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Women's Preferences for Penis Size: A New Research Method Using Selection among 3D Models

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Women’s preferences for penis size may affect men’s comfort with their own bodies and may have implications for sexual health. Studies of women’s penis size preferences typically have relied on their abstract ratings or selecting amongst 2D, flaccid images. This study used haptic stimuli to allow assessment of women’s size recall accuracy for the first time, as well as examine their preferences for erect penis sizes in different relationship contexts. Women (N = 75) selected amongst 33, 3D models. Women recalled model size accurately using this method, although they made more errors with respect to penis length than circumference. Women preferred a penis of slightly larger circumference and length for one-time (length = 6.4 inches/16.3 cm, circumference = 5.0 inches/12.7 cm) versus long-term (length = 6.3 inches/16.0 cm, circumference = 4.8 inches/12.2 cm) sexual partners. These first estimates of erect penis size preferences using 3D models suggest women accurately recall size and prefer penises only slightly larger than average.
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... Evidence also suggests sexual selection on human penis size 49,50 , and female mosquito fish tend to prefer to associate with larger males that have a longer penis 51 . Interestingly, if formal estimates of selection on genital form are compared with those on general morphology, no significant differences between the two are evident (Box 2). ...
... Furthermore, before humans began wearing clothes, the penis would have been visible to potential mates (and competitors) and so could have influenced mating opportunities, especially considering recent evidence indicating that penis size influences female choice 49,50 . One study investigating female assessment of digital projections of life-size, computer-generated images of men with a flaccid penis, revealed that women preferred larger penises, particularly in tall men, but that this preference decelerated once penis length exceeded about 7.6 cm 49 . ...
... Moreover, both increased penis size and height had equally positive effects on how women rated model attractiveness, although the hip:shoulder width ratio of models had the greatest effect 49 . Other work has also revealed that preference varied depending on whether women were assessing men for brief encounters or long-term relationships 50 , a finding reflected in many in studies of human sexuality -sexual behaviours often vary depending on context 28 . Notably, although this work suggests that overt female choice could act on male penis form, these studies used statements of preference rather than actual measures of male fitness. ...
Article
The penis is an incredibly diverse and rapidly evolving structure, such that even in closely related species that otherwise differ very little in their morphology, penis form can be highly differentiated. Penises are also much more complex than their fundamental function — sperm transfer — would seem to require. The rapid divergent evolution of male structures is typically the signature of traits under sexual selection and the current evidence suggests the penis is no different in this regard. Despite the general agreement that sexual selection is the main driver of penis evolution, many questions about penis evolution remain unresolved. Furthermore, the penis might be an ideal characteristic on which to focus in the drive to link phenotype with genotype.
... Desire for a longer penile size was a concern for 68.3% of 200 men in one study, so it is a common concern in the male population [4,5]. Concerns about penile size affect men's sexual satisfaction and functioning [6]. Penile size does not affect sexual functions like orgasm, sexual drive, or pain experience. ...
... One study using 3D images found that women preferred an erect penis length of 6.3-6.4 inches (16.0-16.26 cm) (Prause, Park, Leung, & Miller, 2015), and another study (using life-size computer-generated images) found that women's ratings of male attractiveness increased with flaccid penis size but that the proportional increase in attractiveness declined after 3.0 inches (7.6 cm) (Mautz, Wong, Peters, & Jennions, 2013). However, another study found that women's self-reported subjective arousal did not differ when reading stories about having sex with men who had small, average, or large penises (Fisher, Branscombe, & Lemery, 1983). ...
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Most men believe that the average length of an erect penis is greater than 6 inches (15.24 cm). This belief is due, in part, to several often-cited studies that relied on self-reported measurements, with means of about 6.2 inches (15.75 cm) for heterosexual men and even greater for gay men. These studies suffered from both volunteer bias and social desirability bias. In this review, the combined mean for 10 studies in which researchers took measurements of erect penises was 5.36 inches (13.61 cm; n = 1,629). For 21 studies in which researchers measured stretched penises, the mean was approximately 5.11 inches (12.98 cm; n = 13,719). Based on these studies, the average length of an erect penis is between 5.1 and 5.5 inches (12.95–13.97 cm), but after taking volunteer bias into account, it is probably toward the lower end of this range. Studies show that a majority of men wish they were larger, with some choosing penile lengthening surgery. These surgeries are considered by the American Urological Association to be risky. Most men seeking surgery have normal sized penises. Counseling with factual information about penis size might be effective in alleviating concerns for the majority of men who worry about having a small penis.
... A large U.S. study showed that women's preferred penis size is 16.3 cm in length and 12.7 cm in circumference. 61 The present study offers no support one way or the other. A little less than half of the women reported that penis size is important for sexual satisfaction, whereas more than a third reported that it is not. ...
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Introduction Few studies have investigated women's experiences with orgasm and the factors that they cite as important for their orgasmic function and sexual behavior related to foreplay and sexual stimulation. Aim To investigate and describe overall sexual function in a cohort of North American women, with a special focus on orgasmic function, satisfaction, triggers, risk factors, and sexual behavior. Methods A total of 303 women aged 18–75 years completed a 100-questionnaire survey, which included the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) questionnaire and questions on orgasmic function, duration of sexual activity, sexual behaviors and relationship, and the partner’s sexual function. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS to illuminate factors affecting sexual function. Outcomes The main outcome measures are FSFI score, satisfaction with sexual life, ability to reach orgasm, orgasm frequency, preferred sexual stimulation, and sexual habits. Results FSFI scores, which were calculated for the 230 women who reported having had a steady male sex partner in the preceding 6 months, showed that 41% of the 230 women were at risk for female sexual dysfunction (a cutoff less than 26.55) and 21% were dissatisfied with their overall sexual life. Almost 90% of the overall cohort reported good emotional contact with their partner, that their partner was willing to have sex, satisfaction with the partner’s penis size (wherever applicable), and good erectile function and ejaculatory control of their partner (wherever applicable). 81% of the overall cohort claimed to be sexually active. Around 70% (70–72) did reach orgasm frequently, but around 10% never did so. Vaginal intercourse was reported by 62% of the overall cohort as the best trigger of orgasm, followed by external stimulation from the partner (48%) or themselves (37%). External stimulation was reported to be the fastest trigger to orgasm. Clinical Implications The knowledge on how women reach orgasm and how it is related to the partners' willingness to have sex and other factors can be incorporated in the clinical work. Strengths & Limitations The use of a validated questionnaire and the relative large number of participants are strengths of the study. Limitations are the cross-sectional design, the lack of a sexual distress measure, and a possible selection bias. Conclusion Most women in the overall cohort were satisfied overall with their sexual life and partner-related factors, even though 41% (of those who cited a steady sex male partner) were at risk for female sexual dysfunction. Most women did reach orgasm through different kinds of stimulation. Correlation was good between preferred and performed sexual activities and positions. Shaeer O, Skakke D, Giraldi A, et al. Female Orgasm and Overall Sexual Function and Habits: A Descriptive Study of a Cohort of U.S. Women. J Sex Med 2020;XX:XXX–XXX.
... However, studies show that women actually prefer a more average-sized penis. 25 Previous research findings propose that media marketed to men, including pornography, may emphasize the importance of penis size but media marketed to women may not include this message. 2,26 This gender-differentiated media may give men a false perception about the physical traits women value and lead to the overestimation of the importance of penis size. ...
Article
Background An increasing number of men are dissatisfied with their penis size and are seeking cosmetic procedures to enhance their penis size. However, less is known about the social and cultural factors that influence men to consider these procedures. Objectives To investigate the sociocultural factors impacting on men’s attitudes toward their penis size and also their decisions to undergo penile augmentation. Methods One-on-one semi-structured interviews were conducted with 6 adult men who had previously undergone a penile augmentation. The men were asked about the sociocultural factors that they thought contributed to dissatisfaction with their penis size, and their motivations for having penile augmentation. All interviews were audio recorded and then transcribed verbatim. Interview transcripts were analyzed using thematic analysis. Results Three main themes emerged from the interviews, namely “influence of pornography”, “comparison with peers” and “indirect appearance-related teasing”. The men noted that the large penises of male actors in pornography had skewed their perception of normal penis size. All men had compared their penis size with their peers, usually in the locker room, and often felt their own penis was smaller as a result. None of the participants had received direct negative comments about their penis size, but were aware that having a small penis was a source of mockery from exposure to jokes on mainstream media sources. Conclusions These new insights into sociocultural factors, namely media and peers, which influence men’s desire for penile augmentation may assist clinicians in enhancing their communication with prospective patients.
... An elaborate penis may then contribute to extending copulation duration by locking the female genitalia (Dixson 1987;Racey et al. 1987;Ryan 1991;Cryan et al. 2012;Friesen et al. 2016) and reducing female capacity to re-mate with another male within a certain period (Schöfl and Taborsky 2002;Harari et al. 2003). Specific penis shapes or copulatory behaviours could also be selected for by females (Prause et al. 2015), as a way of being honestly informed about the good genes or fertility of their partner. This would enable mechanisms involved in cryptic female choice to generate a collective genital evolution, and might be of special importance when females can only narrowly rely on pre-copulatory traits (Andrés and Cordero Rivera 2000;Miller and Burton 2001;Dixson 2003;Reeder 2003). ...
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Penises play a key role in sperm transport and in stimulating female genitals. This should impact post-copulatory competition, and expose penis characteristics to sexual selective pressures. Studies of male genitalia have repeatedly reported negative static allometries, which means that, within species, large males have disproportionally small genitals when compared to smaller individuals. Males of some sperm-storing bat species may stand as an exception to such a pattern by arousing from hibernation to copulate with torpid females. The selection for large penises might take place, if a long organ provides advantages during post-copulatory competition and/or if females have evolved mechanisms allowing the choice of sire, relying on characters other than pre-copulatory traits (e.g. penis size). In this study, we measured dimensions of the erected penis in four sperm-storing bat species. Furthermore, we collected sperm and evaluated the link between penis dimensions and sperm velocity. Our results revealed steep allometric slopes of the erected penis length in Barbastella barbastellus and an inverse allometry of penis head width in Myotis nattereri. More detailed studies of copulatory behaviour are urgently needed to explain the range of observed scaling relations. Furthermore, penis head width correlates with sperm velocity in Plecotus auritus. For this last species, we propose that penis shape might act as a marker of male fertility.
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Background Peyronie’s disease, diabetes, trauma, pelvic surgeries, and aging are conditions that promote penile fibrosis and trigger erectile dysfunction associated with penile reduction. These pathologies require an objective preoperative diagnosis and intraoperative management of penile shrinkage. Aim The goal is to develop a non-grafting procedure to promote lengthening using geometric patterns of multiple staggered small cuts on the tunica albuginea with an optimal ratio between tissue expansion and resistance to confine the cylinders inside the corpora cavernosa. Methods Between February 2016 and February 2019, 416 patients suffering penile shortening with or without Peyronie’s disease received implants using the tunica expansion procedures (TEP). Incisions were distributed in respective areas of the tunica to allow maximum expansion while maintaining strength to confine prosthetic cylinders within the corpora cavernosa to prevent bulges and denting. Outcomes In accordance with these principles, surgical objectives and patient satisfaction were achieved in length and girth restoration regardless of the type of implant used to obtain adequate axial rigidity. Results The sample of 416 patients included 287 cases of Peyronie’s disease having a mean axial deviation of 51° (0–90°) whose curvature was corrected in surgery, with pressure from the cylinders maintaining straightness for malleable and inflatable devices. Tunica constriction in 40.86% of cases was corrected with vertical relaxing incisions. Ventral glanspexy was performed intraoperatively in 92.8% of patients to prevent hypermobility. A penile gain of 3.3 cm (2–6) was measured intraoperatively. Clinical Implications Diagnosis of penile shortening was performed by a stretch length test and pharmacologically induced erection together with the patient’s subjective opinion of penile loss. Lengthening procedure depends on the limit of the dissected neurovascular bundle. The patient and surgeon select the type of implant in accordance with his individual anatomic characteristics. Strengths and Limitations The TEP strategy is a non-grafting procedure based on tissue restitution by expansion instead of substitution, which provides surgeons a solution for penile enlargement to the limit of the dissected neurovascular bundle. Conclusions The TEP strategy has been demonstrated to be safe and effective to resolve problems of penile size reduction independently of penile curvature. It eliminates grafting and improves penile lengthening techniques using small, staggered cuts on the tunica albuginea, while maintaining tunica structural resistance to contain cylinders inside the corpora, preventing bulges and denting, facilitating tissue regeneration, and improving axial rigidity. Paulo H. Egydio, An Innovative Strategy for Non-Grafting Penile Enlargement: A Novel Paradigm for Tunica Expansion Procedures. J Sex Med 2020;XX:XXX–XXX.
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This review describes the formation, structure, and function of bony compartments in antlers, horns, ossicones, osteoderm and the os penis/os clitoris (collectively referred to herein as AHOOO structures) in extant mammals. AHOOOs are extra‐skeletal bones that originate from subcutaneous (dermal) tissues in a wide variety of mammals, and this review elaborates on the co‐development of the bone and skin in these structures. During foetal stages, primordial cells for the bony compartments arise in subcutaneous tissues. The epithelial–mesenchymal transition is assumed to play a key role in the differentiation of bone, cartilage, skin and other tissues in AHOOO structures. AHOOO ossification takes place after skeletal bone formation, and may depend on sexual maturity. Skin keratinization occurs in tandem with ossification and may be under the control of androgens. Both endochondral and intramembranous ossification participate in bony compartment formation. There is variation in gradients of density in different AHOOO structures. These gradients, which vary according to function and species, primarily reduce mechanical stress. Anchorage of AHOOOs to their surrounding tissues fortifies these structures and is accomplished by bone–bone fusion and Sharpey fibres. The presence of the integument is essential for the protection and function of the bony compartments. Three major functions can be attributed to AHOOOs: mechanical, visual, and thermoregulatory. This review provides the first extensive comparative description of the skeletal and integumentary systems of AHOOOs in a variety of mammals.
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Purpose of Review Penile changes (most prominently shortening) after radical prostatectomy (RP) can negatively influence body image and quality of life. Here, we review the relevance of penile length to sexual satisfaction, the etiology of penile shortening after RP, and interventions that may preserve penile length. Recent Findings Most studies measure flaccid stretched penile length from the penopubic skin junction to the glans tip; however, the technique reportedly underestimates erect length by 23%. There is evidence that oral pharmacotherapy and mechanical devices may provide some benefit for length preservation, but the evidence basis remains marginal. Surgical augmentation in the setting of penile shortening may be efficacious but carries risks including potential for failure and/or worsening deformity. Summary Penile length loss (perceived or objective) can have a major impact on quality of life after radical prostatectomy. Additional research is required to understand optimal means to help men preserve penile length after RP.
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Yafi et al. have conducted a study that will be of great interest to the lay community and also of import to practicing urologists who routinely encounter patients with concerns about the appearance of their phallus [1]. In one study 14% of men expressed dissatisfaction with their genitals with flaccid penile length being the most common source of dissatisfaction [2]. The concerns of such men tend to be the perception that their penis is small, or at least smaller than the penises of other men.
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Human mate choice is complicated, with various individual differences and contextual factors influencing preferences for numerous traits. However, focused studies on human mate choice often do not capture the multivariate complexity of human mate choice. Here, we consider multiple factors simultaneously to demonstrate the advantages of a multivariate approach to human mate preferences. Participants (N=689) rated the attractiveness of opposite-sex online dating profiles that were independently manipulated on facial attractiveness, perceived facial masculinity/femininity, and intelligence. Participants were also randomly instructed to either consider short- or long-term relationships. Using fitness surfaces analyses, we assess the linear and non-linear effects and interactions of the profiles’ facial attractiveness, perceived facial masculinity/femininity, and perceived intelligence on participants’ attractiveness ratings. Using Hierarchical Linear Modeling, we were also able to consider the independent contribution of participants’ individual differences on their revealed preferences for the manipulated traits. These individual differences included participants’ age, socioeconomic status, education, disgust (moral, sexual, and pathogen), sociosexual orientation, personality variables, masculinity, and mate value. Together, our results illuminate various previously undetectable phenomena, including nonlinear preference functions and interactions with individual differences. More broadly, the study illustrates the value of considering both individual variation and population-level measures when addressing questions of sexual selection, and demonstrates the utility of multivariate approaches to complement focused studies.