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Beneath new culture is old psychology: Gossip and social stratification

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... GOSSIP, as a form of social information exchange, is core to human social relationships and perhaps even society itself (Barkow, 1992;Dunbar, 1996). It provides human beings with the ability to acquire specific knowledge about people embedded within vast social networks, and enables individuals to strategically manipulate information about them selves or others to produce desired negative or positive reputation outcomes (Hess and Hagen, 2006;Power, 1998). ...
... In regard to reputation gos sip, this subsequently means that information could potentially come from a number of important sources. For Barkow (1992), potential mates, kin, social exchange partners, and high-ranking people should be the most important sources of social knowledge. Barkow (1992) further asserted that we should be most drawn to the information that can significantly impact our fitness and our status (i.e., our relative social standing), such as details regarding the sexual activity, alliances, and trustworthiness of people within our social network, as well as news concerning the allocation of valued resources (e.g., finan cial information) among group members. ...
... For Barkow (1992), potential mates, kin, social exchange partners, and high-ranking people should be the most important sources of social knowledge. Barkow (1992) further asserted that we should be most drawn to the information that can significantly impact our fitness and our status (i.e., our relative social standing), such as details regarding the sexual activity, alliances, and trustworthiness of people within our social network, as well as news concerning the allocation of valued resources (e.g., finan cial information) among group members. McAndrew et al. (2007) supported this view, ar guing that gossip functions principally as a status-enhancing mechanism. ...
Chapter
In the evolutionary sciences, gossip is argued to constitute an adaptation that enabled human beings to disseminate information about and to keep track of others within a vast and expansive social network. Although gossip can effectively encourage in-group cooper­ation, it can also be used as a low-cost and covert aggressive tactic to compete with oth­ers for valued resources. In line with evolutionary logic, the totality of evidence to date demonstrates that women prefer to aggress indirectly against their rivals via tactics such as gossip and social exclusion, in comparison to men who use proportionally more direct forms of aggression (e.g., physical aggression). As such, it has been argued that hetero­sexual women may use gossip as their primary weapon of choice to derogate same-sex ri­vals in order to damage their reputation and render them less desirable as mates to the opposite sex. This involves attacking the physical attractiveness and sexual reputation of other women, which correspond to men's evolved mating preferences. Androcentric theo­rizing in the evolutionary sciences has stifled a well-rounded understanding of how women use gossip to compete, with whom, and in what situations.
... It is a construct that overlaps conceptually with rumor, but is distinct in that it tends to be truthful and about people as opposed to events (Foster 2004). The historic and cross-cultural ubiquity of gossip, as well as the consensus among researchers that it plays a vital role in human social relationships, has led to the proposal that it may be an evolved psychological adaptation that enabled our ancestors to survive and reproduce (Barkow 1992;Dunbar 2004;McAndrew and Milenkovic 2002;McAndrew et al. 2007). This evolutionary perspective challenges the notion that gossip constitutes idle "chitchat" and the mere passing along of trivial everyday details for the purpose of enjoyment. ...
... In comparison to other primates, humans are unparalleled in their capacity for, and reliance upon, cooperation, cultural transmission, conformity, coalitional alliances, and "groupmindedness" (Barkow 1992;Dunbar 2004). To function in highly expansive communities requires an efficient means of gathering, sharing, and vetting information about others, as well as ways of encouraging cooperation and minimizing rule breaking (Foster 2004). ...
... Dunbar (2004) proposed that gossip helped to meet these challenges by (1) keeping track of others embedded in complex social networks, (2) emphasizing one's potential as an ally, friend, or mate, (3) soliciting help from others regarding personal dilemmas, and (4) policing the duplicitous and exploitative actions of others. Similarly, Barkow (1992) argued that social living necessitates tracking the actions of peers and developing the capacity to predict and influence the behavior of others in order to vie for finite resources linked to fitness. To this end, gossip may be instrumental for our success in social competition as a tactic for reputation management and to facilitate the creation of internal representations of others who are likely to impact our fitness such as kin, allies, mates, and rivals (Barkow 1992;McAndrew et al. 2007). ...
Chapter
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Adolescent girls’ and women’s penchant for indirect aggression has led to the prediction that gossip may be their preferred tactic of choice when competing against intrasexual rivals. Consequently, girls and women are predicted to initiate and engage in gossip more frequently than boys and men.
... After all, the basic components of premodern social dramas and modern secular rituals can be treated as the fundamental aspects of social behavior. The modern media only 'repackaged' ancient subjects and themes, where gossiping and telling stories was just a reassertion of tribal story gatherings (Barkow 1992;Estes 2004;Schwab and Schwender 2011). At any rate, both rituals and scandals can serve as instruments of social control that stand for the very production and negotiation of power relations. ...
... 6 A typical Japanese apology expresses both humiliation and humility while shame and gratefulness are mixed in one single proclamation. In terms of verbal communication, transgressors use a highly polite form of Japanese, which is important because indirect strategies of Japanese politeness effectively alleviate the conflict situation (Baresova 2008). As a matter of fact, Japanese apologies often violate the Griceian maxims of linguistic utterance (cf. ...
... 7 An average Japanese will likely apologize to maintain good relationships even when he/she was not in the wrong (e.g. Baresova 2008). However, many power holders opt for a reverse strategy when controlling the scandal fallout: they submit their own scandal-narrative instead of admitting guilt and asking for forgiveness. ...
Article
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On the theoretical level, this article aims to connect the theory of ritual and performance to the social phenomenon of media scandal. While focusing on the Japanese mediascape, this article aims to illuminate the ritualized means of scandal resolution, and the cultural realities of public shaming. This is important because most scandal denouements in Japan do not get by without a secular ritual of emotional confession, temporary exclusion, and eventual reintegration. While drawing from the methods of neofunctionalism, it is illustrated how the sociocultural act of confession, apology, and exclusion is turned into an orchestrated pseudo-event with a high degree of ritualization. Keywords: Japanese scandal, Japanese media, secular ritual, social drama, confession, apologia
... The present study aims to reduce this gap by investigating whether there is difference between genders (1) in the amount of online purchasing of customized products, (2) in the product categories of customized products purchased online. Several studies address the fact that users buy customized products either for themselves (=selfcustomization) or as gifts for others (=gift-giving) [27].Consequently, this study investigates also (3) whether gender difference affects the overall and per category rate of customized products purchased for self and for gifts-giving. Analyzing the purchases of customized products by men and women it is expected to gain helpful indications for improving customization systems in practice. ...
... Long before the systematic evolutionary study of the human psyche began [3], an evolutionary foundation to human behavior was predicted by Charles Darwin [13].The young discipline of evolutionary psychology offers a framework to understand why humans do what they do and seeing the world as an interaction between evolved psychological mechanisms and an ancestral environment [12]. Evolutionary psychology now stands as an explanatory framework with the potential for understanding all psychological phenomena. ...
Article
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Although several studies on gender commerce were published in the last decade, showing the importance of a differentiated address of men and women in marketing, studies on gender differences in online mass customization (MC) are rare. With the help of an empirical study it was analyzed which categories of customized products are preferred by women and men and if products are bought for self-usage or for gift-giving. A quantitative study with 247 participants showed that products in the categories " food & nutrition " as well as " personalized look " are preferably bought by women, whereas products in the categories " made-to-measure-apparel " and " footwear " are predominantly purchased by men. The research showed that, in all product categories considered, women customized products for gift-giving more than men. This result follows the theoretical foundation in evolutionary psychology. In addition, in the category " personalized fashion " women bought significantly more products (i.e. printed T-shirts) to give as a gift to others than men. Based on the results of the study recommendations for adapting the customization process to the gender of the users and the objective of purchase are given.
... Gossip has been defined as a form of evaluative communication about any third person who may be present or absent from the group (Eder and Enke 1991;Leaper and Holliday 1995;Levin and Arluke 1985). From an evolutionary perspective, it is considered to be a psychological adaptation that permits exchanging both positive and negative information about other people who are embedded within complex social networks (Barkow 1992;Dunbar 1996Dunbar , 2004Foster 2004;McAndrew and Milenkovic 2002). Gossip has also been defined as a putative intrasexual competition strategy that is used to learn about and derogate same-sex competitors to lower their desirability as a mate (Campbell 1999(Campbell , 2004; however, to our knowledge, no study has examined the relation between intrasexual competitiveness and gossiping. ...
... It is a subset of knowledge that is acquired and conveyed to others through observation and interaction and is passed along depending on its appeal and relevance to others within a particular cultural milieu. In terms of evoked culture, researchers have tended to focus on the social control function of gossip and how it is an effective means of promoting conformity and cooperation by making salient group norms, as well as to catch cheaters and those trying to take advantage of the beneficial actions of others (i.e., free-riders; Barkow 1992;Beersma and Van Kleef 2011;Levin and Arluke 1987). However, gossip may also be instrumental in the contest for mates and used competitively to manage one's reputation relative to others (Campbell 1999(Campbell , 2004McAndrew 2014McAndrew , 2017Vaillancourt 2013;Vaillancourt and Sharma 2011). ...
Article
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From an evolutionary perspective, gossip has been considered a putative intrasexual competition strategy that is used to vie for mates and resources linked to reproductive success. To date, no study has directly examined the relations between intrasexual competitiveness, reported tendency to gossip, and attitudes toward gossiping. Limited empirical work has also focused on whether gossip frequency, gossip content, and gossip attitudes correspond to women’s and men’s divergent intrasexual competition strategies and evolved mating preferences. In a sample of 290 heterosexual young adults, we found that intrasexual competition positively predicted reported gossip frequency and favorable attitudes toward gossiping. Additionally, women reported a greater tendency to gossip in comparison to men, particularly about physical appearance and social information, whereas men reported gossiping more about achievement. Women also reported greater enjoyment of, and perceived more value in, gossiping than men. Collectively, these findings provide empirical support for the hypothesis that gossip is an intrasexual competition tactic that, by and large, corresponds to women’s and men’s evolved mate preferences and differential mate competition strategies.
... Pesquisas transculturais e informações históricas sugerem que a disposição à fofoca está no cerne das relações sociais desde os primórdios da humanidade (Barkow, 1992;Kniffin & Wilson, 2005;Paine, 1967;Schein, 1994). É possível pensar que essa disposição, além de educar o ouvinte sobre as normas e regras sociais, é uma ferramenta eficaz para transmitir informações sobre códigos culturais e orientações sobre como viver em grupo, preocupando mais ou atraindo maior atenção para condutas que rompam normas sociais. ...
... Cabe destacar que a ausência de diferença em relação ao sexo pode dever-se ao fato de a amostra ter sido bastante homogênea, considerando pessoas (estudantes universitários) com focos e interesses bastante parecidos, independentemente de sexo. Uma vez que a fofoca é um comportamento presente em relações sociais e conversas cotidianas (Barkow, 1992;Kniffin & Wilson, 2005;McPherson, 1991;Noon & Delbridge, 1993), talvez os universitários se tornem mais parecidos por se depararem com os mesmos contextos. Além disso, tenha-se em conta que existem evidências de que os homens se dedicam mais (transmitindo ou ouvindo) a fofocas sobre celebridades, esportistas e políticos, coerentemente com a visão de serem mais orientados para o ambiente macrossocial, enquanto as mulheres são mais engajadas em fofocas no meio familiar e no círculo de amigos próximos (Ben-Ze'ev, 1994). ...
Article
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A fofoca é um elemento comum nas conversas cotidianas tanto de adultos quanto de crianças, está presente em todas as culturas e explica diversos comportamentos sociais. Portanto, considerando a relevância desse construto e a ausência de medida específica no contexto brasileiro, decidiu-se adaptar a Escala de Atitudes frente à Fofoca (EAFF) para, especificamente, conhecer evidências de sua validade fatorial e de sua consistência interna. O instrumento é formado por 12 itens, respondidos em escala de 5 pontos, e mede dois fatores: valor moral e valor social da fofoca. Participaram da pesquisa 261 estudantes universitários de instituições públicas e privadas de João Pessoa (PB), com idade média de 26 anos, sendo a maioria do sexo feminino (71,6%). Por meio de análises fatoriais confirmatórias, foram testados dois modelos: (1) unifatorial (alternativo) e (2) bifatorial (modelo original). Os resultados mostraram que o modelo bifatorial apresentou os melhores indicadores de ajuste, com índices de confiabilidade (Alfa de Cronbach) aceitáveis para fins de pesquisa.
... Psychology is another discipline whose scholars have greatly contributed to the study of gossip and reputation, pointing to the individual and group benefits of gossip. For example, gossip can be an inexpensive and indirect way of acquiring information through social comparison (Wert & Salovey, 2004), creating and strengthening social bonds (Dunbar, 1996), and learning group norms and conventions (Barkow, 1992). Gossip provides emotional relief because it helps frustrated individuals vent their negative emotions (Waddington & Fletcher, 2005), even if negative gossip induces painful feelings of being excluded (Martinescu, Janssen, & Beersma, 2017). ...
... They view negative gossip as an informal policing device (Enquist & Leimar, 1993) that is fundamental for gathering information with "fitness-related" value. In this perspective, gossip is a tool for improving control of resources, providing a competitive edge with regard to building alliances, and assessing the reliability of potential partners (Barkow, 1992;De Backer, Nelissen, Vyncke, Braeckman, & McAndrew, 2007;Dunbar, Marriott, Duncan,1997;Kniffin & Wilson, 2005;McAndrew & Milenkovic, 2002). Though an evolutionary framework is used for analyzing phenomena in modern society, such as contemporary workplaces (Kniffin & Wilson, 2010), its major testbed is among small-scale hunter gatherer societies. ...
... The dynamics of social networks and the boundaries between distinct social networks are heavily influenced by reputational information. Reputational gossip can allow us to form coalitions with our allies and to destroy others' reputations by spreading negative information about them (Barkow, 1992;Hess & Hagen, 2006b, 2019. Within the evolutionary psychology literature, such verbal aggression has been called "informational warfare" (Hess & Hagen, 2019, p. 276). ...
... Through gossiping with others, we create new connections, strengthen existing connections we have with others, and stay informed about the happenings in our environment. Furthermore, spreading positive gossip about our allies and negative gossip about our competitors allows us to enhance our perceptions of ourselves and our ingroups, and to diminish our perceptions of competitors (Barkow, 1992;Buss & Dedden, 1990;Hess & Hagen, 2006b, 2019McAndrew et al., 2007;Wyckoff et al., 2019). In sum, gossip serves as an important tool for our self-esteem and survival in social groups. ...
Article
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Gossip (evaluative talk about others) is ubiquitous. Gossip allows important rules to be clarified and reinforced, and it allows individuals to keep track of their social networks while strengthening their bonds to the group. The purpose of this study is to decipher the nature of gossip and how it relates to friendship connections. To measure how gossip relates to friendship, participants from men’s and women’s collegiate competitive rowing (crew) teams (N = 44) noted their friendship connections and their tendencies to gossip about each of their teammates. Using social network analysis, we found that the crew members’ friend group connectedness significantly correlated with their positive and negative gossip network involvement. Higher connectedness among friends was associated with less involvement in spreading negative gossip and/or being a target of negative gossip. More central connectedness to the friend group was associated with more involvement in spreading positive gossip and/or being a target of positive gossip. These results suggest that the spread of both positive and negative gossip may influence and be influenced by friendship connections in a social network.
... The dynamics of social networks and the boundaries between distinct social networks are heavily influenced by reputational information. Reputational gossip can allow us to form coalitions with our allies and to destroy others' reputations by spreading negative information about them (Barkow, 1992;Hess & Hagen, 2006b, 2019. Within the evolutionary psychology literature, such verbal aggression has been called "informational warfare" (Hess & Hagen, 2019, p. 276). ...
... Through gossiping with others, we create new connections, strengthen existing connections we have with others, and stay informed about the happenings in our environment. Furthermore, spreading positive gossip about our allies and negative gossip about our competitors allows us to enhance our perceptions of ourselves and our ingroups, and to diminish our perceptions of competitors (Barkow, 1992;Buss & Dedden, 1990;Hess & Hagen, 2006b, 2019McAndrew et al., 2007;Wyckoff et al., 2019). In sum, gossip serves as an important tool for our self-esteem and survival in social groups. ...
Preprint
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Gossip (evaluative talk about others) is ubiquitous. Gossip allows important rules to be clarified and reinforced, and it allows individuals to keep track of their social networks while strengthening their bonds to the group (Fine, 1977; Foster, 2004). To measure how gossip relates to friendship, participants from a Men’s and Women’s collegiate crew team noted their friendship connections and their tendencies to gossip about each of their teammates. Using social network analysis, we found that the crew members’ friend group connectedness significantly correlated with their positive and negative gossip network involvement. Higher connectedness amongst friends was associated with less involvement in spreading negative gossip and/or being a target of negative gossip. More central connectedness to the friend group was associated with more involvement in spreading positive gossip and/or being a target of positive gossip. These results suggest that the spread of both positive and negative gossip may influence and be influenced by friendship connections in a social network.
... The latter, then, would be presumed more valuable if the target is someone close to the sender and/or receiver compared to, for example, a stranger. They further suggest that for celebrities, heightened interest in them suggests a "parasocial" sense of closeness to or intimacy with them, and found evidence for this (especially in older people; while finding younger people more interested in learning life lessons from the content-i.e., strategy learning) [28,30,31]. Multiple other studies have also found evidence for the importance of information gathering, and therefore learning, via gossip [2,3,[32][33][34]. ...
Article
To understand, predict, and help correct each other's actions we need to maintain accurate, up-to-date knowledge of people, and communication is a critical means by which we gather and disseminate this information. Yet the conditions under which we communication social information remain unclear. Testing hypotheses generated from our theoretical framework, we examined when and why social information is disseminated about an absent third party: i.e., gossiped. Gossip scenarios presented to participants (e.g., "Person-X cheated on their exam") were based on three key factors: (1) target (ingroup, outgroup, or celebrity), (2) valence (positive or negative), and (3) content. We then asked them (a) whether they would spread the information, and (b) to rate it according to subjective valence, ordinariness, interest level, and emotion. For ratings, the scenarios participants chose to gossip were considered to have higher valence (whether positive or negative), to be rarer, more interesting, and more emotionally evocative; thus showing that the paradigm was meaningful to subjects. Indeed, for target, valence, and content, a repeated-measures ANOVA found significant effects for each factor independently, as well as their interactions. The results supported our hypotheses: e.g., for target, more gossiping about celebrities and ingroup members (over strangers); for valence, more about negative events overall, and yet for ingroup members, more positive gossiping; for content, more about moral topics, with yet all domains of social content communicated depending on the situation-context matters, influencing needs. The findings suggest that social knowledge sharing (i.e., gossip) involves sophisticated calculations that require our highest sociocognitive abilities, and provide specific hypotheses for future examination of neural mechanisms.
... To be more precise, communication was one factor (among many) that determined the reproductive success of individuals. Today's information society, with phenomenon such as mass media and social media, is unanticipated by evolution (Barkow, 1992). In contrast, the human mind was designed by natural selection to work in settings of face-to-face communication (Kock, 2007). ...
Conference Paper
Cary Greenwood (2010) was the first scholar to emphasize the potential of the theory of evolution for public relations and strategic communication research. Using the words of Theodosius Dobzhansky (1973), Greenwood stated that “nothing in public relations makes sense except in the light of evolution” (2010, p. 471). Since then, her call to incorporate evolutionary theory into public relations theory development has been, by and large, left unanswered – some notable exceptions not withstanding (Marsh, 2012; 2013; 2017; Nothhaft, 2016; Seiffert-Brockmann & Thummes, 2017). More than a decade ago, Glen Broom observed that “we have traditionally cited publications from communication, journalism, marketing, and other social sciences, but do not see our publications cited by scholars in other fields” (Broom, 2006, p. 149). Some scholars go even as far as to state that public relations is a field in isolation (Dühring, 2015). This article suggests that the introduction of evolutionary thinking into the field of public relations could help to overcome this isolation. In doing so the paper follows Nothhaft’s call for a consilient approach, i.e. to commit “to the unity of knowledge from physics to chemistry to biology and beyond” (2016, p. 69) in public relations research. Other fields of research in the social sciences, like marketing, have since long adopted evolutionary frameworks as a basis. The fundamental motives framework (FMF) proposed by scholars like Gad Saad, Vladas Griskevicius, Douglas Kenrick, or Kristina Durante (Durante & Griskevicius, 2016; Griskevicius & Kenrick, 2013; Kenrick et al., 2010; Saad, 2007; Schaller et al., 2017), unites the field of evolutionary psychology with marketing, showing “how evolutionary needs influence consumer behavior” (Griskevicius & Kenrick, 2013, p. 372). By shifting the emphasis from consumer behavior to stakeholder behavior, from material outcomes like purchase behavior to immaterial dimensions like reputation, image, or trust, the same could be achieved for the field of public relations. Evolutionary psychology suggests that humans developed “cognitive adaptations for social exchange” (Cosmides & Tooby, 1992, p. 163), which influence decision-making and behavior in social encounters. These adaptations evolved due to the challenge of long-standing problems our ancestors experienced in their hunter-gatherer environment. The fundamental motives framework encompasses challenges in domains of social interaction: “affiliation, status, self-protection, mate search, mate retention, and kin care” (Kenrick & Li, 2012, pp. 127-128). By discussing the implications of the fundamental motives framework against the background of the most prominent strand of research in the field of public relations – organization-public relationships (OPR) – the paper will outline the prospects of incorporating evolutionary thinking into public relations research. To that end, the paper will proceed in three steps. First, the literature concerning organization-public relationships and the fundamental motives framework is being reviewed. With regard to both concepts, the underlying theory and empirical findings are scrutinized. Second, the fundamental motives framework is applied to OPR, showing how psychological mechanisms potentially influence the communication process during the establishment, maintenance, and breakdown of relationships. Finally, the implications of evolutionary psychology in general, and the fundamental motives framework in particular, for public relations research are discussed.
... In the modern world, however, people come daily into our living space via television and social media. Although we obviously "know" that such people are not people who are physically present or have much impact in our lives, at some level our brain continues to classify these people as "friends" or "family" (Barkow, 1989(Barkow, , 1992De Backer, Nelissen, Vyncke, Braeckman, & McAndrew, 2007;Kanazawa, 2002). We then react to these people in much the same way we would a close friend or kin. ...
Article
An evolutionary theoretical approach considers the adaptive function of behavior. Here we discuss what it means to use an evolutionary approach to generate predictions about consumer behavior and the value of applying an evolutionary lens to the study of consumer psychology. We begin with a discussion of the core insights of evolutionary theory and the common misperceptions associated with an evolutionary approach to the study of behavior. We then detail how specific evolutionarily informed theories can be applied to four core areas of consumer research: risk preference, competition and luxury consumption, self-control and temporal preferences, and the consumer behavior of women and families. We also discuss the strengths and limitations of an evolutionarily informed research program.
... Overconfident people might have avoided outright declarations of grandiosity that undermine social standing once detected, instead leveraging subtler non-verbal channels such as vocal tone, eye contact, and expansive posturing, which elevate social standing even after being detected as inflated signals of confidence (Tenney et al., 2019). Nonetheless, if repeatedly detected, overly self-enhancing signals could result in the loss of social status, long-term reputation damage, or finding oneself the target of negative gossip (Barkow, 1992;Melwani, 2012). All of these outcomes run counter to the self-promoting goal of signaling overconfidence in the first place. ...
Article
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Biological differences between men and women mandate that women’s obligatory investment in reproduction is significantly greater than that of men. As a result, women have evolved to be the “choosier” of the two sexes and men have evolved to compete for female choice. To the degree that overconfidence is an effective tool for attracting mates and driving away competitors, greater competition among men suggests that they should express more overconfidence than women. Thus, sexual selection may be the primary reason why overconfidence is typically more pronounced in men than it is in women. Sexual selection may also be a distal, causal factor in what we describe as a cult of overconfidence pervading modern organizations and institutions. Whereas overconfidence was once regulated and constrained by features of ancestral life, levels of social mobility and accountability in contemporary society and modern organizations make it increasingly difficult to keep this gendered bias in check.
... Furthermore, in human societies gossip facilitates the formation of groups (Gluckman 1963): gossipers share and transmit relevant social information about members within the group (Barkow 1996) while, at the same time, isolating those in out-groups. Gossip contributes to stratification and social control, since it works as a tool for sanctioning deviant behaviours and for promoting those behaviours that are functional with respect to the group's goals and objectives (e.g. via a learning process). ...
Chapter
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Reputation, the germ of gossip, is addressed in this chapter as a distributed instrument for social order. In literature, reputation is shown to promote (a) social control in cooperative contexts—like social groups and subgroups—and (b) partner selection in competitive ones, like (e-) markets and industrial districts. Current technology that affects, employs and extends reputation, applied to electronic markets or multi-agent systems, is discussed in light of its theoretical background. In order to compare reputation systems with their original analogue, a social cognitive model of reputation is presented. The application of the model to the theoretical study of norm-abiding behaviour and partner selection are discussed, as well as the refinement and improvement of current reputation technology. The chapter concludes with remarks and ideas for future research.
... It has been noted that humans are particularly alert in social exchange, cooperation and punishment of cheaters and they tend to avoid those who abstain from punishing cheaters. They think about others' character and reliability; they construct and uphold social dominance hierarchies; they create sharing networks and coalitions that impose high costs for defection; and they have a proclivity for gossip and rumour concerning sex, reproduction, resources, hierarchy and coalitions (Boyer 2001, 158;Boyer 2006, 466;Barkow 1992). Viable cooperation must respond to threats of defection imminent action being evaluated and presented to a purported "ethical shift" in the circuitry connecting the prefrontal cortex and amygdala. ...
Article
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Concerns with reputation are found in relation to human notions about rank, honour, religious morality and sacred values. In cognitive and evolutionary approaches to religion, such as " adaptivist " and " by-product " theories , concepts of reputation imply slightly different significances and pragmatic functions. From an " adaptivist " perspective, belief in supernatural punishment supports commitment enhancement and can relate to the promotion of intra-group competition, especially in the absence of concerns about reputational pressure. Alternative accounts, found in " by-product " approaches to religion, suggest that the attribution of moral notions to supernatural agents derives from human cognitive systems devoted to social interaction and cooperation entailing reputation monitoring. More profoundly , in altruist and mutualist models of human cooperation and morality , reputation implies different functions and, by consequence, reputation in " adaptivist " and " by-product " theories is awarded different degrees of importance. The aim of this article is to analyse a predominant type of religious morality by focusing on the conceptualisation of supernatural agents and the function of reputation monitoring. I shall compare altruist and mutualist accounts and adopt the latter to complement our understanding of the social cognitive machinery that underpins the relevance and at-tribution of moral notions to supernatural agents. I shall argue that concern with reputation is closely linked with the cognition of supernatural agents because: (a) according to mutualistic theories, indirect reciprocity and reputation hold a significant position in cooperation and morality, and this has consequences for how religious morality ought to be modelled; and (b) supernatural agents are supposedly " full-access agents " that are aware of " strategic information " because they are omniscient agents that know everything of importance for a believer's reputation and the dynamics of indirect reciprocity in which the believer takes part.
... Even though, celebrities are not direct members of people's social communities and networks, people tend to feel as though they are intimately involved with them (Caughey, 1984) and these celebrities become common topics of interest to discuss with real acquaintances. Highlighting an evolutionary perspective, Barkow (1992) suggests that this phenomenon is caused by an inability for the human brain to separate audiovisual stimuli from real interpersonal interactions and that when we see a media image of a celebrity (especially those who are often in the news), we (falsely) start to believe that these people are members of our social networks. 10 men, when they are talked about… are remarked upon for various qualities which bring them either praise or blame" (p. ...
Article
In this paper, I examine the consequences, both positive and negative, of initiating and participating in gossip in work-related contexts. While a commonly held perspective is that gossip is harmful in that it hurts relational interactions by encouraging coalition-building and engendering divisiveness, an alternative hypothesis is that gossip's emotional attributes, can also help to foster stronger relationships and help individuals navigate complex environments. Specifically, I explore the influence of gossip at multiple levels of analysis: individual, dyadic and group. In Study 1, a laboratory experiment that looks at the short-term benefits of engaging in gossip (versus two control conditions, self-disclosure and task discussion), I find that individuals who engage in gossip experience higher positive emotions, energy and motivation but lower levels of state self-esteem. These gossiping dyads also experience dyadic benefits of relationship closeness and cooperation. Study 2 explored both the reputational and team-level outcomes of gossip. This study showed that team members who engaged in gossip were seen as being less trustworthy. Furthermore, gossip centrality had an inverted U-shaped curvilinear relationship with perceptions of competence. Study 2 showed that gossip about team members negatively influenced team outcomes such as psychological safety, cooperation and viability and increased team-level perceptions of politics while gossip about individuals outside the team has a positive effect on these outcomes, enhancing levels of team cooperation and decreasing perceptions of politics at the team-level. More detailed mediation analyses showed that team process variables, psychological safety and perceptions of politics measured halfway through the course of the team, mediated the negative relationship between intra-team gossip density and team cooperation and team viability measured at the end of the team's lifecycle. In terms of the relationship between extra-team gossip density and team cooperation, it was mediated by decreased team perceptions of politics. This research contributes to the emerging field of inquiry on gossip by providing a comprehensive model of the consequences of gossip at three different levels of analysis as well as a strong empirical test of the effect of gossip on organizationally-relevant outcomes.
... Regardless of whether it is less risky socially, more effective, or both, women cross-culturally are more likely to use subtle forms of aggression, such as starting rumors or otherwise trying to manipulate their social circle, rather than using more direct confrontations or competitions (Barkow, 1992;Björkqvist et al., 1994). In other words, competitor derogation, which involves the direct or indirect attack of a sexual rival (e.g., indirectly insulting a rival, gossiping about her, or insinuating that she is promiscuous) is one of the most likely aggressive tactics a woman will employ (Fisher & Cox, 2011). ...
Chapter
Female competition for male attention is multifaceted. Typically psychological and relational in nature, this competition may be no less damaging than physical violence more commonly used between males. Research on female–female mate competition has examined short-term effects, yet how women cope with long-term effects of romantic relationship dissolution has been little explored. If negative emotions exist because they provide an evolutionary advantage (attuning physiological processes, thoughts, and behaviors to deal with situations that have frequently incurred high fitness costs), then emotions arising from the loss of a mate to a sexual rival may potentially motivate actions that could make one avoid this scenario in the future. This essay argues that there are consequences of female intrasexual mate competition that may be both evolutionarily adaptive and also beneficial in terms of personal growth and that may expand beyond mating and into other realms of personal development.
... Research shows that even secrets that are judged of low interest are likely to be transmitted to others; in such cases, studies show that disclosures to second and third parties occur two-thirds of the time, and this increases to nearly 80% when the secret disclosures are judged to be of intense emotional relevance to the listener (Christophe and Rime 1997). We also know that people are chiefly interested in secrets and information that have the potential to affect their lives, including (but not restricted to) news about their health (Barkow 1992). Finally, studies show that the very act of flagging significant information and then concealing it increases the value of the hidden facts; in other words, it intensifies listeners' desire to uncover such knowledge (Christophe and Rime 1997; Kelly 1999; Yovetich and Drigotas 1999 ). ...
... However, EPs can, in a way, still be right if we assume that the effects of cultural inheritance (see below) largely mask the maladaptiveness of our sluggish genes. This prevalence of cultural inheritance would be compatible with the NCT view, but EPs obviously cannot invoke it fully as they typically denounce the impact of cultural evolution by perceiving culture as a mere actualisation of the underlying instincts (e.g. Barkow, 1992; Jones, 1999). ...
Article
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Evolutionary theory, which has been designed with the sole purpose of describing and explaining phenotypic variability within and between species, is considered to be the base paradigm for the study of all living organisms. Basically, evolution as a process is nothing more than a continuous alteration through time of elements that are already there, without foresight or predetermined goal and therefore not necessarily leading to increasing complexity. The latter puts (palaeo)anthropologists, and archaeologists in particular, in a difficult position, as humans seem to have developed behavioural characteristics and cultural achievements that clearly point to the opposite. As such, and until very recently, they (and scholars of the human and social sciences in general) have largely shunned evolutionary approaches to behaviour and culture. By reviewing the most important of these approaches, and evaluating them in terms of their utility for hominin studies, we will show that an evolutionary take on behaviour and culture does harbour a significant potential for scholars of this period in prehistory.
... iv) Dominance instincts, which relate to factors such as titfor-tat social exchange and nepotism (i.e. Barkow, 1992) are more foundational to materialistic cultures, whereas counter-dominance instincts, which aim to keep inequality to a minimum, are more foundational to postmaterialistic Western ones (Charlton, 1997). v) 'Clever silly' beliefs embodied in political correctness are best viewed as costly signals (i.e. ...
Article
The relationship between IQ and political orientation is an active and controversial area of research. In Dutton's 2013 criticism of one mechanism proposed to account for this relationship (the Cultural Mediation Hypothesis; CMH), it was argued that Openness to Experience and Agreeableness might better account for the positive association between political leftism and IQ than effortful control and cultural mediators. Various predictions derived from both Dutton's model and the CMH are here tested using the Block and Block dataset. Consistent with Dutton's predictions, Openness to Experience mostly mediates the relationship between IQ and leftism (measured using Block and Block's LIB/CON indicator), however problems with Openness to Experience substantially weaken the degree to which this supports his model. Support for the CMH is found in the form of significantly rising correlations between leftism measured in adulthood and IQ with increasing age, suggesting a role for childhood environment in shaping this association. Ultimately neither model is consistently supported by the data. It is suggested that personality and more broadly life history strategy may be an important determinant of whether a political orientation is extreme or moderately oriented. A modified CMH posits that the left/right axis may however be a largely cognitive dimension, with ideologies serving to signal intelligence and to encourage social and sexual selection, and with the basic elements of their content being largely bounded by prevailing cultural norms.
... A very simple example is that a man is far more likely to " call out " a competitor publically and engage in a physical altercation over an attempted mate poach, whereas a woman Running head: INTRASEXUAL MATE COMPETITION AND BREAKUPS: WHO REALLY WINS? 20 is more likely to start or spread rumors about her rival, engage in social exclusion, or otherwise impair a rival's social network in the heat of female-female mate competition. Regardless of whether it is less risky socially, more effective, or both, women cross culturally are more likely to use subtle forms of aggression, such as starting rumors or otherwise trying to manipulate their social circle, rather than more direct confrontations or competitions (Barkow, 1992; Bjorkqvist, et al., 1994). That is to say that competitor derogation, which involves the direct or indirect attack of a sexual rival, for instance indirectly insulting a rival, gossiping about her, or insinuating that she is promiscuous is one of the most likely aggressive tactics a women will employ (Fisher & Cox, 2011). ...
Chapter
Female competition for male attention is multifaceted. Typically psychological and relational in nature, this competition may be no less damaging than physical violence more commonly used between males. Research on female-female mate competition has examined short-term effects, yet how women cope with long-term effects of romantic relationship dissolution has been little explored. If negative emotions exist because they provide an evolutionary advantage (attuning physiological processes, thoughts, and behaviors to deal with situations that have frequently incurred high fitness costs) then emotions arising from the loss of a mate to a sexual rival may potentially motivate actions that could make one avoid this scenario in the future. This chapter argues that there are consequences of female intrasexual mate competition which may be both evolutionarily adaptive and also beneficial in terms of personal growth, and that may expand beyond mating and into other realms of personal development.
... The human natural tendency to favor sociality and interaction with others has caused the explosion of the Internet and social media, which have quickly come to characterize our way of living (Dunbar & Shultz, 2007;Sherman, Hernandez, Greenfield, & Dapretto, 2018). Today, people are constantly exposed to relevant social information through technology (Waytz & Gray, 2018), as well as to violent movies, brutal sports, and bloody video games, which build on our motivation and affinity for pleasurable social observation (Barkow, 1992;. Buckels et al. (2013) proposed that the popularity of cruel commonplace activities derives from a subclinical form of everyday sadism, which is a broader category of sadism resulting from the widespread favoring of cruelty, violence, and brutality in the media. ...
... To be more precise, communication was one factor (among many) that determined the reproductive success of individuals. Today's information society, with phenomenon such as mass media and social media, is unanticipated by evolution (Barkow, 1992). In contrast, the human mind was designed by natural selection to work in settings of face-to-face communication (Kock, 2007). ...
Article
Full-text available
Evolutionary psychology suggests that the human mind consists of evolved cognitive mechanisms that developed through evolution by means of natural selection. These mechanisms evolved to solve long standing problems in the human ancestral environment. Cooperation in small foraging tribal commu- nities of hunters and gatherers, and its use to gain reproductive advantages, was one of the problems the human mind has adapted to. Thus, this article argues that adopting evolutionary psychology as a framework for strategic communication research can improve understanding of why strategic com- munication exists in human societies and how it works. The idea of the modularity of mind suggests that separate modules inside the mind evolved during our evolutionary history to solve ancestral challenges. Some of these modules embody human fundamental motives, which can by triggered by strategic communication. By tapping into fundamental motives such as the longing for status, affiliation, and kin-care, strategic communication is able to exploit ancestral stimuli in today’s information society. Thus, a research pro- gram based on evolutionary psychology could be a valuable contribution to the field’s growing body of knowledge.
... Substantial endeavours have been made to search for explanatory insight into the formation. There is research verifying that aggregation results from collaborative interactions [10,11] and human evolved psychological processes [12]. ...
Article
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In this paper, we propose a collective game where agents, distributed in one-dimensional space, seek for their best positions through adaptive learning. The movements of agents are driven by a simple rule: they are attracted by others with higher status and yet restricted by their initial positions, according to which a benefit function is formulated. It is found that some fascinating complex patterns arise from such simple rules. Aggregations of agents emerge in the form of clusters along this position line after a dozen rounds. While agents strive to move forward, a chain of clusters shift backward and ultimately collapse one by one at an almost fixed point. The trail of shifting behaves like an attractor which attracts different groups of agents to join in. Such intricate moving pattern turns out quite sharp and clear when agents have a uniform pace length.
... As status can influence how other people perceive, respect and recognize an individual's position, many people have a strong willingness and put considerable effort toward attaining high status (Barkow, 1992). Prior studies suggest that various motives energize people to engage in status-seeking behaviors, particularly those associated with acquiring (or consuming) status products. ...
Article
Purpose-This paper aims to address how the status consumption tendency of consumers in emerging markets is negatively influenced by five individual traits: self-control, self-actualization, religiosity, future orientation, and self-efficacy. Design/methodology/approach-A conjoint experiment measured the importance of certain smartphone product attributes. A latent class regression analysis was then employed to estimate segment-level part-worths using conjoint data collected from 500 Bangladeshi consumers. Findings-The results revealed three segments with members that differ in how they evaluate smartphone product attributes. Those susceptible to a product's brand name (i.e. status seekers) appear to have low self-control, are less religious, and are more myopic. Research limitations/implications-An issue may exist with generalizability, as the analysis was conducted based on data collected in one country and for one product category. However, this study's framework provides direction for future researchers to better understand status consumption in emerging countries. Practical implications-The findings are useful for marketers selling status products to improve market segmentation and target their offerings more efficiently.
... Information with the purpose of punishing group members who do not adhere to norms, and/or to better promote group cooperation (Barkow 1992;Levin and Arluke 2013;Merry 1984). Helps successfully manage friendships, alliances, and other group relationships (Shackelford 1997). ...
Preprint
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Reality television is a social experiment and interactions observed among contestants reflect a microcosm of real-life exchanges. In the present study, we inspected gossip in the eleventh season of Bigg Boss, an Indian reality show fashioned after UK’s Big Brother. Specifically, two independent raters coded the frequency of conversations, how many of them were gossip, who the targets were, and how much each contestant contributed to the exchange. The connotation, content, and purpose of gossip was investigated for the top three contestants and those who were evicted in earlier episodes. We found that the winners engaged in and were targets of more conversations than those evicted. Consistent with theories of group and sexual selection, women spoke more about physical appearance and reputation, and the only male contestant investigated discussed status and prestige more than other topics. Information sharing was primarily motivated by social comparisons and intra-sexual competition, but not so much to compare groups.
... Storytelling provides an important means of fulfilling social affiliation goals, in that the crafting and sharing of stories can help people better connect with each other in a positive way (Fulford 1999). For this reason, stories or narratives are considered a form of social currency that allows storytellers to gain appreciation from others and compete more successfully in social selection contexts (Barkow 1992;Fulford 1999). Consumers should therefore be more likely to transmit brand rumors involving stories that allow them to connect positively with others in order to achieve their social goals. ...
... For example, knowledge of language would be a domain-specific system that gives humans the ability required for the acquisition and use of language (Chomsky, 1986;Spelke & Kinzler, 2007). A particularly radical version of this stance is exemplified by evolutionary psychology and its massive modularity thesis according to which all extant human cognitive abilities (not just the peripheral ones) are modular and, also, adaptations to the environment of the Stone Age (Barkow, 1992;Plotkin, 1997). Differences as to the extent of modularity notwithstanding and focusing our attention on language, it is certainly true that both stances appear to be committed to some form of nativism according to which neurally specific modules for language are shaped by specific genes (Berwick & Chomsky, 2016;Pinker & Jackendoff, 2005). ...
Thesis
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The emergence of shared cultural conventions in a population is shaped by the interaction between individuals’ cognition and the structure of the society. Humans, more than any other species in the animal kingdom, are able to learn and transmit vast amounts of information, through language and other cultural products. Individual cognitive constraints include cognitive biases, value systems and memory among others. Additionally, humans have an extraordinary capacity to build developmental environments and construct social niches that can be modelled as complex systems. We are born into particular societies with specific social structures, which constitute our ecological niches. Societies are shaped by the structure of the social network and other high-level hierarchical entities that constitute integrated systems of rules that structure social interactions (e.g. institutions). In this thesis I formalise some of the relationships between these factors using a variety of approaches. In particular, I explore the following three main research questions: (1) How do the interactions between individual cognitive traits and the temporal dynamics of social network connectivity, i.e. the order in which individuals in a population interact with each other, affect the spread of cultural variants? (2) How do the interactions between individual cognitive traits and institutions affect the evolution of cultural diversity and the emergence of cultural conventions? (3) How might current iterated learning models, niche construction and evolutionary developmental biology be synthesised into a compatible framework for language evolution? Chapter 1 contains a review of the literature and an introduction to the assumptions underlying the models presented in this thesis. In Chapter 2, I present an agent-based model manipulating specific network connectivity dynamics, cognitive biases and memory. I show that connectivity dynamics affect the time-course of variant spread, with lower connectivity slowing down convergence of the population onto a single cultural variant. I also show that, compared to a neutral evolutionary model, content bias (i.e. a preference for variants with high value) is the main driver of convergence and amplifies the effects of connectivity dynamics, whilst larger memory size and coordination bias, especially egocentric bias, slow down convergence. In Chapter 3, I report on an experiment in the lab in which participants engage in a Pictionary-like graphical communication task as members of a 4-participant micro-society. The experiment has two main goals: First, to evaluate the effect of two network connectivity dynamics (early and late) on the evolution of the convergence of micro-societies on shared communicative conventions under controlled conditions. Second, to compare the predictions of the agent-based model described in Chapter 2 against experimental data, and calibrate the model to find the bestfitting parameter setting. Our experimental data shows that, as predicted by the model, an early connectivity dynamic increases convergence and a late connectivity dynamic slows down convergence. Expanding on the model developed in Chapter 2, Chapter 4 explores how the interactions between content bias, value systems and institutional performance affect cultural diversity and the emergence of cultural conventions at the population level. Simulation results show that high hegemony (i.e. one or few variants are strongly preferred over the others) and homogeneity of value systems among agents accelerate the extinction of cultural traits and thus erode cultural diversity. In certain regions of the parameter space, institutions that do not reinforce original value systems tend to be effective at preserving cultural diversity. However, an important limitation of this model is that institutional performance remains fixed over time. In Chapter 5, I attempt to overcome previous shortcomings of the model by developing a co-evolutionary model of value systems, institutions and choice. To the best of my knowledge, this model constitutes the first attempt to quantify the propagation of cultural variants by incorporating a comprehensive parameter combination of compliance, confirmation, content and frequency biases into the learning and production algorithm. Results show that, in general, institutional power facilitates the emergence of cultural conventions when compliance biases increase. In general, a compliance bias pushes diversity up when institutions are diverse, and pushes diversity down when institutions convey value systems with strong dominance of one or few cultural variants. In some regions of the parameter space, global conventions can also emerge in the absence of institutional power and therefore of institutions that are in place to guide convergence. On a more conceptual level and applied to the case of language, Chapter 6 reviews the literature on iterated learning and ecological evolutionary developmental biology to explore their compatibility. I use the concept of niche construction to build bridges between eco-evo-devo accounts for cognitive capacities and cultural evolution guided by iterated learning processes. Additionally, based on recent insights from both domains, I propose an integrated conceptual model that might be useful to connect biological and cultural approaches, as well as act as a hypothesis-generating framework around which cognitive scientists can structure new triple-inheritance formal models. In Chapter 7, I summarise the most relevant findings of this thesis and I discuss some potential implications.
... Formal models (Leimar & Hammerstein, 2001;Nowak & Sigmund, 1998a;Panchanathan & Boyd, 2004;Santos et al., 2018) have focused on reputations as proxy of simple and observable behaviors, such as donating (or not) to another individual. Reputations can be based on knowledge of others' past cooperative behavior, either through previous interactions, direct observation, or exchange of information about third parties, which is called gossip (Barkow, 1992;Dores Cruz et al., 2021;Emler, 2019). ...
Article
Full-text available
Research in various disciplines has highlighted that humans are uniquely able to solve the problem of cooperation through the informal mechanisms of reputation and gossip. Reputation coordinates the evaluative judgments of individuals about one another. Direct observation of actions and communication are the essential routes that are used to establish and update reputations. In large groups, where opportunities for direct observation are limited, gossip becomes an important channel to share individual perceptions and evaluations of others that can be used to condition cooperative action. Although reputation and gossip might consequently support large-scale human cooperation, four puzzles need to be resolved to understand the operation of reputation-based mechanisms. First, we need empirical evidence of the processes and content that form reputations and how this may vary cross-culturally. Second, we lack an understanding of how reputation is determined from the muddle of imperfect, biased inputs people receive. Third, coordination between individuals is only possible if reputation sharing and signaling is to a large extent reliable and valid. Communication, however, is not necessarily honest and reliable, so theoretical and empirical work is needed to understand how gossip and reputation can effectively promote cooperation despite the circulation of dishonest gossip. Fourth, reputation is not constructed in a social vacuum; hence we need a better understanding of the way in which the structure of interactions affects the efficiency of gossip for establishing reputations and fostering cooperation.
... For example, knowledge of language would be a domain-specific system that gives humans the ability required for the acquisition and use of language (Chomsky 1986;Spelke and Kinzler 2007). A particularly radical version of this stance is exemplified by evolutionary psychology and its massive modularity thesis according to which all extant human cognitive abilities (not just the peripheral ones) are modular and, also, adaptations to the environment of the Stone Age (Barkow 1992;Plotkin 1997). Differences as to the extent of modularity notwithstanding and focusing our attention on language, it is certainly true that both stances appear to be committed to some form of nativism according to which neurally specific modules for Content courtesy of Springer Nature, terms of use apply. ...
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In this paper we argue that ecological evolutionary developmental biology (eco-evo-devo) accounts of cognitive modernity are compatible with cultural evolution theories of language built upon iterated learning models. Cultural evolution models show that the emergence of near universal properties of language do not require the preexistence of strong specific constraints. Instead, the development of general abilities, unrelated to informational specificity, like the copying of complex signals and sharing of communicative intentions is required for cultural evolution to yield specific properties, such as language structure. We argue that eco-evo-devo provides the appropriate conceptual background to ground an account for the many interconnected genetic, environmental and developmental factors that facilitated the emergence of an organic system able to develop language through the iterated transmission of information. We use the concept of niche construction to connect evolutionary developmental accounts for sensory guided motor capacities and cultural evolution guided by iterated learning models. This integrated theoretical model aims to build bridges between biological and cultural approaches.
... Os psicólogos evolucionistas gaúchos Ricardo Lopes e Sílvio Vasconcelos (2008) explicam que o ser humano é uma espécie animal, cujo nível de sofisticação comportamental está igualmente vinculado ao processo evolutivo e às leis naturais, tal como ocorre nas demais espécies, embora seja um "animal moral" (R. Wright, 1996). Fenômenos socioculturais complexos são explicadas com base nestas premissas, desde a estratificação social (Barkow, 1992), a atração sexual e a escolha de parceiros (Buss, 1992(Buss, , 1995Ellis, 1992;Geary, 2005), a homossexualidade (Muscarella, 2000), o transexualismo (Zhou, Hofman, Gooren, & Swaab, 1995), a negligência e o cuidado parental (Mann, 1992;Trivers, 1972), o altruísmo (Trivers, 1971) até o estupro, a guerra, a monogamia feminina e a poligamia masculina (Barash, 1979;Verral, 1979). As diferenças psicológicas (Bainbridge, 2003;Buss, 1992), morfológicas e funcionais de cérebros de homens e de mulheres (Courten-Myers, 1999;Rabinowicz, Dean, Petetot, & Courten-Myers, 1999) são determinadas por aspectos genéticos e biológicos. ...
Thesis
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Esta Tese foi construída com base na pesquisa documental com o objetivo de investigar as possibilidades de enunciação, os lugares ocupados e as filiações dos discursos de gênero na Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS) e, em particular, no Instituto de Psicologia desta Universidade. Esta pesquisa emergiu do diálogo entre a Análise de Discurso Francesa de Michel Pêcheux, os Estudos Feministas e de Gênero e a Arqueogenealogia de Michel Foucault. Conceituando gênero como a forma de organização sócio-histórica e política da diferença (sexual), analisamos a inscrição do indexador „gênero‟ em Linhas de Pesquisa, Projetos de Pesquisa e Teses e Dissertações disponíveis na base de dados digital da UFRGS. A análise do corpus investigado revelou a (in)visibilidade dos discursos de gênero na universidade, na qual ocupa posição periférica de enunciação. Conceito politizado que desvela as hierarquias sobre as quais a ordem social e a própria universidade brasileira estão assentadas, gênero resiste à tentativa de silenciamento que lhe é imposta e se enuncia, embora sitiado em alguns poucos campos do saber. Associados aos Grupos e Núcleos de Estudos de Gênero existentes na UFRGS, dentre eles, na Educação, nas Letras e nas Ciências Sociais e Humanidades, os discursos de gênero filiam-se às teorias feministas e às teorias pósestruturalistas de gênero. Em outros campos do saber, gênero é ocultado, negado, reprimido, amordaçado. No Instituto de Psicologia, os discursos de gênero também são periféricos, materializando-se em poucas disciplinas eletivas e em poucas Teses e Dissertações. Filiadas a diferentes discursos que fazem(se) política na produção de subjetividades (en)gendradas, as teorias e práticas psi regulam as possibilidades de gênero, podendo estar a serviço de manter a ordem social hierárquica. Buscando dar visibilidade às implicações das teorias e das práticas psicológicas ensinadas na universidade é que foi construída esta Tese, que deseja também instigar à reflexão sobre nossos próprios discursos. Sugestões para a transversalização das questões de gênero na estrutura curricular das universidades são oferecidas, alinhadas a políticas de formação de psicólogos e psicólogas comprometidos(as) contra todas as formas de opressão geradoras de sofrimento psíquico, sobretudo às mulheres e àqueles e àquelas, de todos os (trans)gêneros, designados menos humanos ao longo da história.
... So we can read biological cues as cultural: "the only sign of femaleness is an absence of male cues" (Kessler & McKenna, 1978, p. 152). However, this does not contradict that what culture has expressed, strengthened, sedimented, socially stratified, and handed down through cultural products and memes may have evolved from cognitive processes that have guaranteed human survival (Barkow, 1992;Buss, 2001;Carruthers et al., 2006;Ji & Yap, 2016;Lumsden & Wilson, 1981). In case of ambiguity or complexity in the detection of gender cues, a cognitive bias has saved humans from a risky encounter with an aggressive male (Dimberg & Öhman, 1996;Dimberg et al., 2000;Navarrete et al., 2009). ...
Article
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The present study aimed to replicate Kessler and McKenna’s (1978) ethnomethodological study that investigated how an individual attributes gender to a person. By administering figures depicted on overlays (Overlay Study), Kessler and McKenna found that the penis more than the vulva and the male sexual characteristics more than the female ones were significantly more salient in the gender attribution process. From all this, their adage is: “See someone as female only when you cannot see them as male.” Taking as a model Kessler and McKenna’s Overlay Study, we administered to 592 adults 120 new digital stimuli elaborated on realistic frontal images of human nudes to verify if the previously obtained results would be confirmed by using more realistic images. We found that the participants attributed male gender 86% of the time when the penis was shown, but only attributed female gender 67% of the time when the vulva was shown. All findings had strong statistical significance, confirming the findings of the Overlay Study that the penis makes the difference in gender recognition. Beyond an ethnomethodological approach, we have interpreted and discussed our results from the outlook of evolutionary and cognitive psychology and cognitive neuroscience, concluding that the cultural stereotypes and prejudices that affect gender attribution might not just be a mere cultural product, but rather the consequence of evolved cognitive biases.
... Information with the purpose of punishing group members who do not adhere to norms, and/or to better promote group cooperation (Barkow 1992;Levin and Arluke 2013;Merry 1984). Helps successfully manage friendships, alliances, and other group relationships (Shackelford 1997). ...
Article
The modern marketplace has made consumers’ lives better in many ways, offering a multitude of affordable conveniences and luxuries. Why, then, is the prevalence of physical and mental health deficits higher than any other time in history? Here, we articulate an evolutionary mismatch perspective—the idea that the environment we live in has changed dramatically in a short period of time, but the human body and mind have not changed. Consumers’ evolved body and mind are interacting with the modern world as if it were an ancestral environment that existed thousands of years ago, leading to many negative outcomes. We discuss three evolutionary mismatches that contribute to or compound consumer vulnerability to disease and dissatisfaction with life. We review emerging research and propose future directions that inform effective strategies to mitigate illness and enhance wellbeing.
Article
Why do people share or publicly engage with fake stories? Two possible answers come to mind: (a) people are deeply irrational and believe these stories to be true; or (b) they intend to deceive their audience. Both answers presuppose the idea that people put the stories forward as true. But I argue that in some cases, these outlandish (yet also very popular) stories function as signals of one's group membership. This signaling function can make better sense of why, despite their unusual nature or lack of a factual basis, some of these stories are so widespread.
Chapter
Over the past few decades, reasoning and rationality have been the focus of enormous interdisciplinary attention, attracting interest from philosophers, psychologists, economists, statisticians and anthropologists, among others. The widespread interest in the topic reflects the central status of reasoning in human affairs. But it also suggests that there are many different though related projects and tasks which need to be addressed if we are to attain a comprehensive understanding of reasoning.
Chapter
Unter neuer Kultur ist alte Psychologie. Kommunikation ist das Übermitteln von Information mit dem Ziel, den oder die Adressaten in ihrem Verhalten zu manipulieren. Die eingesetzten Mittel zur Kommunikation mögen unterschiedlich sein und auch die Ziele, doch die Intention ist in allen Fällen gleich. Man kann andere warnen vor Gefahren, um reziprok auch selbst gewarnt zu werden, man kann informieren über Nahrungsquellen, um reziprok auch an den Ressourcen anderer teilzuhaben.
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Most of the current literature on gossip describes gossipmongers as incessantly sharing evaluative and valuable information about an absent third party in teams, groups, communities, and organizations. However, potential gossipers can similarly decide not to share what they know, depending on the content, the context, or their relationship with the other actors in the gossip triad. We argue that understanding the reasons why people do not gossip may provide useful insights into individual motives, group dynamics, and collective behaviors. This theoretical contribution first critically surveys the existing gossip literature with the aim of highlighting the conditions under which people might refrain from sharing third party information. We then propose to apply Goal Framing theory as a way to bridge a theory of the micro-foundations of human behavior with an analytical model of the gossip triad that disentangles the various ways through which senders, receivers, and objects of gossip may be interrelated. From a goal framing perspective, most research on gossip illustrates the mechanisms in which the hedonic gratification derived from gossiping is reinforced by gain or normative goals. However, a normative or a gain goal frame can prevent the gossip monger from spreading the information, and we argue that depending on different configurations of frames and relations between actors the perceived costs of sending gossip may be far higher than much of the previous literature suggests.
Article
This article explores to what extent the functions of interpersonal offline gossip can be mapped on to the virtual community of Second Life and its subsequent in-world and out-world interactions. A long-term hybrid ethnographic study was conducted that involved recurrent actual and virtual meetings with informants. The main objectives are, first, to look for similarities and to explain dissimilarities and, second, to gain some much-needed insight into how moral life is structured in social virtual communities and how important the role of gossip is. Results show overlaps between online and offline gossip concerning uses and functions. Gossip is important as a means for reputation management; as a cultural learning system; as a sanctioning system; and as entertainment. Just as in traditional offline communities, gossip is a central mechanism to regulate virtual moral life that stretches out to blogs, websites, and face-to-face meetings. Yet, technology amplifies the effects by creating new possibilities such as logging the evidence in order to spot cheaters. This way, in-world gossip becomes an inflated form of traditional gossip.
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With the transition toward densely populated and urbanized market-based cultures over the past 200 years, young people’s development has been conditioned by the ascendancy of highly competitive skills-based labor markets that demand new forms of embodied capital (e.g., education) for young people to succeed. Life-history analysis reveals parental shifts toward greater investment in fewer children so parents can invest more in their children’s embodied capital for them to compete successfully. Concomitantly, the evolution of market-based capitalism has been associated with the rise of extrinsic values such as individualism, materialism and status-seeking, which have intensified over the last 40–50 years in consumer economies. The dominance of extrinsic values is consequential: when young people show disproportionate extrinsic relative to intrinsic values there is increased risk for mental health problems and poorer well-being. This paper hypothesizes that, concomitant with the macro-cultural promotion of extrinsic values, young people in advanced capitalism (AC) are obliged to develop an identity that is market-driven and embedded in self-narratives of success, status, and enhanced self-image. The prominence of extrinsic values in AC are synergistic with neuro-maturational and stage-salient developments of adolescence and embodied in prominent market-driven criterion such as physical attractiveness, displays of wealth and material success, and high (educational and extra-curricular) achievements. Cultural transmission of market-driven criterion is facilitated by evolutionary tendencies in young people to learn from older, successful and prestigious individuals ( prestige bias ) and to copy their peers. The paper concludes with an integrated socio-ecological evolutionary account of market-driven identities in young people, while highlighting methodological challenges that arise when attempting to bridge macro-cultural and individual development.
Chapter
Der meistzitierte und meistdiskutierte Satz der Medientheorie überhaupt stammt von Marshall McLuhan (1911–1980) und lautet »The medium is the message«. Nur selten ist vermerkt worden, dass dieser lakonische Grundsatz nichts anderes als die medienwissenschaftliche Fassung der christlichen Kernbotschaft ist. Jesus Christus ist (für c hristliche Gläubige) nicht wie etwa Moses oder Mohammed der Überbringer einer göttlichen Botschaft, vielmehr ist er selbst die Botschaft. »Ich bin der Weg und die Wahrheit und das Leben; niemand kommt zum Vater denn durch mich«, lässt der Evangelist Johannes Jesus Christus sagen (Joh. 16,4). Das Medium Jesus Christus, in dem das Wort Fleisch (Joh. 1,14) und Gott Mensch wurde, ist die inkarnierte frohe Botschaft, an die übrigens auch der zum Katholizismus konvertierte hochreligiöse Medientheoretiker McLuhan glaubte (s. Kap. II.4).
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Researchers have been interested in discussing negative workplace gossip and its consequences, but have paid little attention to positive workplace gossip and its positive aspects in the workplace. Based on the perspective of social network, this study explores the two-path mediating mechanisms between positive workplace gossip and the socialization outcomes of newcomers. The data was collected in a multi-time and multi-source manner. The results shown that information ties and friendship ties mediated the relationship between positive workplace gossip and the socialization outcomes of newcomers. Specifically, positive workplace gossip helped newcomers form instrumental and expressive social relationships, namely informational ties and friendship ties, which in turn contributed to socialization outcomes, namely, role clarity and social integration. The theoretical and management implications are discussed as well.
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An Evolutionary, But Not Stable Strategy for Crime Control - Volume 16 Issue 1 - Linda Mealey
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Negative workplace gossip generates social undermining and great side effects to employees. But, the damage of negative gossip is mainly aimed at the employee who perceived being targeted. The purpose of this study is to develop a conceptual model in which perceived negative workplace gossip influences employees in-role behavior and organizational citizenship behavior differentially by changing employees’ self-concept (organizational-based self-esteem and perceived insider status). 336 employees from seven Chinese companies were investigated for empirical analysis on proposed hypotheses, and results show that: (1) Perceived negative workplace gossip adversely influences employees’ IRB and OCB. (2) Self-concept (OBSE and PIS) plays a mediating role in the relationship between perceived negative workplace gossip and employees’ behaviors (IRB and OCB). (3) Employees’ hostile attribution bias moderates the relationship between perceived negative workplace gossip and self-concept (OBSE and PIS); and also moderates the mediating effect of self-concept (OBSE and PIS) on the relationship between perceived negative workplace gossip and employees’ behaviors (IRB and OCB). Thus, our findings provide deeper insights into the potential harmful effects of gossip. In addition, we help to explain the underlying mechanism and boundary condition of these effects.
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This chapter explores extraordinary companies which are, counter-intuitively perhaps, places where people are encouraged to act and be natural. The idea is simple and pragmatic: if organisations are designed to align with our natural psychology, they will be more effective, efficient and successful. In other words, competitive advantage, the holy grail of strategy, can result from organising and behaving with the grain of human nature.
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