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Phytotaxa 217 (3): 273–278
Copyright © 2015 Magnolia Press Article PHYTOTAXA
ISSN 1179-3155 (print edition)
ISSN 1179-3163 (online edition)
Accepted by Jesús González-Gallegos: 28 May 2015; published: 26 Jun. 2015
Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License
Columnea longipedicellata, a new species of Gesneriaceae from Colombia
1Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Apartado 7495, Bogotá, Colombia.
2Department of Biological Sciences, The University of Alabama, Box 870345, Tuscaloosa, Alabama, U.S.A.
Columnea longipedicellata, a new species from Antioquia and Chocó Departments in Colombia (Cordillera Occidental) is
described and illustrated. The new species is distinguished by the presence of elongate pedicels and leaves uniformly green
Se describe e ilustra Columnea longipedicellata, una nueva especie de los departamentos de Antioquia y Chocó en Colom-
bia (Cordillera Occidental). Esta especie se distingue por tener pedicelos elongados y el envés de las hojas uniformemente
Columnea Linnaeus (1753: 638) is the most species rich genus of the Neotropical Gesneriaceae, with more than 205
species (Möller & Clark 2013), a number that is rapidly growing with the recent discovery of several new species (e.g.,
Amaya-Márquez 2010a, 2014, Amaya-Márquez & Smith 2013, Clark & Clavijo 2012, Amaya-Márquez et al. 2013,
Smith et al. 2013a). Monophyly of the genus Columnea has been supported in several studies (e.g. Smith & Carroll
1997, Smith 2000, Zimmer et al. 2002, Clark et al. 2012, Smith et al. 2013b), however the subgeneric classification
has been more challenging to resolve (Schulte et al. 2014). Nevertheless, recent phylogenetic analyses have resulted in
a new subgeneric classification, and the description of a new section (Smith et al. 2013b, Schulte et al. 2014).
Colombia harbors the highest diversity of Gesneriaceae in the Neotropics with 32 genera, and approximately 400
species (Kvist et al. 1998). Columnea is the most diverse genus in Colombia (80+ species), distributed from sea level
to 4000 m in elevation, with most of the species inhabiting the Andean cloud forests, particularly on the western facing
slopes of the Cordillera Occidental and the Chocó biogeographical region. Rangel-Churrio & Rivera-Díaz (2004)
listed Columnea, with 35 species, as the 13th most diverse genus in the Chocó biogeographical region, and in the
past few years this number has increased with descriptions of several new species (e.g. Amaya-Márquez et al. 2004,
Amaya-Márquez 2010b, Amaya-Márquez & Smith 2012, Amaya-Márquez & Marín-Gómez 2012, Smith et al. 2013a).
In this paper, we describe a new species of Columnea from the western slopes of the Cordillera Occidental, and discuss
morphological similarities with its congeners and its position within the genus.
Columnea longipedicellata M.Amaya, Clavijo & O.H.Marín, sp. nov. (Figs. 1 & 2)
Columnea longipedicellata differs from C. segregata by having longer (15–19+ cm) pedicels and leaves homogenously
green on the abaxial side.
274 Phytotaxa 217 (3) © 2015 Magnolia Press
Type:—COLOMBIA. Antioquia: Municipio Urrao, corregimiento La Encarnación, vereda Calles, National Natural Park Las Orquídeas,
road Calles–Encarnación, after the confluence of the rivers Polo and Calle, place La Quiebra, 6°30’31’’N, 76°14’ W, 1600–1850 m,
31 January to 2 February 2011, P. Pedraza-Peñaloza, J. Betancur, M.F. González, G. Giraldo, F. Gómez, A. Duque & J. Serna 2139
(holotype COL!, isotypes JAUM! NY!).
FIGURE 1. Columnea longipedicellata. A. Habit. B. Detail of the indumentum on the abaxial side of the larger leaf. C. Flower. D. Corolla
dissected to show the androecium. E. Pistil. F. Fruit with persistent nectary glands and calyx. (A–F from holotype, P. PedrazaPeñaloza
et al. 2139 (COL!)); Illustration by Marcela Morales).
A NEW SPECIES OF GESNERIACEAE FROM COLOMBIA Phytotaxa 217 (3) © 2015 Magnolia Press 275
FIGURE 2. Columnea longipedicellata. A. Plant in its natural habitat. B. Flower hanging from the elongate pedicel. C. Ventral view of
the vegetative shoot showing the pronounced anisophylly at each node and the solitary axillary flower. D. Front view of the corolla limb.
E. Lateral view of the flower (Photos AC: Oscar Humberto Marín Gómez, BDE: María Fernanda González Giraldo).
Suffrutescent climber, 0.6–3 m tall. Stems terete, 2–4 mm diam., epidermis green, apically pubescent, basally glabrous;
internodes 2–5 cm long, nodes with a pair of deep purple glands at the base of each petiole. Leaves opposite, strongly
anisophyllous in a pair, papyraceous; larger leaf of pair with short petiole, 1–3 mm long, sericeous (5–7-celled-
trichomes), blade asymmetrical, narrow oblong to falcate, 14.5–19 × 1.8–3.5 cm, base oblique, apex long acuminate,
margin entire, upper surface green and glabrous, lower surface pale green and pubescent, pubescence more dense
276 Phytotaxa 217 (3) © 2015 Magnolia Press
on the veins, 6 veins on the larger side of the blade; smaller leaf stipule-like, sessile, lanceolate, 9–12 × 0.8–1 mm.
Inflorescence reduced to a single axillary flower; 2 inconspicuous bracts, 2 × 0.5 mm, deciduous. Flower pedicellate,
pedicel 15.5–22 cm long, epidermis green to red-purple, indument red and sericeous (5–7-celled-trichomes). Calyx
deep purple and reddish, sepals nearly free, unequal, lanceolate, 1.4–1.8 × 0.2–0.6 cm, adaxially pubescent, abaxially
sericeous with 10-celled-trichomes that are translucent at base and center, and reddish at apex and periphery; margin
pectinate with 9 segments per side. Corolla yellow, oblique to almost perpendicular relative to the calyx, outside
pubescent, 3–4-celled-trichomes, inside pubescent; tube sigmoid, 21 mm long, 8 mm wide near apex (widest) to 4 mm
wide near based (most constricted), base dorsally gibbous, gibbosity 4 × 7 mm; limb subactinomorphic, 9 mm wide;
lobes patent, obtuse, margin erose, subequal, 2–3 × 2–4 mm. Androecium of 4 stamens, didynamous; filaments 1.3 cm
long, laminar, basally pubescent; connate at base for 7 mm of their length forming a folded dorsally open blade; anther
subquadrate 2 × 1.5 mm. Gynoecium with ovary oblong, 6 × 3 mm, pubescent; style 1.2 cm long, pubescent; stigma
bilobed. Nectary of two connate bidentate glands, 1.4 × 0.9 mm. Fruit green, ovoid berry, 0.9 × 0.5 cm. Seeds amber,
obliquely striated, 1.2 × 0.4 mm.
Distribution:—Columnea longipedicellata is endemic to Colombia, only known from the western slopes of the
Cordillera Occidental, in the departments of Antioquia and Chocó. This species has been collected in the Premontane
Rain forests (bp-PM) (Holdridge 1978) at elevations from 1600–1850 m. It is a rare species that grows in the interior
of well-conserved forests.
Phenology:—Flowers recorded in January, February, and April. Specimens with immature fruits have been
recorded in May.
Etymology:—Named for the elongate pedicel.
Discussion:Columnea longipedicellata is morphologically similar to C. grata Morton (1938: 1164), C.
sanguinolenta (Klotzsch ex Oersted 1858: 49) Hanstein (1865: 389), and C. segregata Morley (1973: 459). These
species share the following characteristics: pronounced anisophylly with the larger leaf of each pair adaxially glabrous,
6 (5–7) veins per side, inflorescence reduced to a single axillary flower, bracts reduced in size (2–9 mm long)
sometimes deciduous, flower pedicellate, calyx lobes or sepals fimbriate or laciniate, corolla red or yellow. Columnea
longipedicellata is distinguished from the above mentioned species by a longer pedicel (15.5–22 cm vs. 2–13 cm long),
and the abaxial side of the larger leaf in each pair uniformly green without red or purple spots.
Additionally, Columnea longipedicellata can be differentiated from: a) C. grata by the small yellow corollas
2–2.1 cm long (vs. red corollas 2.9–4 cm long), and the larger leaf of each node narrow oblong to falcate, 14.5–19 ×
1.8–3.5 cm (vs. elliptic to oblanceolate 4.6–11 × 1.4–3.9 cm); b) C. sanguinolenta by the small yellow corollas 2.1 cm
long (vs. red corollas of 3–5 cm long); and c) C. segregata by the larger leaf in each node with the margin entire (vs.
serrulate), the corolla uniformly yellow (vs. yellow with maroon or deep purple spots on the corolla lobes), and the
corolla oblique to almost perpendicular, relative to the calyx (Fig. 2) (vs. corolla erect in the calyx).
Recent phylogenetic analyses of the genus Columnea have revealed seven monophyletic clades named A–G (Smith
et al. 2013b), and currently provides the foundation for a revised sectional classification of the genus that includes
the description of a new section (Schulte et al. 2014). Columnea longipedicellata was not included in those analyses;
therefore its position in the phylogeny is unknown. Columnea segregata (one of the morphologically similar species
to C. longipedicellata) was included in the phylogeny but it was not recovered within any of the resolved clades. The
inclusion of the species C. longipedicellata, C. grata, C. sanguinolenta, and C. segregata will be important in resolving
their position and phylogenetic relationships within the genus Columnea and in understanding their biogeographic
history. Particularly, given that C. longipedicellata is the only South American species in this group, while the other
species are distributed in Central America. Additionally, ecological and phylogenetic studies on the evolution of the
elongate pedicel observed in C. longipedicellata will provide an understanding of its evolutionary role in animal-plant
Additional specimens examined (paratypes):—COLOMBIA. Antioquia. Municipio de Urrao: Parque Nacional
Natural Las Orquídeas, sector Calles, camino hacia la Virgen, 1800–2200 m, 15 April 2011, J. Betancur, P. Pedraza-
Peñaloza, J.M. Vélez-Puerta, A. Orejuela & A. Duque 15236 (COL!). Chocó. Municipio de San José del Palmar:
vereda San Antonio, Escuela San Antonio, 4º52’N, 76º13’W, 1750 m, 15 May 2011, O.H. Marín-Gómez & D.A.
Gómez-Hoyos 121 (COL!); road between Alto Galápagos and San José del Palmar, 4°51’35.8’’N, 76°13’25.7’’W, 22
May 2013, J.F. Smith, O.H. Marín-Gómez & J. Arango Bermúdez 10869 (COL!).
A NEW SPECIES OF GESNERIACEAE FROM COLOMBIA Phytotaxa 217 (3) © 2015 Magnolia Press 277
We thank the National University of Colombia for supporting this research, Marcela Morales for the drawings, and
María Fernanda González Giraldo for providing images (Fig. 2BDE). Field collections were made possible thanks to
the project “Flora of Las Orquídeas National Park” funded by the National Science Foundation (DEB 1020623) to P.
Pedraza-Peñalosa. Jesús Guadalupe González Gallegos, John L. Clark and one anonymous reviewer made valuable
observations to the manuscript, which helped to improve the final version. We also want to thank the Organización
Ambiental Comunitaria SERRANIAGUA, WCS Colombia, César Franco Laverde, Johnier Arango Bermúdez, Milton
Pineda Duque, and Diego Gómez Hoyos for the logistic support provided to OHMG.
Amaya-Márquez, M. (2010a) A new species of Columnea (Gesneriaceae) from the Cordillera Oriental of Colombia. Caldasia 3: 113–116.
Amaya-Márquez, M. (2010b) Novedades taxonómicas en el género Columnea (Gesneriaceae). Revista de la Academia Colombiana de
Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales 34: 301–307.
Amaya-Márquez, M. (2014) Columnea figueroae a new species of Gesneriaceae from the Natural National Park “Las Orquídeas” in
Antioquia (Colombia). Caldasia 36: 261–268.
Amaya-Márquez, M. & Smith, J.F. (2012) A rare new species of Columnea (Gesneriaceae) from “Cordillera Occidental” in the Colombian
Andes. Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales 36: 137–140.
Amaya-Márquez, M. & Marín-Gómez, O.H. (2012) Columnea rangelii (Gesneriaceae), a new species from the Serranía de los Paraguas
in the Colombian Andes. Caldasia 34: 69–74.
Amaya-Márquez, M. & Smith, J.F. (2013) Columnea corralesii, a new species of Gesneriaceae from Colombia. Revista de la Academia
Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales 37: 307–310.
Amaya-Márquez, M., Skog, L.E. & Kvist, L.P. (2004) Novae Gesneriaceae neotropicarum XIII: four new species of Columnea
(Gesneriaceae) section Collandra from Colombia. Edinburgh Journal of Botany 60: 415–424.
Amaya-Márquez, M., Skog, L.E. & Kvist, L.P. (2013) Columnea caudata and Columnea megafolia, two new species of Gesneriaceae.
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Clark, J.L. & Clavijo, L. (2012) Columnea antennifera a new species of Gesneriaceae from the Cordillera Central of the Colombian Andes.
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Familie im Ganzen. II. Abschnitt, Drittes Stück. Linnaea 34: 388–389.
Holdridge, L.R. (1978) Life zone ecology. Tropical Science Center, San José, 144 pp.
Kvist, L.P., Skog, L.E. & Amaya-Márquez, M. (1998) Los géneros de Gesneriáceas de Colombia. Caldasia 20: 12–28.
Linnaeus, C. (1753) Species Plantarum. Salvius, Stockholm, 1200 pp.
Möller, M. & Clark, J.L. (2013) The state of molecular studies in the family Gesneriaceae: a review. Selbyana 31: 95–125.
Morley, B.D. (1973) Materials for a treatment of Columnea in Panama. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 60: 449–460.
Morton, C.V. (1938) Gesneriaceae. In: Stanley, P.C. (Ed.) Flora of Costa Rica. Publications of the Field Museum of Natural History.
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In this paper two new species of Gesneriaceae (genus Columnea) are described and illustrated. Columnea chocoensis is distributed in the Colombian departments of Chocó and Valle del Cauca, while its variety, C. chocoensis var. altaquerensis is restricted to the Department of Nariño, Colombia. Columnea stilesiana was found in La Serranía de Los Paraguas located in the Cordillera Occidental between the Chocó and Valle del Cauca Departments in Colombia. Further, Columnea archidonae is here considered a variety of C. ericae; Columnea ericae var. archidonae is distributed in Colombia and Ecuador, in forests at elevations higher than those in which the typical variety is found.
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A new species of Columnea (Gesneriaceae) recently found in a premontane forest in the National Natural Park Las Orquídeas (Cordillera Occidental), in the Department of Antioquia in Colombia , is described and illustrated.
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A new species of Columnea (Gesneriaceae) recently found in a premontane forest in the National Natural Park Las Orquídeas (Cordillera Occidental), in the Department of Antioquia in Colombia, is described and illustrated.
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A new species of Columnea belonging to section Ortholoma (Gesneriaceae) from Antioquia Department in Colombia (Cordillera Occidental) is described and illustrated. This species is the second one known in Columnea to have a corolla with 4 external appendages; the first one described with this trait was C. paraguensis. This trait adds to the knowledge on the diversity of corolla architecture in Columnea, and points out an effect of pollinators on the diversification process in this plant lineage.
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The use of morphological characters to define species, genera, and higher taxa within the Gesneriaceae has often been problematic with convergences causing unrelated taxa to be classified together. Recent molecular phylogenetic analyses have allowed greater insights into relationships across the family and as a result better systems of classification that reflect the common ancestry of taxa rather than convergent evolutionary history have been proposed. Columnea is the largest Neotropical genus in Gesneriaceae subfamily Gesnerioideae and has had a complex and confusing taxonomic history. The species that are now considered Columnea have been placed in 14 genera and at times up to nine sections within the genus. More recently it has been recognized as five genera or a single genus with six sections. The phylogenetic analyses presented here sampled 68 species and for the first time resolved relationships among them. None of the recent subgeneric classification systems are in complete agreement with the phylogenetic relationships. The results here also indicate that there may be greater cryptic speciation in Columnea than had previously been assumed as some morphologically determined species are not recovered as monophyletic. Although our sampling consists of only two morphologically divergent species from Jamaica, they are supported as sister, implying that the endemic Columnea species in Jamaica may be derived from a single introduction event.
Full-text available
The family Gesneriaceae is represented in Colombia by 32 genera and approximately 400 speeies of shrubs, subshrubs, lianas, or herbs, terrestrial or epiphytic. Most species of Gesneriaceae are found in montane rain or cloud forests, and low-elevation cloud forests are particularly rich, The most species-rich areas in Colombia are the Pacific coastal forests and in the central Andes of Antioquia and Risaralda. In contrast, relatively few species occur in the Amazon and Orinoco basins (except along the foothills of the Andes), and along the mostly dry Caribbean coast. Approximately 75% of the Colombian species belong to groups with no modern treatments. Additional new species as well as one new genus currently await description, and therefore the species numbers estimated for many of the larger genera are tentative. A key to the genera is presented, along with a brief discussion of each genus, as known in Colombia.La familia Gesneriaceae se encuentra representada en Colombia por 32 géneros y por aproximadamente 400 especies de hierbas, arbustos, subarbustos o lianas, terrestres o epífitas. La mayoría de las especies se encuentran en bosques montanos o en bosques de neblina, siendo los de baja altitud especialmente ricos en ellas. Los bosques con más especies se encuentran en las áreas de la costa Pacífica y en la Cordillera Central en Antioquia y Risaralda. En contraste, se encuentran relativamente pocas especies en las cuencas del Amazonas y el Orinoco, así como a lo largo de la costa Caribe, que presenta condiciones climáticas mucho más secas. Aproximadamente el 75% de las especies colombianas pertenecen a grupos sin tratamientos taxonómicos modernos. En el momento actual el número de especies estimado para varios de los géneros más grandes es tentativo, pues nuevas especies han aparecido y un género nuevo está en espera de ser descrito. Se presenta una clave para los géneros conocidos en Colombia, junto con una breve discusión de cada uno.
A recent expedition to the Cordillera Central of the Colombian Andes resulted in the discovery of a new species of Columnea (Gesneriaceae, tribe Episcieae). The new species, Columnea antennifera J.L. Clark & Clavijo, is distinguished from other congeners by the presence of elongate corolla appendages that alternate with the corolla lobes, anisophyllous leaves, and a scandent obligate epiphytic habit. A discussion and images are provided to differentiate Columnea antenmfera from C. dissimilis, C.filamentosa, and C. rosea. The characteristic of elongate corolla appendages is discussed and Columnea antenmfera is compared with other taxa that share this unusual feature.
The neotropical members of Gesneriaceae are characterized by numerous characters that appear to be adaptations to life in the wet tropics. Among these are epiphytism, anisophylly, hummingbird-pollination, and bird-dispersal of seeds. Many of these characters have diversified to a broad extent in the single tribe Episcieae. This analysis investigates the phylogenetic relationships among genera of Episcieae and also examines the evolutionary origin of several characters found within this tribe such as fruit characters, epiphytism, chromosome numbers, and tubers. All genera of the tribe were included in the analysis except the Guyana endemic Rhoogeton and the Central American Oerstedina. Larger genera such as Columnea and Episcia were represented by several species with attempts to include members of the different sections of these genera. Columnea appears to be a monophyletic group but its relationship to Drymonia and Alloplectus is not resolved. The latter genera may need to be included in Columnea to make it strictly monophyletic. Neomortonia is polyphyletic with one species in the Columnea clade and another with Episcia. The anomalous position of some Paradrymonia indicate a more thorough analysis of this genus is necessary to resolve phylogenetic relationships.