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Phytotaxa 217 (3): 273–278
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Copyright © 2015 Magnolia Press Article PHYTOTAXA
ISSN 1179-3155 (print edition)
ISSN 1179-3163 (online edition)
Accepted by Jesús González-Gallegos: 28 May 2015; published: 26 Jun. 2015
http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.217.3.4
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Columnea longipedicellata, a new species of Gesneriaceae from Colombia
MARISOL AMAYA-MÁRQUEZ1,3, LAURA CLAVIJO2 & OSCAR HUMBERTO MARÍN-GÓMEZ1
1Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Apartado 7495, Bogotá, Colombia.
2Department of Biological Sciences, The University of Alabama, Box 870345, Tuscaloosa, Alabama, U.S.A.
3E–mail: mamayam@unal.edu.co
Abstract
Columnea longipedicellata, a new species from Antioquia and Chocó Departments in Colombia (Cordillera Occidental) is
described and illustrated. The new species is distinguished by the presence of elongate pedicels and leaves uniformly green
abaxially.
Resumen
Se describe e ilustra Columnea longipedicellata, una nueva especie de los departamentos de Antioquia y Chocó en Colom-
bia (Cordillera Occidental). Esta especie se distingue por tener pedicelos elongados y el envés de las hojas uniformemente
verde.
Introduction
Columnea Linnaeus (1753: 638) is the most species rich genus of the Neotropical Gesneriaceae, with more than 205
species (Möller & Clark 2013), a number that is rapidly growing with the recent discovery of several new species (e.g.,
Amaya-Márquez 2010a, 2014, Amaya-Márquez & Smith 2013, Clark & Clavijo 2012, Amaya-Márquez et al. 2013,
Smith et al. 2013a). Monophyly of the genus Columnea has been supported in several studies (e.g. Smith & Carroll
1997, Smith 2000, Zimmer et al. 2002, Clark et al. 2012, Smith et al. 2013b), however the subgeneric classification
has been more challenging to resolve (Schulte et al. 2014). Nevertheless, recent phylogenetic analyses have resulted in
a new subgeneric classification, and the description of a new section (Smith et al. 2013b, Schulte et al. 2014).
Colombia harbors the highest diversity of Gesneriaceae in the Neotropics with 32 genera, and approximately 400
species (Kvist et al. 1998). Columnea is the most diverse genus in Colombia (80+ species), distributed from sea level
to 4000 m in elevation, with most of the species inhabiting the Andean cloud forests, particularly on the western facing
slopes of the Cordillera Occidental and the Chocó biogeographical region. Rangel-Churrio & Rivera-Díaz (2004)
listed Columnea, with 35 species, as the 13th most diverse genus in the Chocó biogeographical region, and in the
past few years this number has increased with descriptions of several new species (e.g. Amaya-Márquez et al. 2004,
Amaya-Márquez 2010b, Amaya-Márquez & Smith 2012, Amaya-Márquez & Marín-Gómez 2012, Smith et al. 2013a).
In this paper, we describe a new species of Columnea from the western slopes of the Cordillera Occidental, and discuss
morphological similarities with its congeners and its position within the genus.
Taxonomy
Columnea longipedicellata M.Amaya, Clavijo & O.H.Marín, sp. nov. (Figs. 1 & 2)
Columnea longipedicellata differs from C. segregata by having longer (15–19+ cm) pedicels and leaves homogenously
green on the abaxial side.
AMAYA–MÁRQUEZ ET AL.
274 Phytotaxa 217 (3) © 2015 Magnolia Press
Type:—COLOMBIA. Antioquia: Municipio Urrao, corregimiento La Encarnación, vereda Calles, National Natural Park Las Orquídeas,
road Calles–Encarnación, after the confluence of the rivers Polo and Calle, place La Quiebra, 6°30’31’’N, 76°14’ W, 1600–1850 m,
31 January to 2 February 2011, P. Pedraza-Peñaloza, J. Betancur, M.F. González, G. Giraldo, F. Gómez, A. Duque & J. Serna 2139
(holotype COL!, isotypes JAUM! NY!).
FIGURE 1. Columnea longipedicellata. A. Habit. B. Detail of the indumentum on the abaxial side of the larger leaf. C. Flower. D. Corolla
dissected to show the androecium. E. Pistil. F. Fruit with persistent nectary glands and calyx. (A–F from holotype, P. PedrazaPeñaloza
et al. 2139 (COL!)); Illustration by Marcela Morales).
A NEW SPECIES OF GESNERIACEAE FROM COLOMBIA Phytotaxa 217 (3) © 2015 Magnolia Press 275
FIGURE 2. Columnea longipedicellata. A. Plant in its natural habitat. B. Flower hanging from the elongate pedicel. C. Ventral view of
the vegetative shoot showing the pronounced anisophylly at each node and the solitary axillary flower. D. Front view of the corolla limb.
E. Lateral view of the flower (Photos AC: Oscar Humberto Marín Gómez, BDE: María Fernanda González Giraldo).
Suffrutescent climber, 0.6–3 m tall. Stems terete, 2–4 mm diam., epidermis green, apically pubescent, basally glabrous;
internodes 2–5 cm long, nodes with a pair of deep purple glands at the base of each petiole. Leaves opposite, strongly
anisophyllous in a pair, papyraceous; larger leaf of pair with short petiole, 1–3 mm long, sericeous (5–7-celled-
trichomes), blade asymmetrical, narrow oblong to falcate, 14.5–19 × 1.8–3.5 cm, base oblique, apex long acuminate,
margin entire, upper surface green and glabrous, lower surface pale green and pubescent, pubescence more dense
AMAYA–MÁRQUEZ ET AL.
276 Phytotaxa 217 (3) © 2015 Magnolia Press
on the veins, 6 veins on the larger side of the blade; smaller leaf stipule-like, sessile, lanceolate, 9–12 × 0.8–1 mm.
Inflorescence reduced to a single axillary flower; 2 inconspicuous bracts, 2 × 0.5 mm, deciduous. Flower pedicellate,
pedicel 15.5–22 cm long, epidermis green to red-purple, indument red and sericeous (5–7-celled-trichomes). Calyx
deep purple and reddish, sepals nearly free, unequal, lanceolate, 1.4–1.8 × 0.2–0.6 cm, adaxially pubescent, abaxially
sericeous with 10-celled-trichomes that are translucent at base and center, and reddish at apex and periphery; margin
pectinate with 9 segments per side. Corolla yellow, oblique to almost perpendicular relative to the calyx, outside
pubescent, 3–4-celled-trichomes, inside pubescent; tube sigmoid, 21 mm long, 8 mm wide near apex (widest) to 4 mm
wide near based (most constricted), base dorsally gibbous, gibbosity 4 × 7 mm; limb subactinomorphic, 9 mm wide;
lobes patent, obtuse, margin erose, subequal, 2–3 × 2–4 mm. Androecium of 4 stamens, didynamous; filaments 1.3 cm
long, laminar, basally pubescent; connate at base for 7 mm of their length forming a folded dorsally open blade; anther
subquadrate 2 × 1.5 mm. Gynoecium with ovary oblong, 6 × 3 mm, pubescent; style 1.2 cm long, pubescent; stigma
bilobed. Nectary of two connate bidentate glands, 1.4 × 0.9 mm. Fruit green, ovoid berry, 0.9 × 0.5 cm. Seeds amber,
obliquely striated, 1.2 × 0.4 mm.
Distribution:—Columnea longipedicellata is endemic to Colombia, only known from the western slopes of the
Cordillera Occidental, in the departments of Antioquia and Chocó. This species has been collected in the Premontane
Rain forests (bp-PM) (Holdridge 1978) at elevations from 1600–1850 m. It is a rare species that grows in the interior
of well-conserved forests.
Phenology:—Flowers recorded in January, February, and April. Specimens with immature fruits have been
recorded in May.
Etymology:—Named for the elongate pedicel.
Discussion:Columnea longipedicellata is morphologically similar to C. grata Morton (1938: 1164), C.
sanguinolenta (Klotzsch ex Oersted 1858: 49) Hanstein (1865: 389), and C. segregata Morley (1973: 459). These
species share the following characteristics: pronounced anisophylly with the larger leaf of each pair adaxially glabrous,
6 (5–7) veins per side, inflorescence reduced to a single axillary flower, bracts reduced in size (2–9 mm long)
sometimes deciduous, flower pedicellate, calyx lobes or sepals fimbriate or laciniate, corolla red or yellow. Columnea
longipedicellata is distinguished from the above mentioned species by a longer pedicel (15.5–22 cm vs. 2–13 cm long),
and the abaxial side of the larger leaf in each pair uniformly green without red or purple spots.
Additionally, Columnea longipedicellata can be differentiated from: a) C. grata by the small yellow corollas
2–2.1 cm long (vs. red corollas 2.9–4 cm long), and the larger leaf of each node narrow oblong to falcate, 14.5–19 ×
1.8–3.5 cm (vs. elliptic to oblanceolate 4.6–11 × 1.4–3.9 cm); b) C. sanguinolenta by the small yellow corollas 2.1 cm
long (vs. red corollas of 3–5 cm long); and c) C. segregata by the larger leaf in each node with the margin entire (vs.
serrulate), the corolla uniformly yellow (vs. yellow with maroon or deep purple spots on the corolla lobes), and the
corolla oblique to almost perpendicular, relative to the calyx (Fig. 2) (vs. corolla erect in the calyx).
Recent phylogenetic analyses of the genus Columnea have revealed seven monophyletic clades named A–G (Smith
et al. 2013b), and currently provides the foundation for a revised sectional classification of the genus that includes
the description of a new section (Schulte et al. 2014). Columnea longipedicellata was not included in those analyses;
therefore its position in the phylogeny is unknown. Columnea segregata (one of the morphologically similar species
to C. longipedicellata) was included in the phylogeny but it was not recovered within any of the resolved clades. The
inclusion of the species C. longipedicellata, C. grata, C. sanguinolenta, and C. segregata will be important in resolving
their position and phylogenetic relationships within the genus Columnea and in understanding their biogeographic
history. Particularly, given that C. longipedicellata is the only South American species in this group, while the other
species are distributed in Central America. Additionally, ecological and phylogenetic studies on the evolution of the
elongate pedicel observed in C. longipedicellata will provide an understanding of its evolutionary role in animal-plant
interactions.
Additional specimens examined (paratypes):—COLOMBIA. Antioquia. Municipio de Urrao: Parque Nacional
Natural Las Orquídeas, sector Calles, camino hacia la Virgen, 1800–2200 m, 15 April 2011, J. Betancur, P. Pedraza-
Peñaloza, J.M. Vélez-Puerta, A. Orejuela & A. Duque 15236 (COL!). Chocó. Municipio de San José del Palmar:
vereda San Antonio, Escuela San Antonio, 4º52’N, 76º13’W, 1750 m, 15 May 2011, O.H. Marín-Gómez & D.A.
Gómez-Hoyos 121 (COL!); road between Alto Galápagos and San José del Palmar, 4°51’35.8’’N, 76°13’25.7’’W, 22
May 2013, J.F. Smith, O.H. Marín-Gómez & J. Arango Bermúdez 10869 (COL!).
A NEW SPECIES OF GESNERIACEAE FROM COLOMBIA Phytotaxa 217 (3) © 2015 Magnolia Press 277
Acknowledgments
We thank the National University of Colombia for supporting this research, Marcela Morales for the drawings, and
María Fernanda González Giraldo for providing images (Fig. 2BDE). Field collections were made possible thanks to
the project “Flora of Las Orquídeas National Park” funded by the National Science Foundation (DEB 1020623) to P.
Pedraza-Peñalosa. Jesús Guadalupe González Gallegos, John L. Clark and one anonymous reviewer made valuable
observations to the manuscript, which helped to improve the final version. We also want to thank the Organización
Ambiental Comunitaria SERRANIAGUA, WCS Colombia, César Franco Laverde, Johnier Arango Bermúdez, Milton
Pineda Duque, and Diego Gómez Hoyos for the logistic support provided to OHMG.
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