Women’s preferences for penis size may affect men’s comfort with their own bodies and may have implications for sexual health. Studies of women’s penis size preferences typically have relied on their abstract ratings or selecting amongst 2D, flaccid images. This study used haptic stimuli to allow assessment of women’s size recall accuracy for the first time, as well as examine their preferences for erect penis sizes in different relationship contexts. Women (N = 75) selected amongst 33, 3D models. Women recalled model size accurately using this method, although they made more errors with respect to penis length than circumference. Women preferred a penis of slightly larger circumference and length for one-time (length = 6.4 inches/16.3 cm, circumference = 5.0 inches/12.7 cm) versus long-term (length = 6.3 inches/16.0 cm, circumference = 4.8 inches/12.2 cm) sexual partners. These first estimates of erect penis size preferences using 3D models suggest women accurately recall size and prefer penises only slightly larger than average.
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... Evidence also suggests sexual selection on human penis size 49,50 , and female mosquito fish tend to prefer to associate with larger males that have a longer penis 51 . Interestingly, if formal estimates of selection on genital form are compared with those on general morphology, no significant differences between the two are evident (Box 2). ...
... Furthermore, before humans began wearing clothes, the penis would have been visible to potential mates (and competitors) and so could have influenced mating opportunities, especially considering recent evidence indicating that penis size influences female choice 49,50 . One study investigating female assessment of digital projections of life-size, computer-generated images of men with a flaccid penis, revealed that women preferred larger penises, particularly in tall men, but that this preference decelerated once penis length exceeded about 7.6 cm 49 . ...
... Moreover, both increased penis size and height had equally positive effects on how women rated model attractiveness, although the hip:shoulder width ratio of models had the greatest effect 49 . Other work has also revealed that preference varied depending on whether women were assessing men for brief encounters or long-term relationships 50 , a finding reflected in many in studies of human sexuality -sexual behaviours often vary depending on context 28 . Notably, although this work suggests that overt female choice could act on male penis form, these studies used statements of preference rather than actual measures of male fitness. ...
The penis is an incredibly diverse and rapidly evolving structure, such that even in closely related species that otherwise differ very little in their morphology, penis form can be highly differentiated. Penises are also much more complex than their fundamental function — sperm transfer — would seem to require. The rapid divergent evolution of male structures is typically the signature of traits under sexual selection and the current evidence suggests the penis is no different in this regard. Despite the general agreement that sexual selection is the main driver of penis evolution, many questions about penis evolution remain unresolved. Furthermore, the penis might be an ideal characteristic on which to focus in the drive to link phenotype with genotype.
... Desire for a longer penile size was a concern for 68.3% of 200 men in one study, so it is a common concern in the male population [4,5]. Concerns about penile size affect men's sexual satisfaction and functioning . Penile size does not affect sexual functions like orgasm, sexual drive, or pain experience. ...
... One study using 3D images found that women preferred an erect penis length of 6.3-6.4 inches (16.0-16.26 cm) (Prause, Park, Leung, & Miller, 2015), and another study (using life-size computer-generated images) found that women's ratings of male attractiveness increased with flaccid penis size but that the proportional increase in attractiveness declined after 3.0 inches (7.6 cm) (Mautz, Wong, Peters, & Jennions, 2013). However, another study found that women's self-reported subjective arousal did not differ when reading stories about having sex with men who had small, average, or large penises (Fisher, Branscombe, & Lemery, 1983). ...
Most men believe that the average length of an erect penis is greater than 6 inches (15.24 cm). This belief is due, in part, to several often-cited studies that relied on self-reported measurements, with means of about 6.2 inches (15.75 cm) for heterosexual men and even greater for gay men. These studies suffered from both volunteer bias and social desirability bias. In this review, the combined mean for 10 studies in which researchers took measurements of erect penises was 5.36 inches (13.61 cm; n = 1,629). For 21 studies in which researchers measured stretched penises, the mean was approximately 5.11 inches (12.98 cm; n = 13,719). Based on these studies, the average length of an erect penis is between 5.1 and 5.5 inches (12.95–13.97 cm), but after taking volunteer bias into account, it is probably toward the lower end of this range. Studies show that a majority of men wish they were larger, with some choosing penile lengthening surgery. These surgeries are considered by the American Urological Association to be risky. Most men seeking surgery have normal sized penises. Counseling with factual information about penis size might be effective in alleviating concerns for the majority of men who worry about having a small penis.
... A large U.S. study showed that women's preferred penis size is 16.3 cm in length and 12.7 cm in circumference. 61 The present study offers no support one way or the other. A little less than half of the women reported that penis size is important for sexual satisfaction, whereas more than a third reported that it is not. ...
Few studies have investigated women's experiences with orgasm and the factors that they cite as important for their orgasmic function and sexual behavior related to foreplay and sexual stimulation.
To investigate and describe overall sexual function in a cohort of North American women, with a special focus on orgasmic function, satisfaction, triggers, risk factors, and sexual behavior.
A total of 303 women aged 18–75 years completed a 100-questionnaire survey, which included the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) questionnaire and questions on orgasmic function, duration of sexual activity, sexual behaviors and relationship, and the partner’s sexual function. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS to illuminate factors affecting sexual function.
The main outcome measures are FSFI score, satisfaction with sexual life, ability to reach orgasm, orgasm frequency, preferred sexual stimulation, and sexual habits.
FSFI scores, which were calculated for the 230 women who reported having had a steady male sex partner in the preceding 6 months, showed that 41% of the 230 women were at risk for female sexual dysfunction (a cutoff less than 26.55) and 21% were dissatisfied with their overall sexual life. Almost 90% of the overall cohort reported good emotional contact with their partner, that their partner was willing to have sex, satisfaction with the partner’s penis size (wherever applicable), and good erectile function and ejaculatory control of their partner (wherever applicable). 81% of the overall cohort claimed to be sexually active. Around 70% (70–72) did reach orgasm frequently, but around 10% never did so. Vaginal intercourse was reported by 62% of the overall cohort as the best trigger of orgasm, followed by external stimulation from the partner (48%) or themselves (37%). External stimulation was reported to be the fastest trigger to orgasm.
The knowledge on how women reach orgasm and how it is related to the partners' willingness to have sex and other factors can be incorporated in the clinical work.
Strengths & Limitations
The use of a validated questionnaire and the relative large number of participants are strengths of the study. Limitations are the cross-sectional design, the lack of a sexual distress measure, and a possible selection bias.
Most women in the overall cohort were satisfied overall with their sexual life and partner-related factors, even though 41% (of those who cited a steady sex male partner) were at risk for female sexual dysfunction. Most women did reach orgasm through different kinds of stimulation. Correlation was good between preferred and performed sexual activities and positions.
Shaeer O, Skakke D, Giraldi A, et al. Female Orgasm and Overall Sexual Function and Habits: A Descriptive Study of a Cohort of U.S. Women. J Sex Med 2020;XX:XXX–XXX.
... However, studies show that women actually prefer a more average-sized penis. 25 Previous research findings propose that media marketed to men, including pornography, may emphasize the importance of penis size but media marketed to women may not include this message. 2,26 This gender-differentiated media may give men a false perception about the physical traits women value and lead to the overestimation of the importance of penis size. ...
An increasing number of men are dissatisfied with their penis size and are seeking cosmetic procedures to enhance their penis size. However, less is known about the social and cultural factors that influence men to consider these procedures.
To investigate the sociocultural factors impacting on men’s attitudes toward their penis size and also their decisions to undergo penile augmentation.
One-on-one semi-structured interviews were conducted with 6 adult men who had previously undergone a penile augmentation. The men were asked about the sociocultural factors that they thought contributed to dissatisfaction with their penis size, and their motivations for having penile augmentation. All interviews were audio recorded and then transcribed verbatim. Interview transcripts were analyzed using thematic analysis.
Three main themes emerged from the interviews, namely “influence of pornography”, “comparison with peers” and “indirect appearance-related teasing”. The men noted that the large penises of male actors in pornography had skewed their perception of normal penis size. All men had compared their penis size with their peers, usually in the locker room, and often felt their own penis was smaller as a result. None of the participants had received direct negative comments about their penis size, but were aware that having a small penis was a source of mockery from exposure to jokes on mainstream media sources.
These new insights into sociocultural factors, namely media and peers, which influence men’s desire for penile augmentation may assist clinicians in enhancing their communication with prospective patients.
... An elaborate penis may then contribute to extending copulation duration by locking the female genitalia (Dixson 1987;Racey et al. 1987;Ryan 1991;Cryan et al. 2012;Friesen et al. 2016) and reducing female capacity to re-mate with another male within a certain period (Schöfl and Taborsky 2002;Harari et al. 2003). Specific penis shapes or copulatory behaviours could also be selected for by females (Prause et al. 2015), as a way of being honestly informed about the good genes or fertility of their partner. This would enable mechanisms involved in cryptic female choice to generate a collective genital evolution, and might be of special importance when females can only narrowly rely on pre-copulatory traits (Andrés and Cordero Rivera 2000;Miller and Burton 2001;Dixson 2003;Reeder 2003). ...
Penises play a key role in sperm transport and in stimulating female genitals. This should impact post-copulatory competition, and expose penis characteristics to sexual selective pressures. Studies of male genitalia have repeatedly reported negative static allometries, which means that, within species, large males have disproportionally small genitals when compared to smaller individuals. Males of some sperm-storing bat species may stand as an exception to such a pattern by arousing from hibernation to copulate with torpid females. The selection for large penises might take place, if a long organ provides advantages during post-copulatory competition and/or if females have evolved mechanisms allowing the choice of sire, relying on characters other than pre-copulatory traits (e.g. penis size). In this study, we measured dimensions of the erected penis in four sperm-storing bat species. Furthermore, we collected sperm and evaluated the link between penis dimensions and sperm velocity. Our results revealed steep allometric slopes of the erected penis length in Barbastella barbastellus and an inverse allometry of penis head width in Myotis nattereri. More detailed studies of copulatory behaviour are urgently needed to explain the range of observed scaling relations. Furthermore, penis head width correlates with sperm velocity in Plecotus auritus. For this last species, we propose that penis shape might act as a marker of male fertility.
Peyronie’s disease, diabetes, trauma, pelvic surgeries, and aging are conditions that promote penile fibrosis and trigger erectile dysfunction associated with penile reduction. These pathologies require an objective preoperative diagnosis and intraoperative management of penile shrinkage.
The goal is to develop a non-grafting procedure to promote lengthening using geometric patterns of multiple staggered small cuts on the tunica albuginea with an optimal ratio between tissue expansion and resistance to confine the cylinders inside the corpora cavernosa.
Between February 2016 and February 2019, 416 patients suffering penile shortening with or without Peyronie’s disease received implants using the tunica expansion procedures (TEP). Incisions were distributed in respective areas of the tunica to allow maximum expansion while maintaining strength to confine prosthetic cylinders within the corpora cavernosa to prevent bulges and denting.
In accordance with these principles, surgical objectives and patient satisfaction were achieved in length and girth restoration regardless of the type of implant used to obtain adequate axial rigidity.
The sample of 416 patients included 287 cases of Peyronie’s disease having a mean axial deviation of 51° (0–90°) whose curvature was corrected in surgery, with pressure from the cylinders maintaining straightness for malleable and inflatable devices. Tunica constriction in 40.86% of cases was corrected with vertical relaxing incisions. Ventral glanspexy was performed intraoperatively in 92.8% of patients to prevent hypermobility. A penile gain of 3.3 cm (2–6) was measured intraoperatively.
Diagnosis of penile shortening was performed by a stretch length test and pharmacologically induced erection together with the patient’s subjective opinion of penile loss. Lengthening procedure depends on the limit of the dissected neurovascular bundle. The patient and surgeon select the type of implant in accordance with his individual anatomic characteristics.
Strengths and Limitations
The TEP strategy is a non-grafting procedure based on tissue restitution by expansion instead of substitution, which provides surgeons a solution for penile enlargement to the limit of the dissected neurovascular bundle.
The TEP strategy has been demonstrated to be safe and effective to resolve problems of penile size reduction independently of penile curvature. It eliminates grafting and improves penile lengthening techniques using small, staggered cuts on the tunica albuginea, while maintaining tunica structural resistance to contain cylinders inside the corpora, preventing bulges and denting, facilitating tissue regeneration, and improving axial rigidity.
Paulo H. Egydio, An Innovative Strategy for Non-Grafting Penile Enlargement: A Novel Paradigm for Tunica Expansion Procedures. J Sex Med 2020;XX:XXX–XXX.
This review describes the formation, structure, and function of bony compartments in antlers, horns, ossicones, osteoderm and the os penis/os clitoris (collectively referred to herein as AHOOO structures) in extant mammals. AHOOOs are extra‐skeletal bones that originate from subcutaneous (dermal) tissues in a wide variety of mammals, and this review elaborates on the co‐development of the bone and skin in these structures. During foetal stages, primordial cells for the bony compartments arise in subcutaneous tissues. The epithelial–mesenchymal transition is assumed to play a key role in the differentiation of bone, cartilage, skin and other tissues in AHOOO structures. AHOOO ossification takes place after skeletal bone formation, and may depend on sexual maturity. Skin keratinization occurs in tandem with ossification and may be under the control of androgens. Both endochondral and intramembranous ossification participate in bony compartment formation. There is variation in gradients of density in different AHOOO structures. These gradients, which vary according to function and species, primarily reduce mechanical stress. Anchorage of AHOOOs to their surrounding tissues fortifies these structures and is accomplished by bone–bone fusion and Sharpey fibres. The presence of the integument is essential for the protection and function of the bony compartments. Three major functions can be attributed to AHOOOs: mechanical, visual, and thermoregulatory. This review provides the first extensive comparative description of the skeletal and integumentary systems of AHOOOs in a variety of mammals.
Purpose of Review
Penile changes (most prominently shortening) after radical prostatectomy (RP) can negatively influence body image and quality of life. Here, we review the relevance of penile length to sexual satisfaction, the etiology of penile shortening after RP, and interventions that may preserve penile length.
Most studies measure flaccid stretched penile length from the penopubic skin junction to the glans tip; however, the technique reportedly underestimates erect length by 23%. There is evidence that oral pharmacotherapy and mechanical devices may provide some benefit for length preservation, but the evidence basis remains marginal. Surgical augmentation in the setting of penile shortening may be efficacious but carries risks including potential for failure and/or worsening deformity.
Penile length loss (perceived or objective) can have a major impact on quality of life after radical prostatectomy. Additional research is required to understand optimal means to help men preserve penile length after RP.
Yafi et al. have conducted a study that will be of great interest to the lay community and also of import to practicing urologists who routinely encounter patients with concerns about the appearance of their phallus . In one study 14% of men expressed dissatisfaction with their genitals with flaccid penile length being the most common source of dissatisfaction . The concerns of such men tend to be the perception that their penis is small, or at least smaller than the penises of other men.
Background Relationship type and perception of importance of the relationship may be predictors of condom use.
Methods Men who presented at STD clinics in New Orleans, LA and Jackson, MS with NGU, tested positive for Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct), or were contacts of women with Ct underwent computer-assisted/self-administered interviews and were asked to report information on up to 4 sexual partners in the last two months. Importance of relationship was determined using 4 variables: having history together, shared feelings, commitment to each other, and physical passion.
Results 1065 men reported information on 1924 partnerships; 98.9% of which were with women, 47% were considered main, but only 30% of the men lived with and 6% were married to main partners. Relationships were described as: girlfriend/boyfriend (32%), mother-of-child (6.8%), friend-with-benefit (26.4%), sex with but not friend (6.2%), ex-girlfriend/boyfriend (9.1%), someone I want to have relationship with (5.8%), one night stand (12.3%), paid for sex (1.4%). Most (82.1%) had sex in a home, while 11.3% in hotel, and 6.6% in public place/other. Importance of relationship variables by relationship (most important to least 1–8) were: girlfriend/boyfriend (1.1) and mother-of-child (1.7), and someone I might want to have a relationship (2.6), ex-girlfriend/boyfriend (3.7), friend-with-benefit (5.3), sex but not friend (6.8), paid for sex (7.1) and one night stand (7.2). The less important the relationship was, the more likely they were to be using a condom O.R. 1.13 (95% C.I. 1.08–1.18). Condom use at last sex act was least likely with the mother of child (34.5%) and most likely with paid to have sex (91.7%). Condom use was between 51% - 78% for the other categories.
Conclusion In general, condoms were used more frequently with partners whose relationships were perceived as less important, but this was not universal.
This study examined the associations among the frequency of viewing Internet pornography, beliefs about how realistically pornography portrays sex, self-perceived effects of one's pornography use, genital appearance satisfaction, and sexual self-esteem in young adults. Online data were collected from four convenience samples of university students from Norway and Sweden, members of a queer youth organization, and readers of an erotic magazine. Because of cultural similarities and the comparable magnitude and patterns of the bivariate correlations among the samples on the study variables, they were pooled into a single sample (N = 1,274). The majority of men (81.1%) and a minority of women (18.1%) reported at least weekly use of Internet pornography on their personal computers, whereas using a mobile phone or tablet was less common. Most of the participants had sought mainstream pornographic content. Those with a stronger belief in pornographic realism were more likely to perceive the effect of pornography use positively. A hypothesized relationship between self-perceived positive effects of pornography use and a higher level of sexual self-esteem was found for men but not for women. This result was partially due to higher satisfaction with genital appearance among the men who mainly watched mainstream pornography. Genital appearance satisfaction was linked to higher sexual self-esteem for women, but it was not related to the self-perceived effect of pornography use. The results indicate that pornography may expand personal sexual scripts for both men and women, and may have a positive, although modest, influence on the sexual self-esteem of young male adults.
One hundred ten heterosexual individuals (67 men; 43 women) responded to questions related to penis size and satisfaction. Men showed significant dissatisfaction with penile size, despite perceiving themselves to be of average size. Importantly, there were significant relationships between penile dissatisfaction and comfort with others seeing their penis, and with likelihood of seeking medical advice with regard to penile and/or sexual function. Given the negative consequences of low body satisfaction and the importance of early intervention in sexually related illnesses (e.g., testicular cancer), it is imperative that attention be paid to male body dissatisfaction. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
Waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) is an important ornament display that signals women's health and fertility. Its significance derives from human development as a bipedal species. This required fundamental changes to hip morphology/musculature to accommodate the demands of both reproduction and locomotion. The result has been an obstetric dilemma whereby women's hips are only just wide enough to allow the passage of an infant. Childbirth therefore poses a significant hip width related threat to maternal mortality/risk of gynecological injury. It was predicted that this would have a significant influence on women's sexual behavior. To investigate this, hip width and WHR were measured in 148 women (M age = 20.93 + 0.17 years) and sexual histories were recorded via questionnaire. Data revealed that hip width per se was correlated with total number of sexual partners, total number of one night stands, percentage of sexual partners that were one night stands, number of sexual partners within the context of a relationship per year sexually active, and number of one night stands per year sexually active. By contrast, WHR was not correlated with any of these measures. Further analysis indicated that women who predominantly engaged in one night stand behavior had wider hips than those who did not. WHR was again without effect in this context. Women's hip morphology has a direct impact on their risk of potentially fatal childbirth related injury. It is concluded that when they have control over this, women's sexual behavior reflects this risk and is therefore at least in part influenced by hip width.
The idea that faces are represented within a structured face space (Valentine Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 43: 161-204, 1991) has gained considerable experimental support, from both physiological and perceptual studies. Recent work has also shown that faces can even be recognized haptically-that is, from touch alone. Although some evidence favors congruent processing strategies in the visual and haptic processing of faces, the question of how similar the two modalities are in terms of face processing remains open. Here, this question was addressed by asking whether there is evidence for a haptic face space, and if so, how it compares to visual face space. For this, a physical face space was created, consisting of six laser-scanned individual faces, their morphed average, 50 %-morphs between two individual faces, as well as 50 %-morphs of the individual faces with the average, resulting in a set of 19 faces. Participants then rated either the visual or haptic pairwise similarity of the tangible 3-D face shapes. Multidimensional scaling analyses showed that both modalities extracted perceptual spaces that conformed to critical predictions of the face space framework, hence providing support for similar processing of complex face shapes in haptics and vision. Despite the overall similarities, however, systematic differences also emerged between the visual and haptic data. These differences are discussed in the context of face processing and complex-shape processing in vision and haptics.
Categorization of seen objects is often determined by the shapes of objects. However, shape is not exclusive to the visual modality: The haptic system also is expert at identifying shapes. Hence, an important question for understanding shape processing is whether humans store separate modality-dependent shape representations, or whether information is integrated into one multisensory representation. To answer this question, we created a metric space of computer-generated novel objects varying in shape. These objects were then printed using a 3-D printer, to generate tangible stimuli. In a categorization experiment, participants first explored the objects visually and haptically. We found that both modalities led to highly similar categorization behavior. Next, participants were trained either visually or haptically on shape categories within the metric space. As expected, visual training increased visual performance, and haptic training increased haptic performance. Importantly, however, we found that visual training also improved haptic performance, and vice versa. Two additional experiments showed that the location of the categorical boundary in the metric space also transferred across modalities, as did heightened discriminability of objects adjacent to the boundary. This observed transfer of metric category knowledge across modalities indicates that visual and haptic forms of shape information are integrated into a shared multisensory representation.
This study aimed to assess the penile length–somatometric parameters relationship in healthy Egyptian men. Two thousand physically normal men (22–40 years) were subjected to measurement of stretched penile length, glans penis, testis size, index finger, weight, height, span, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, hip circumference and waist/hip ratio. The mean stretched penile length of the studied subjects was 13.84 ± 1.35 cm (range 12–19 cm), and the mean glans penis length was 2.6 ± 0.4 cm (range 1.7–3.8 cm). Penile length demonstrated positive significant correlation with glans penis length, index finger length, BMI and significant negative correlation with waist/hip ratio. On the other hand, penile length demonstrated nonsignificant correlation with age, weight, height, waist circumference, span or testicular size. It is concluded that the penile length-somatometric parameters relationship in healthy Egyptian men is mostly related to glans penis and index finger lengths.
Human mate choice is complicated, with various individual differences and contextual factors influencing preferences for numerous traits. However, focused studies on human mate choice often do not capture the multivariate complexity of human mate choice. Here, we consider multiple factors simultaneously to demonstrate the advantages of a multivariate approach to human mate preferences. Participants (N=689) rated the attractiveness of opposite-sex online dating profiles that were independently manipulated on facial attractiveness, perceived facial masculinity/femininity, and intelligence. Participants were also randomly instructed to either consider short- or long-term relationships. Using fitness surfaces analyses, we assess the linear and non-linear effects and interactions of the profiles’ facial attractiveness, perceived facial masculinity/femininity, and perceived intelligence on participants’ attractiveness ratings. Using Hierarchical Linear Modeling, we were also able to consider the independent contribution of participants’ individual differences on their revealed preferences for the manipulated traits. These individual differences included participants’ age, socioeconomic status, education, disgust (moral, sexual, and pathogen), sociosexual orientation, personality variables, masculinity, and mate value. Together, our results illuminate various previously undetectable phenomena, including nonlinear preference functions and interactions with individual differences. More broadly, the study illustrates the value of considering both individual variation and population-level measures when addressing questions of sexual selection, and demonstrates the utility of multivariate approaches to complement focused studies.