10.4%) sera tested reacted against Brucella infection [16]. In cen-
tral regions of Somalia, Baumann and Zessin investigated serologically 1039 camels for brucellosis using SAT
and CFT and found 1.9% and 0.3% positives respectively [18]. In 2008, Ghanem et al. carried out 1246 camel
serum samples from Awdal, Waqoyi Galbed and Togdheer regions of the North Somalia using RBPT and indi-
rect-ELISA for detection of brucellosis. The overall seropositive animals were 49 camels by RBPT and 39 cam-
els by i-ELISA. Thus, the prevalence was 3.9% and 3.1% respectively. They also found that the locality, herd
size, rearing with other ruminants and contact with other camels are the four risk factors affected the seropreva-
lence of camel brucellosis on animal level. On herd level, only herd size and rearing with other ruminants
showed a significant association with seropositive cases of camel brucellosis [19].
2.2. Cattle Brucellosis
The prevalence of bovine brucellosis in the country was firstly carried out by Wernery et al. (1976) and Brucella
strains were firstly isolated by Andreani et al. (1982) from milk of an infected cow. The isolated strain was B.
abortus biotype 6 [16] [20]. Wernery et al. (1976) carried out 5056 serum and 576 milk samples from cattle of
Southern parts of the country (Mogadishu, Gedo and Lower Jubba regions) and used SAT and CFT, and MRT
respectively for the presence of Brucella infection. The overall prevalence of regions under investigation was
9.5% by SAT and 12% by MRT. They found marked differences in regional distribution of bovine brucellosis.
The highest sero-prevalence (16%) was recorded in the cattle population of the Mogadishu city, and Gedo and
Lower Jubba regions are comparable to each other, 4.8% and 5.4% respectively. Husbandry methods and herd
size are the main reasons for these regional differences [20]. In 1978, Hussein and his colleagues tested 902 sera
from government and municipal cattle farms and 2184 from nomadic herds by using SAT and revealed 2.7%
A. A. Hassan-Kadle
and 11.9% positives respectively [21]. Andreani and his colleagues (1982) examined 660 cattle serum samples
by SAT and found 15.45% of positivity [16]. In 1983, Wiegand and Marx reported 3% of 197 cattle serum sam-
ples were infected with B. abortus and not with B. melitensis, tested with agglutination test, using one time B.
abortus test solution and the other time with B. melitensis test solution [22].
2.3. Sheep and Goat Brucellosis
Small ruminant brucellosis in Somalia is of little information. Falade and Hussein (1979) tested 250 goat serum
samples obtained from Mogadishu abattoir and examined by five tests including: RBPT, SAT, 2-Mercapto-
ethanol test (2-ME test), Cooms Antiglobulin test (AGT) and Rivanol test. The results found were 2.8%, 2.8%,
1.6%, 5.6% and 3.6% of the total number of samples examined respectively [23]. Andreani et al. (1982) exam-
ined 250 sheep and 340 goats from Mogadishu and Kisimayo abattoirs and small ruminants kept on free range in
the South of the country (Upper and Lower Jubba and Benadir regions) and the results revealed were 7.2% in
sheep and 5.3% in goats by using SAT [16]. Wiegand and Marx (1983) reported prevalence of 1.3% (1
out of 74)
in goats of Lower Juba region [22]. Ghanem et al. (2009) documented prevalence of 4% and 3.1% in sheep, and
4.9% and 3.9% in goats in three main regions of Northern Somalia (Awdal, Waqoyi Galbed and Togdheer) by
using RBPT and i-ELISA respectively [24].
3. Human Brucellosis in Somalia
Information on this disease in the country is very scarce. Hussein et al. (1978) conducted a survey of brucellosis
in bovines and humans in Somalia. They investigated 353 human serum samples using SAT and revealed 0.6%
positive [21]. Wiegand and Marx reported (1983) no Brucella infection out of 11 human blood sera tested [22].
The microbiology department of Royal Hallamshire Hospital in United Kingdom was isolated Brucella meliten-
sis unexpectedly from cerebrospinal fluid sample of a patient from Somalia [25]. Human brucellosis in the
country needs more attention and research.
4. Recommended Strategies for Prevention and Control of Brucellosis in Somalia
Eradication of brucellosis by test-and-slaughter is impracticable in developing countries including Somalia be-
cause of limited resources to compensate farmers whose animals are slaughtered during such screening pro-
grams. Also there is no national programme proposed for prevention and control of
brucellosis in the country.
The main obstacles limiting the control of the disease are: security of the country, shortage of funds, laboratory
facilities and trained manpower. The recommended strategies have been proposed as follows:
The best method for preventing human brucellosis is the control and elimination of the infection in animals.
Pasteurization of milk is another protective mechanism of human brucellosis.
Development of a national veterinary extension services to promote awareness about brucellosis, its impact
on livestock production and zoonotic risks by posters, leaflets and other mass media.
Increasing the resistance to infection of animals in populations through mass vaccination strategy.
Effective disease surveillance at the country level.
Biosecurity measures should reduce risks of further infection.
5. Conclusion and Recommendations
In conclusion, this review article indicated that the knowledge of brucellosis is still very scanty and of no epi-
demiological importance in Somali people. Brucella infection exists within the livestock of the country, and
Somalis people drink raw milk and have a close association of domestic animals which are the risk factors of the
disease. The study recommends an educational program and leaflet to aware the people at risk of Brucella infec-
tion, further studies of serological diagnosis and bacteriological isolation of the disease and collaboration among
veterinary, medical and public health professionals in terms of research and extension services
(“One Health”
The author would like to thank Mohamed. F. Dirie and Omar Sh. Abdurrahman for providing me with additional
data on Livestock Brucellosis in Somalia, and Abrar University for their financial support.
A. A. Hassan-Kadle
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... From the 26 original articles included in this study, a total of 5,718 brucellosis suspected patients, serum samples were collected in this systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the pooled prevalence of human brucellosis 14% is similar to a previous study in Nigeria 17.6% (47), Uganda 17.0% (48). However, the current systematic review and meta-analysis ndings were higher than those reported in Kenya National Survey (49), Sudan 1% (50), Tanzania 7.7% (51), Ethiopia 6.7% (10), Somalia 0.6% (52). A possible reason for this discrepancy may be a lack of awareness, unhealthy food habits, traditional husbandry practices, and a lack of surveillance and immunization, which could contribute to the transmission of brucellosis in humans. ...
... The prevalence of human brucellosis in Afar region of Ethiopia was 24% (95% CI: , which is in agreement with previous studies in Egypt 23.6% (55), Egypt 24.3%(56) and Tanzania 22.7% (53). However, the prevalence of human brucellosis in Afar Regional State Ethiopia 24% was higher than that reported in Nigeria 17.6% (47),Uganda 17%(48), Kenya 3% (49) ,Sudan 1% (50),Tanzania 7.7% (51),Ethiopia 6.7% (10) and Somalia 0.6% (52). Moreover, prevalence of human brucellosis in Afar regional state Ethiopia 24% was lower than reports of Kenya 44%(48) and Nigeria 30.8% (57). ...
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Brucellosis is a significant public health problem in Ethiopia with a high prevalence in both animals and humans. The disease is mainly transmitted through the consumption of unpasteurized dairy products, direct contact with infected animals, and inhalation of contaminated aerosols. The prevalence of the disease varies across different regions of Ethiopia, with the highest rates reported in areas with high livestock populations and low levels of public health awareness, which causes human suffering and huge economic losses. Several epidemiological studies have been conducted; however, reports have shown discrepant results. Therefore, this study aimed to understand the current disease burden, incidence, variation, and research output/data. Therefore, this systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to generate representative data on the prevalence of human brucellosis in Ethiopia. Methods: - We searched several databases, including PubMed, ScienceDirect, African Journals Online, Embase, and Google Scholar, for articles published in English between September 2007 and August 2022. The Joanna Briggs Institute Meta-Analysis of Statistics Assessment and Review Instrument and Newcastle-Ottawa scale were used for data extraction and quality assessment, respectively. We used statistical software (Stata version 14) and random-effects model for meta-analysis at 95% confidence interval (CI). This study included all references and articles that reported the prevalence of human brucellosis in Ethiopia, and extracted data from 26 studies covering 5,718 human serum samples. The Complement Fixation Test (CFT) was used as a confirmatory serological test to diagnose human brucellosis. Result: - The results suggest that the seroprevalence of human brucellosis in Ethiopia is relatively high, with an overall pooled prevalence of 14.0% (95% CI: 10.23, 18.12). The highest prevalence was observed in the Afar region, with a prevalence of 24.21%), whereas the lowest prevalence was reported in the Oromia region, with a prevalence of 7.75%). The study also found a high degree of heterogeneity, with an I² value of 97.64%, which suggesting that there were significant differences in the prevalence of human brucellosis across different regions and over time. The detected heterogeneity was attributed to political regions and publication years, indicating that there may be differences in the prevalence of human brucellosis among regions over time. Furthermore, this study found that the prevalence of human brucellosis shows an increasing trend from year to year. This suggests that the prevalence of human brucellosis may be increasing in Ethiopia; however, further research is required to confirm this trend. Conclusion: Human brucellosis is a significant health concern in Ethiopia, and further research is required to prevent and control this disease. The higher prevalence of the disease than previously reported in meta-analyses highlights the urgent need for action by responsible bodies, such as the Ministry of Health, to develop an appropriate strategy to address this problem. Further research is necessary to identify the risk factors associated with human brucellosis, so that effective prevention and control measures can be implemented. It is essential to prioritize the prevention and control of this disease to ensure the health and well-being of the population. Prospero registration number: - CRD42022350237
... Eradication of brucellosis by test-and-slaughter is impracticable in developing countries. Due to limited resources to compensate farmers whose animals are slaughtered during such screening programs [102]. In the absence of these control measures, long-term chronic infections could be expected, thus providing a steady supply of infectious organisms [63]. ...
... It does not rule out that some individuals, although aware of the disease, choose not to respect the safety measures at work[100]. It could be because they know the disease presentation in humans but have no knowledge of the method of transmission and prevention of the disease[102]. Education on the mode of transmission, clinical presentation and preventive practices through sensitisation programs amongst high-risk occupational groups as a Public Health measure will contribute to the control of infections. Good knowledge of the disease and its symptoms by workers in the animal and human sectors enhances the diagnosis and appropriate treatment of the disease[103].S. M. Eko et al.There are no records of the implementation of brucellosis control programs in Cameroon [1][11]. ...
... It causes heavy economic losses to the livestock industry and also poses serious human health hazards [5]. The Brucella infection in camels is caused by different biotypes of B. abortus and B. melitensis [5,6,7,8]. It is characterized by abortion, retained placenta, uterine infection, foetal death, mummification and delayed maturity [5,9]. ...
... Therefore, the overall seroprevalence for the present study was 4.4% and 31.3% at individual and herd levels respectively. As shown in table (8), when compared RBPT to cELISA, (taking ELISA to be the gold standard in this study), the sensitivity of the RBPT is 42.9% .The level of agreement between RBPT and cELISA using kappa analysis was moderate agreement with a kappa value of (0.589) according to Dohoo [22]. When compared modified RBPT to cELISA the sensitivity (85.7%) was higher than that of the RBPT with slightly similar specificity of (98.4%). ...
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Brucellosis is one of the most important zoonotic diseases worldwide. The disease was not fully assessed in Somalia particularly after the civil war of 1990s. The present study was conducted from December, 2015 to March, 2016 in order to determine the seroprevalence and possible risk factors associated with camel brucellosis in Mogadishu city of Somalia. Questionnaire survey was also used to evaluate the knowledge-attitude-practice (KAP) among camel owners. A total of 180 camel sera were randomly sampled and tested using Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT), Modified RBPT (mRBPT), Serum Agglutination Test (SAT) and Competitive Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (cELISA). The investigated camels were apparently healthy above two years of age with no history of vaccination against brucellosis. The overall seroprevalence of camel brucellosis was 4.4% at individual level and 31.3% at herd level. The Kappa statistics indicated that there was perfect agreement between mRBPT, SAT and cELISA (k=0.841) while the RBPT has a Kappa value of (0.589) which was found to be a moderate level of agreement when compared to the cELISA. Questionnaire survey among the camel owners determined that camels with proved reproductive problems were culled by 77% of the respondents which is a good practice that might have contributed to the low prevalence of brucellosis in the present study. Conversely, 100% of the respondents confirmed of consuming raw milk of camel as well as bare hand contact of abortion materials with abortion cases reported by 63% of them. Furthermore, 77% of the respondents did not know brucellosis and its zoonotic risk. Thus, these factors can play a vital role of transmission of this disease among Somali people. It was concluded that Brucella infection exists in camels in Mogadishu, Somalia, and mRBPT is as sensitive as SAT and cELISA techniques. Moreover RBPT is very sensitive test validated and its antigen standardized for bovine brucellosis. Therefore, the study recommends a wider epidemiological surveillance and further validation of diagnostic serological tests in camels and other ruminants as well as human with isolation and identification of the infective Brucella organism strains and further biovars which enables best options for selection of brucellosis control strategy suitable to Somalia context. Hence, improvement of the public awareness on zoonotic potential of the disease is also recommended.
... In Eritrea, brucellosis is an important disease in both animals and humans; most human cases appear to be associated with the consumption of unpasteurized milk, and a prevalence of 2.77% was reported in 2013 [42]. In Somalia, brucellosis has been reported in humans and all domestic ruminants, and popular awareness is lacking regarding the zoonotic potential of the disease, given the existing habit of raw milk consumption and close contact with domestic animals [43]. A seroprevalence of 9% and 60% has been reported for Sudan abattoir workers and camel nomads, respectively [44]. ...
Full-text available
Bovine brucellosis is endemic and widely distributed in Ethiopia. The country has already prioritized top five zoonotic diseases (rabies, anthrax, brucellosis, Rift Valley fever and highly pathogenic avian influenza) in 2019 using reprioritization workshop. So brucellosis is one of the top five neglected zoonotic diseases in the country. According to several studies, the distribution and prevalence of bovine and human brucellosis in Ethiopia varies among regions in terms of animal production and management systems, community living standards and awareness levels. The disease has major zoonotic and economic implications for rural communities, particularly pastoralists. The aim of this article was therefore to review and summarize recent studies (2010–2021) on the prevalence of bovine brucellosis in animals and humans, with reference to Ethiopia. This review describes both bovine and human brucellosis reported from various geographical areas of the country. Reports between the years 2010 and 2021 indicated a prevalence rate between 1.2% and 22.5% at the individual level, and 3.3% and.68.6% at the herd level. However, the human brucellosis seroprevalence rate was 2.15%–48.3% between 2006 and 2021. This increase clearly indicates the expected future threat of this disease in the country. However, control measures and community awareness are lacking. Therefore, actual implementation of prevention and control measures, community awareness, further studies and continual review to provide compiled information for understanding the transmission dynamics of the disease are essential.
... A limited number of studies on neglected zoonotic diseases have been reported in animals and humans in Somalia [22,25]. Somalia is a livestock-dependent country in East Africa, which borders Kenya and Ethiopia where zoonotic transboundary diseases are often documented [6,10]. ...
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Background Fourteen-years after the last Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus (RVFV) outbreak, Somalia still suffers from preventable transboundary diseases. The tradition of unheated milk consumption and handling of aborted materials poses a public health risk for zoonotic diseases. Limited data are available on RVF and Brucella spp. in Somali people and their animals. Hence, this study has evaluated the occurrence of RVFV and Brucella spp. antibodies in cattle, goats and sheep sera from Afgoye and Jowhar districts of Somalia. Methods Serum samples from 609 ruminants (201 cattle, 203 goats and 205 sheep), were serologically screened for RVF by a commercial cELISA, and Brucella species by modified Rose Bengal Plate Test (mRBPT) and a commercial iELISA. Results Two out of 609 (0.3 %; 95 %CI: 0.04–1.2 %) ruminants were RVF seropositive, both were female cattle from both districts. Anti- Brucella spp. antibodies were detected in 64/609 (10.5 %; 95 %CI: 8.2–13.2 %) ruminants by mRBPT, which were 39/201 (19.4 %) cattle, 16/203 (7.9 %) goats and 9/205 (4.4 %) sheep. Cattle were 5.2 and 2.8 times more likely to be Brucella -seropositive than sheep (p = 0.000003) and goats (p = 0.001), respectively. When mRBPT-positive samples were tested by iELISA, 29/64 (45.3 %; 95 %CI: 32.8–58.3 %) ruminant sera were positive for Brucella spp. Only 23/39 (58.9 %) cattle sera and 6/16 (37.5 %) goat sera were positive to Brucella spp. by iELISA. Conclusions The present study showed the serological evidence of RVF and brucellosis in ruminants from Afgoye and Jowhar districts of Somalia. Considering the negligence of the zoonotic diseases at the human-animal interface in Somali communities, a One Health approach is needed to protect public health.
... As per the study of Mohamud et al. (2020a), the prevalence of bovine brucellosis in Benadir region is 0.2%, and in Mogadishu it is 10% (Afrah et al., 2020) which is directly linked to the loss in the economic of the Somalia and livestock plays a crucial role in the GDP of Somalia (Mohamud et al., 2020c) Conducted a survey of brucellosis in bovines and humans in Somalia is reported as 0.6% (Hussein et al., 1978). Human brucellosis in the country needs more attention and research (Hassan-Kadle, 2015). Though the efforts to control it, the level of awareness, present knowledge, and practice among the limited population is not enough, particularly in the target place, which is an area that is rich in livestock and several people come in close contact with these animals. ...
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A cross-sectional study using random sampling was conducted from May to September 2020 in Benadir region of Somalia, to determine the knowledge, attitude, and practices of population towards Brucellosis. In this study, a total of 120 participants share their knowledge, attitude, and practices towards Brucellosis. Their knowledge regarding causative agent was 37.5% (n=45) and the disease was 45% (n=54), while transmission of animal to human was 43.33% (n=52). The majority of participants would take actions to ensure the animal is healthy when they buy 95% (n=114), all participants would like to receive more information about the disease and majority of participants have good practices when they handling the domesticated animals and their secretions 96.66% (n=116). Populations who are connected with livestock management or eating livestock products are frequently aware of the disease brucellosis. Though, they do not have as considerable knowledge, what is required to help in control it. Veterinarians, health care workers and respective government bodies must take action to increase the level of awareness and considerate by providing programs or any other technique that can be helpful.
... Subsequently, numerous other tests have been developed to increase test accuracy [3]. These tests include: RBPT, modified RBPT, SAT, Antiglobulin (Coomb's) test, Milk Ring Test (MRT), Complement Fixation Test (CFT) and ELISA [3,7,10,11]. ...
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The comparative performance of serological methods for diagnosing brucellosis in camels under Somali context has not been evaluated. Thus, the objective of the present study was to compare serological tests (Rose Bengal Plate Test [RBPT], modified RBPT [mRBPT], micro-Serum Agglutination Test [mSAT] and competitive Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay [cELISA]) for detection of Brucella antibodies in camel sera collected from camel herds reared in Mogadishu, Somalia. The seropositivity was 1.7% by RBPT, 3.9% by mRBPT, 3.9% by mSAT and 3.9% by cELISA. The last three tests showed excellent agreement whereas RBPT indicated moderate agreement. Moreover, the mRBPT performed well in the sensitivity compared to the standard RBPT. The standard RBPT is often reported to have a high sensitivity and recommended to use as a screening test EUROPEAN ACADEMIC RESEARCH-Vol. V, Issue 10 / January 2018 5500 for brucellosis control programs. However, in the current study, mRBPT achieved incomparable sensitivity than standard RBPT and equal sensitivity mSAT and cELISA. Therefore, the authors recommend to use modified-RBPT to screen Brucella infection in camels from Somalia for export and control purposes and confirm the positive animals with competitive ELISA.
... Since brucellosis is considered a neglected disease that significantly affects countries where resources are limited, there are only a few studies that measure the economic impact of brucellosis in small ruminants. Sulima Ethiopia Anti-Brucella Ab in goats and sheep and isolation of B. melitensis [108,109] Ghana Anti-Brucella Ab in goats and sheep [110] Kenya Anti-Brucella Ab in goats and human [111] Libya Anti-Brucella Ab in goats and human [112] Morocco Anti-Brucella Ab in goats [113] Namibia Anti-Brucella Ab in goats [114] Niger Anti-Brucella Ab in goats and sheep [115] Nigeria Anti-Brucella Ab in goats [116,117] Somalia Anti-Brucella Ab in goats and sheep [118] South [131,132]. Brisibe et al. (1996) calculated a loss of US$3.2 million per annum in 2 states of Nigeria [133], and more recently, Bamaiyi et al. (2015) reported the annual economic impact in Malaysia due to caprine brucellosis at almost US$2.6 million [134]. ...
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Caprine brucellosis is a chronic infectious disease caused by the gram-negative cocci-bacil-lus Brucella melitensis. Middle-to late-term abortion, stillbirths, and the delivery of weak offspring are the characteristic clinical signs of the disease that is associated with an extensive negative impact in a flock's productivity. B. melitensis is also the most virulent Brucella species for humans, responsible for a severely debilitating and disabling illness that results in high morbidity with intermittent fever,
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The study aimed at determining the presence of the disease in camel slaughterhouses in Garissa County, through serological testing and pathological lesions that encountered at post mortem inspection of camel meat. Three sub-counties; Garissa Township, Dadaab and Balambale were purposefully recruited based on presence of camel slaughterhouses and accessibility. A hundred and sixty (160) camels were selected from 238 presented during the visits based on clinical manifestations suggestive of Brucellosis obtained upon ante-mortem examination and clinical history from owners. Sero-prevallance determination that involved the blood collection from the jugular and screening serum for attendance of Brucella antibodies using Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT), serum agglutination test, competitive-enzyme linked immune sorbent assay and double agar gel immunodiffusion test. The selected camels were followed into the slaughterhouse and pathological changes were identified grossly and microscopically based on alteration in organ and/tissue structure. The three main clinical signs that suggested brucellosis were lameness, swollen lymph nodes and abortion. Out of 160 samples tested, 15 (9.37%) were positive for Brucella antibodies and evenly distributed between counties; 8% (4/50) for Garissa Township; 10% (5/50) in Dadaab and 10% (6/60) in Balambale. Using chi-square (χ2), there was no statistically alteration in sensitivity among the four serological tests (p=0.999). Seventy-eight (48.7%) camels had one or more organs with lesions leading to condemnation at meat inspection. The common gross lesions encountered were fibrin depositions 3 (1.8%), enlargement of lung 2 (1.2%), pericarditis 38 (23.7%), and hepatomegaly with nodular liver lesions 79 (49.3%), enteritis 5 (3.1%), haemorrhages and congestion of visceral organs (lung and kidney) 6 (3.7%). Histopathology of sero-reactors revealed; cellular infiltration in lymph node 9 (5.6%), hypoplasia of lymphocytes 6 (3.7%), collapse of alveoli 5 (3.1%), oedema, congestion 4 (2.5%), fatty degeneration in liver 3 (1.8%) and haemorrhages in kidney1 (0.6%). In conclusion, brucellosis is prevalent in camel in Garissa County. Further extensive research should be done in the whole country. With respect to picking positive cases, RBPT is recommended as a screening test, since it is cheap, quick, and easy to carry-out. The other three can be used to establish respective antibody titres. The organs condemned at inspections are due to inflammatory processes that can be associated with brucellosis or other zoonotic diseases. Standard biosecurity measures at slaughterhouses and farms be enhanced the control and prevention of Brucella infection to animals and human.
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Preface This is the eigth of a series of 'Livestock Policy Discussion Papers'. The purpose of the series is to provide up-to-date reviews of topics relating to the livestock sector and its development in various regions of the world. A strong emphasis is placed on the compilation of quantitative information, methodological aspects and on the development of policy recommendations for the topic at hand.
A cross-sectional study of brucellosis was conducted from November 2010 to April 2011 to estimate seroprevalence and to assess potential risk factors of camel (Camelus dromedaries) in and around Dire Dawa, Ethiopia. Rose Bengal Palte test (RBPT) was used as a screening test to detect presence of Brucella antibodies and CFT to confirm those reactors by RBPT. Thirteen of 646 camels (2%) were seroreactive when tested by RBPT, out of which 10 (1.5%) were seropositive by CFT. Higher seroprevalence was observed in female and in adult camels with seroprevalence of 1.7 and 1.8% than seroprevalence of 1.4 and 0.7% observed in male and young camels, respectively. However, there was no ststistically significant difference (P < 0.05) in seroprevalence of brucellosis between both groups. Higher seroprevalence of Brucella (38.5%) was observed in adult female camels which had history of reproductive problems [abortion, still birth and retained fetal membrane (RFM)] with statistically significant difference (P < 0.05) compared to that of adult female camels which had no history of reproductive problems. Of camels which had these reproductive problems, highest seroprevalence (43%) was observed in camelse which had history of abortion. In conclusion, this level of seroprevalence is enough to be a potential hazard for public health in the study area, therefore, the public especially camel producers should be aware of camels as source of brucellosis.
Technical Report
Report of the Expert Committee providing information on the bacteriology, immunology and epidemiology of human and animal brucellosis with recommendations on diagnosis, treatment, prevention, control programmes and vaccines.
Camel brucellosis has been diagnosed in all camel-rearing countries except Australia. In many countries the infection is on the rise in Old World camels (OWCs) due to the uncontrolled trade of live animals. Knowledge of camelid brucellosis has increased over the last decade through field investigations, experimental infection trials and comprehensive laboratory testing. Infection with Brucella melitensis is frequent in OWCs and rare with B. abortus. New World Camels rarely contract brucellosis. In East African countries the seroprevalence of brucellosis can reach 40% (herd level) and depends on the management system. The highest incidence is found when camels are kept together with infected small ruminants. Only a combination of serological methods can detect all serological reactors. Culturing the pathogen is still the preferred test method, although several assays based on polymerase chain reaction have been developed.
A random survey to study the seroprevalence of ovine and caprine brucellosis was carried out between July 2008 and January 2009 in three main districts of arid and semiarid rearing regions of Somaliland. A total of 1938 sheep, and 1344 goats’ blood sera were randomly collected from 42 herd/flock of accessible unvaccinated sheep andgoats to be analyzed. Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) and indirect ELISA (I-ELISA) were used to screen all serum samples. At herd level, for sheep, a total 42 herd/flocks were examined, out of which, 2 (4.8%) were seronegative while 40 (95.2%) were seropositive by I-ELISA, 10 (23.8%) were seronegative and 32 (76.2%) seropositive by RBPT. Atherd level, for goats, a total 42 herd/flocks were examined, out of which, 6 (14.3%) were seronegative while 36 (85.7%) were seropositive by I-ELISA, 11 (26.2%) were seronegative and 32 (73.8%) seropositive by RBPT. A non significant seroprevalence differences were found at herd level between the three studied districts. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of brucellosis between the different studieddistricts. This study throws a strong light on that sheep and goats should be included in a national program for control and eradication of brucellosis in Somaliland. Further epidemiological studies and identification of the Brucella biotypes involved is recommended.
Brucellosis is a disease that causes severe economic losses for livestock farms worldwide. Brucella melitensis, B. abortus and B. suis, which are transmitted between animals both vertically and horizontally, cause abortion and infertility in their primary natural hosts - goats and sheep (B. melitensis), cows (B. abortus) and sows (B. suis). Brucella spp. infect not only their preferred hosts but also other domestic and wild animal species, which in turn can act as reservoirs of the disease for other animal species and humans. Brucellosis is therefore considered to be a major zoonosis transmitted by direct contact with animals and/or their secretions, or by consuming milk and dairy products.
In many developing countries of Asia and Africa, camels are one of the most important sources of income for the nomadic population. With increasing urbanization, camel milk and meat have gained a wider market and commercialization and consumption of camel products are on the rise. Camel brucellosis can be encountered in all camel rearing countries with exception of Australia. High animal and herd prevalences have been reported from numerous countries, which not only pose a continuous risk for human infection, but also increase the spread of infection through uncontrolled trade of clinically inconspicuous animals. This short review aims at providing an overview on diagnostic investigations, as well as the public health and economic impact of brucellosis in old world camels.