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Effects of Floral Preservatives on the Vase Life of Orchid (Epidendrum radicans L.) Cut Flowers

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Orchid (Epidendrum radicans L.) is one of the most precious flowers that have the potential of longest vase life in the cut flower industry and it thrives well in the tropics and sub-tropics. This experiment was conducted to determine the effect of different floral preservative on the vase life of orchids. Four floral preservative solutions, Chrysal (commercial floral preservative) and different homemade floral preservatives: vinegar, apple juice and laundry bleach JIK; lemon juice, Sprite and Ritebrand bleach; and lime juice, sugar, Listerine mouth wash (homemade floral preservatives) were used. Tap water was used as the control. The treatments were laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD). After 21 days, Epidendrum orchid cut flowers treated with the combination of vinegar, apple juice and JIK had the highest petal drop (9.8), wilted leaves (8.8) and wilted florets (8.8). The lowest number of dropped petals (5.7), wilted leaves (3.8) and dropped petals (4.9) were obtained from those treated with lemon juice, Sprite and Ritebrand bleach. The longest vase life (21.0 days) of orchids was obtained from the treatment combinations of lemon juice, Sprite and Ritebrand bleach; and lime, sugar and Listerine. There was no significant (P < 0.05) difference in number of dropped petals, wilted leaves and wilted florets of orchids cut flowers treated with lemon, Sprite and Ritebrand bleach and those treated with a combination of lime, sugar and Listerine. Homemade floral preservative combinations of Lemon, Sprite and Ritebrand bleach and lime, sugar and Listerine could, therefore be recommended for pre-treatment of Epidendrum orchid cut flowers for best results.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Journal of Horticultural Science & Ornamental Plants 5 (1): 22-29, 2013
ISSN 2079-2158
© IDOSI Publications, 2013
DOI: 10.5829/idosi.jhsop.2013.5.1.268
Corresponding Author: Paul K. Wahome, Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture,
Luyengo Campus, University of Swaziland, Private Bag Luyengo M205, Swaziland.
22
Effects of Floral Preservatives on the Vase Life of
Orchid (Epidendrum radicans L.) Cut Flowers
Minenhle Thwala, Paul K. Wahome, Tajudeen O. Oseni and Michael T. Masarirambi
Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Luyengo Campus,
University of Swaziland, Private Bag Luyengo M205, Swaziland
Abstract: Orchid (Epidendrum radicans L.) is one of the most precious flowers that have the potential of
longest vase life in the cut flower industry and it thrives well in the tropics and sub-tropics. This experiment
was conducted to determine the effect of different floral preservative on the vase life of orchids. Four floral
preservative solutions, Chrysal (commercial floral preservative) and different homemade floral preservatives:
vinegar, apple juice and laundry bleach JIK; lemon juice, Sprite and Ritebrand bleach; and lime juice, sugar,
Listerine mouth wash (homemade floral preservatives) were used. Tap water was used as the control. The
treatments were laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD). After 21 days, Epidendrum orchid cut
flowers treated with the combination of vinegar, apple juice and JIK had the highest petal drop (9.8), wilted
leaves (8.8) and wilted florets (8.8). The lowest number of dropped petals (5.7), wilted leaves (3.8) and dropped
petals (4.9) were obtained from those treated with lemon juice, Sprite and Ritebrand bleach. The longest vase
life (21.0 days) of orchids was obtained from the treatment combinations of lemon juice, Sprite and Ritebrand
bleach; and lime, sugar and Listerine. There was no significant (P < 0.05) difference in number of dropped petals,
wilted leaves and wilted florets of orchids cut flowers treated with lemon, Sprite and Ritebrand bleach and those
treated with a combination of lime, sugar and Listerine. Homemade floral preservative combinations of Lemon,
Sprite and Ritebrand bleach and lime, sugar and Listerine could, therefore be recommended for pre-treatment
of Epidendrum orchid cut flowers for best results.
Key words: Cut flowers Floral preservatives Orchids Vase life
INTRODUCTION handling and transportation times. Many investigations
Epidendrum orchids belong to Orchidaceae, conducted by adding various preservatives to the vase
commonly referred to as the orchid family, although their water [2, 3], resulting in cut flowers senescence being
area of origin is not clear but are believed to be native to delayed considerably. In cut flowers, the processes of
South American mainly in the tropics [1]. Orchid is one of flower bud opening and colour development require
the most preferred wedding flowers especially for the substrates and energy for their satisfactory development
bride’s and bridesmaids’ bouquets; church and reception [4, 5].
venue decorations; boutonnieres for the groom, best man Physiological and morphological responses such as
and groomsmen; corsages for principal sponsors and wilting or bent neck caused by bacteria, lead to a decrease
guests; and table centrepieces. Orchids are also the in the vase life of cut rose flowers [6, 7]. The post-harvest
favourite flower for corsages usually used by girls in life of cut flowers is often limited by their inability to
proms [1]. maintain photosynthesis under the lighting conditions of
The post-harvest longevity of cut flowers is of critical the interior environment where they are held, so it is
importance in determining the value of the crop. This is important to ensure high carbohydrate levels in plants at
particularly true with cut flowers given the global nature harvest time [8]. This can be achieved by growing plant
of the flower industry and the necessity for lengthy under optimum light conditions.
on the longevity and quality of cut flowers have been
J. Hort. Sci. & Ornamen. Plants, 5 (1): 22-29, 2013
23
The short vase life of many cut flowers continues to vase life of roses is often related to water stress
pose a challenge to the florist industry in general. Flowers characterized by incomplete bud opening, rapid loss of
are extremely perishable; maintaining their physiological fresh weight and water deficit and poor maintenance of
functions very actively even after harvest and the turgidity. The importance of water, sugar and various
beginning of their senescence very often depends on other chemical preservatives to promote the keeping
ethylene action [3, 9]. Other important factor in the quality of cut flowers has been reported by several
deterioration of cut flowers involves the diminishing of workers [23, 24].
respiratory substrates. The speed of these changes Cut flowers are graded according to the length of
depends at least in part, on the amount of reserves that their stem. The longer stem cut flowers have longer vase
are present in the flower at harvesting [10]. Carbohydrates life, which may be due to higher carbohydrate reserve
are important reserve compounds. Furthermore, a when compared to the shorter stem which enables the
decrease of macromolecular component such as starch maintenance of dry matter and respirable substrates,
occurs through the course of the petal senescence. The especially in the petals which helps in extending keeping
senescence of cut flowers is closely related to a quality [25]. Han [23] reported that the translocation of
considerable reduction of the energy needed for sugars from stem accumulates in the flower, which
metabolic reactions [3]. An exogenous carbohydrate increases the water uptake and helps to maintain turgidity
supplementation would be enough to delay the in the stem thus, extending the vase life of the flowers.
senescence [11]. The stem possesses high sucrose inversion capacity,
Many floral preservative contain germicides, ethylene which helps to prolong the shelf-life [18]. Jordi et al. [26]
synthesis inhibitors, growth regulators, some mineral reported that 40 cm length of cut rose stems Cv. ‘Sonia’
compounds and carbohydrates that are essential to had longer vase life and higher consumers acceptance.
extend the vase life of cut flowers [11, 12]. Homemade Long stem length is accompanied by increased flower
floral preservatives containing sugar, household chlorine- diameter and water uptake, enhancing the shelf-life of rose
containing bleach, lemon and lime juices have been widely cut flowers [25].
used to prolong vase life of cut flowers [13, 14]. Chlorine- Neck drop (bent neck) of cut rose flower is caused by
containing chemical or solution is the most common inadequate water transport through the neck tissue and
bactericides and competes with ethylene for the same site tends to be varietal characteristics. Hence, the water is an
of action [15]. Sodium hypochloride (NaOCl) is markedly important component of cut flowers and loss of water
effective in extending the vase life of many cut flowers without replenishment causes the flower to wilt and drop.
including carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.), However, one cannot exclude the possibility that the anti-
Delphinium (D. elatum L.) [16, 17], sweet pea (Lathyrus senescence factor is water and the degradative changes
odoratus L.) [16], tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa) [18] and in cut flower are results of water imbalance, an early
Dendrobium orchids [16]. Gibberelic acid (GA ) has been symptom of senescence in cut flower is loss in fresh
3
reported to delay leaf yellowing and flower shedding in weight. Waithaka et al. [27] reported that the turgidity in
Alstroemeria (A. ligtu L.) [19] and daffodil (Narcissus plants and flowers is dependent on the rate of absorption
bulbocodium L.) [16]. and rate of water loss. Increase in fresh weight can occur
Cut flowers are living, actively metabolizing, when the rate of water absorption is more than the rate of
heterogeneous organs composed of floral and transpiration. Waithaka et al. [27] also reported that the
foliar parts each of which may be at different composition of ‘tap water’ varies greatly in various
physiological and developmental stage. The termination locations. This may influence the longevity of the flowers
of vase life of many cut flowers is characterized by kept in tap water, as well as the efficiency of chemical
wilting even though they are constantly held in water [20]. solutions used for holding, pulsing or bud opening. In cut
The point of termination of vase life varies from the first flowers, the loss of water from all tissues depends on the
sign of wilting and fading [12] to the total death of all environmental factors and immediately after cutting of the
flowers [21] with all the intermediate values between these flower, a sharp decrease in water loss occurs due to
points. closure of stomata [6].
Lee et al. [22] opined that the term vase life Organic acids play an important role in reducing
should represent the potential useful longevity of the pH in preservative formulations. Generally, citric
the flowers at the final consumer’s home. The short acid is used to lower the pH of vase solutions for
J. Hort. Sci. & Ornamen. Plants, 5 (1): 22-29, 2013
24
gladiolus (G. glandiflorus L.) [24]. A pre-shipment graveolens L.), anise (Pimpinella anisum L.) and cumin
treatment with citric acid (150 PPM) added to the pulse (Cuminium cyminum L.) significantly prolonged the vase
solution was found to be effective in carnations. Citric life of rose cut flowers. Essential oils are safe and
acid prevents the plugging of vascular bundles improved environmental friendly substances with anti-microbial
the water balance and enhanced the intensity of petal properties.
colour probable by changing the pH of cell sap. Use of Silver reduces ethylene-binding capacity and
citric acid at 0.5-0.7% in holding solution promoted the suppresses endogenous ethylene production [7, 11]
floral development and keeping quality of cut spikes of thereby delaying the appearance of characteristics such
tuberose [6]. as premature wilting, petal in-rolling and abscission of
In roses, the loss of petal turgidity and fresh weight flowers and buds [3, 29]. In many plant tissues, ethylene
was preceded by a decreased rate of water uptake, treatment results in rapid loss of chlorophyll in leaves and
indicating that reduced uptake rather than excessive water unripe fruits. In plant tissues, ethylene commonly
loss is responsible [27]. Since water tension in the flaccid stimulates senescence, loss of protein and susceptibility
flower is not transmitted to the base of stem a “stem to desiccation and decay.
blockage” was suggested within the xylem vessels [27]. The plant hormone, ethylene, is responsible for early
The reduction in stem conductivity is caused by several senescence in many flowers such as orchids, roses etc.
factors. Microbial growth paralleled the increase in stem [6]. Vase life of cut flowers can be improved by delaying
resistance to water flow. Therefore, micro-organisms were senescence using ethylene synthesis and receptor
considered to be one of the main causes of reduced water inhibitors such silver thiosulphate (STS) complex [11].
uptake in cut flowers. The use of preservative solutions is considered a common
Use of aluminium sulphate (Al (SO ) ) as a germicide practice for the storage of floral stems. These treatments
2 43
in floral preservation is recommended [6]. They reported control ethylene synthesis, retard pathogen development,
that the colour, form and longevity were more in Al (SO ) maintain plant water and respiration balance, contribute to
2 43
treated flowers. Aluminium sulphate (50-100 ppm) has colour conservation, floral bud development and opening
been used in many preservative formulations of roses and [3, 12, 15, 30].
other flowers. Waithaka et al. [27] attributed the effect of The main aim of this investigation was to determine
aluminium to lowering the pH of rose petals and the effects of commercial floral preservative and locally
stabilizing the anthocyanins, thereby improving the available preservatives materials (sugar, lime, vinegar,
keeping quality of rose cut flowers. All preservative apple juice, laundry bleach, antiseptic mouth wash and
formulations include at least one compound with soft drinks) on the vase life of orchids. The vase life of
germicidal activity. many cut flowers including orchids is generally not
Silver (Ag+) is the most common and active mineral satisfactory to consumers. Several attempts to prolong
ion, which acts as a germicide [26]. Silver nitrate and silver the vase life has been made using commercial floral
acetate (10-50 PPM) are the two most effective preservatives like Florissant, Chrysal, Floralife, Bloomlife,
bactericides used in preservative formulations. Han [23] Petallife, Roselife, Everbloom, etc. These preservatives
reported that more solution uptake was found in flowers may be costly and out of reach for most small scale cut
kept in Al (SO ) Variation in solution uptake may be due flower growers, hence the need for evaluating locally
2 4 3.
to disturbance in transpiration pool; and bacterial and available floral preservatives which would be cheaper and
fungal species gaining predominance in vase solution. induce the same or even better effectiveness as the
Aluminium sulphate enhances solution uptake by acting commercial ones.
as anti-bacterial agent. Silver inhibits the 1-Amino cyclo
propane-1 carboxylic acid (ACC) content and the rise in MATERIALS AND METHODS
respiration in carnation flowers [24]. Since silver nitrate is
relatively immobile in stems of flowers, it increases cut Experimental Site: The experiment was conducted in
flower longevity only by reducing bacterial contamination Biology Laboratory, Crop Production Department, Faculty
or to some extent by acting as an anti-ethylene action of Agriculture, Luyengo Campus at the University of
agent in wound on the cut stem surface. Shanon [28] Swaziland. Luyengo area is positioned between latitudes
reported that natural plant essential oils found in lavender 26° N and 41° S and longitudes 31°W and 12°E. It is
(Lavendula angustifolia Mill.), geranium (Perlagonium situated at around 760 m above sea level.
J. Hort. Sci. & Ornamen. Plants, 5 (1): 22-29, 2013
25
Table 1: Treatment applied in the experiment
Treatments Type of floral preservatives/litre
1 Chrysal (45 g)
2 30 ml vinegar, 45 ml apple juice and 15 ml JIK [Reckitt Benckiser (PTY) Ltd, Republic of South Africa (RSA)]
3 35 ml lemon juice, 45 ml Sprite (Coca-Cola Co.) and 15 ml Ritebrand bleach [Shoprite Checkers (PTY), RSA]
4 30 ml lime juice, 10 g sugar and 20 ml Listerine antiseptic mouthwash [Johnson and Johnson (PTY) RSA] 5 Tap water (control)
Plant Materials: Cut flowers of Epidendrum orchids and Listerine. The orchid cut flowers treated with
(Epidendrum radicans L.) were obtained from Vickery commercial floral preservative, Chrysal, had a
Seedling Company in Malkerns, Swaziland. The cut significantly (P < 0.05) higher number of wilted florets as
flowers were selected at commercial maturity when lower compared to those treated with lime juice, sugar and
florets (6 florets) of the spike were opened. Flower stems Listerine (Table 2).
were 70 cm long and leaves on the lower section of the
stem were removed. Foliage Wilting: There was a significant (P < 0.05)
Experimental Design: The treatments were as described flowers treated with the different floral preservatives at 11,
in Table 1. The treatments were laid out in a randomized 16 and 21 days after treatment (Table 3). Leaf wilting
complete block design (RCBD). Each treatment was increased with increased duration of cut flowers in the
replicated four times and seven cut flower stems were vases. At 21 days after treatment, the lowest number of
used for each replication. Cut flowers were pulsed in the wilted leaves (3.8) was obtained from Epidendrum orchid
different solutions for 12 hours. The control stems were cut flowers treated with combination of lemon juice, Sprite
treated with tap water. The treated cut flowers were, and Ritebrand bleach (Table 3) However, the highest
thereafter, placed in 1,000 ml-conical flasks containing tap number of wilted leaves (8.8) was observed in cut flowers
water, which was replaced every two days. treated with a combination of vinegar, apple and JIK. The
Data Collection: Observations were recorded on floret vinegar, apple and JIK was more than double that
wilting, wilting of leaves, petal drop and shelf-life. observed in cut flowers treated with lemon juice, Sprite
Data Analysis: Data collected was subjected to analysis leaves in cut flowers treated with commercial floral
of variance (ANOVA) using MSTAT-C at P = 0.05. Means preservative, Chrysal was significantly higher than in
that were significant were separated using Duncan New those treated with lemon juice, Sprite and Ritebrand
Multiple Range Test (DNMRT) at 5% level of bleach (Table 3).
significance.
RESULTS the petal drop among the orchid cut flowers treated with
Floret Wilting: There was a significant (P < 0.05) determination (6, 11, 16 and 21 days after treatment)
difference in the floret wilting of Epidendrum orchids (Table 4). At 21 days after treatment, orchid cut flowers
among the different floral preservatives in all treated with a combination of lemon, Sprite and Ritebrand
determination stages (6, 11, 16 and 21 days after bleach had the lowest number of dropped petals (5.7).
treatment) (Table 2). Floret wilting increased with However, there was no significant (P < 0.05) difference in
increased duration of cut flowers in the vases. At 21 days number of dropped petals between cut flowers treated
after treatment, the lowest number of wilted florets (4.9) with a combination of lime, sugar and Listerine and
was observed in orchid cut flowers treated with a Chrysal (Table 4). The highest number of dropped petals
combination of lime, sugar and Listerine (Table 2). (9.8) was observed in cut flowers treated with a
However, the highest number of wilted florets (8.8) was combination of vinegar, apple juice and JIK (Table 4). The
observed in cut flowers treated with vinegar, apple juice number of dropped petals in cut flowers treated with
and JIK. The number of wilted florets in orchids treated lemon, Sprite and Ritebrand bleach was almost double
with vinegar, apple and JIK was almost double that with that observed in cut flowers treated with vinegar,
obtained from cut flowers treated with lime juice, sugar apple juice and JIK (Table 4).
difference in the wilting of leaves among the orchid cut
number of wilted leaves in cut flowers treated with
and Ritebrand bleach (Table 3). The number of wilted
Petal Drop: There was a significant (P < 0.05) difference in
the different floral preservatives at all stages of
J. Hort. Sci. & Ornamen. Plants, 5 (1): 22-29, 2013
26
Table 2: Effects of floral preservatives on wilting of florets in orchids
Number of wilted florets/number of days after treatment
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Treatment 6 11 16 21
Tap water 2.8a 4.3a 5.2a 7.0b
Vinegar, apple juice and JIK 1.9b 3.9a 5.2a 8.8a
Chrysal 1.7b 3.4b 4.3b 5.7b
Lime, sugar and Listerine 1.6b 2.5c 3.7b 5.0c
Lemon juice, Sprite and Ritebrand bleach 1.5c 3.3b 3.9b 4.9c
Means followed by same letter along columns not significantly different. Mean separation by DNMRT at P < 0.05.
Table 3: Effects of floral preservatives on wilting of leaves in orchids
Number of wilted florets/number of days after treatment
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Treatment 6 11 16 21
Tap water 1.0a 2.5a 3.9b 6.7b
Vinegar, apple juice and JIK 1.0a 2.2b 5.6a 8.8a
Chrysal 1.0a 2.1b 3.6b 5.3c
Lime, sugar and Listerine 1.0a 1.4c 3.4b 4.1d
Lemon juice, Sprite and Ritebrand bleach 1.0a 1.6c 3.3b 3.8d
Means followed by same letter along columns not significantly different. Mean separation by DNMRT at P < 0.05.
Table 4: Effects of floral preservatives on petal drop in orchids
Number of wilted florets/number of days after treatment
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Treatment 6 11 16 21
Tap water 1.3a 3.0a 4.4a 7.5b
Vinegar, apple juice and JIK 1.3a 2.5a 5.0a 9.8a
Chrysal 1.0b 2.3b 4.2a 6.5c
Lime, sugar and Listerine 1.0b 2.0b 3.4b 6.3c
Lemon juice, Sprite and Ritebrand bleach 1.0b 1.5c 3.3b 5.7c
Means followed by same letter along columns not significantly different. Mean separation by DNMRT at P < 0.05.
Fig. 1: Effects of floral preservatives on vase life of orchids.
Bars followed by the same latter are not significantly different. Mean separation by DNMRT at P 0.05.
J. Hort. Sci. & Ornamen. Plants, 5 (1): 22-29, 2013
27
Vase Life: The longest vase life (21.0) was observed in stated that, the occurrence of air embolism is also
orchids cut flowers treated with combinations of lemon, responsible for the wilting leaves.
Sprite and Ritebrand bleach and those treated with lime Orchids cut flowers treated with a combination of
juice, sugar and Listerine (Figure 1). The shortest vase life vinegar, apple and JIK had the highest rate of petal drop,
(13.7) was observed on flowers treated with vinegar, apple which is a sign of senescence. Senescence may induce
and JIK. However, there was no significant (P < 0.05) petal drop in cut flowers and rapid opening of flowers
difference observed in the vase life of orchid cut flowers [36]. This then causes a decline in cut flower condition.
treated with Chrysal; lemon, Sprite and Ritebrand bleach; The abscission of petal may be attributed to the depletion
and lime juice, sugar and Listerine (Fig. 1). of food reserves and injury of petal induced by chlorine
DISCUSSION flowers. Flower shattering occurred in the water treated
Lemon juice, Sprite and Ritebrand bleach treated of food in the solution, thus forcing the flower to use all
Epidendrum orchid cut flowers had the longest vase life its reserves. The combination of lemon, Sprite and
and the lowest number of wilted leaves. Cut flowers Ritebrand bleach was the most effective floral
treated with vinegar, apple and JIK had the poorest preservative in controlling senescence and petal drop.
foliage condition and shortest vase life. Floret wilting is Ketsa et al. [38] reported that time to wilting of
mainly due to depleted plant food and the inability of the Dendrobium orchids flowers was probably regulated by
plant to draw up water which leads to the subsequent ethylene. They also showed that application of sugar
colour change and flaccidity of the cell [31]. Flaccid cells drastically reduces sensitivity of cut flowers to ethylene.
give the flower a wilting appearance and this may be The longest vase life of Epidendrum orchids was 21.0
improved by adding an effective bactericide in the pulsing days which was observed on cut flowers treated with a
solution that will eliminate the accumulation of bacteria combination of lemon juice, Sprite and Ritebrand bleach
along the vascular bundle blocking the water path way and those treated with lime juice, sugar and Listerine.
to the petal. According to Almasi et al. [32], yellowing, Orchid cut flowers treated with a combination of vinegar,
drooping, epinasty and venation of florets in Dendrobium apple and JIK had the lowest vase life and this could
orchids are major signs of senescence in cut flowers. The probably be attributed to injury of the stems by chloride
deterioration and discolouration are due to an increase of ions in JIK. Cut flowers treated with this mixture showed
vacuole’s pH or enzyme effects such as polyphenol a poor opening of the florets when compared with control.
oxidase and peroxidase on senescing flowers [32, 33]. High concentration of chlorine in water can cause a
It was found out that, flowers which had less wilted detrimental effect on flower keeping quality [1]. It
leaves also had longest vase life when compared to those however, takes place after senescence of the cut flower. In
that had the more wilted leaves. Epidendrum orchid cut general, JIK is a very useful germicide in flowers that are
flowers treated with combination of lemon, Sprite and prone to bacteria like gypsophila.
Ritebrand bleach had the lowest number of wilted leaves
which could probably be attributed to sufficient CONCLUSIONS
carbohydrates and good water balance. Sprite was found
to be the best source of sugars in this investigation. The best pulse treatment for the extension of vase life
The relationship between cut flower foliage and vase of orchids was the combination of lemon, Sprite and
life was illustrated by Lanza [34] in his experiment with Ritebrand bleach. Cut flowers treated with combination of
roses and carnations. It was concluded that the presence vinegar, apple and JIK had the highest rate of
of healthy foliage enhances carbohydrates content in the deterioration in terms of floret wilting, wilting of foliage
stem and hence the ability to stay longer in the vase. and dropped leaves. Homemade floral preservatives with
Lanza [34] also pointed out that it is very crucial for the the combination of lemon, Sprite and Ritebrand bleach;
maintenance of the water potential between the leaf and and lime, sugar and Listerine were found to be superior in
the stem bottom. This will enhance the process of this investigation in terms of reducing petal drop, floret
photosynthesis and also balance the extent of respiration; wilting and leaf wilting in Epidendrum orchids. Small scale
hence the bloom life is extended. Wilting of leaves is a cut flower growers should use these two floral
direct sign of inability of the stem to absorb water and preservatives to improve condition and increase vase life
hence the manifestation of flower death. Frazer [35] also of orchids.
ions. Hlophe [37] obtained similar results in rose cut
cut flowers (control), which is probably attributed to lack
J. Hort. Sci. & Ornamen. Plants, 5 (1): 22-29, 2013
28
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... White Sim remained intact on the stem in all the vase solutions under the conditions of the present study (data not shown). This suggested that there were adequate nutrients reserve in the plant tissue and the vase solutions to support the petals throughout the 11 days of vase life as similarly reported by Thwala, Wahome, Oseni & Masariambi (2013). On the contrary, there were significant differences (P<0.05) in the extent to which petal deterioration occurred amongst the different treatments ( Fig. 2A-D). ...
... Cut flower petal wilt can be ascribed to depleted plant food and inability of the plant to draw up water. This can eventually lead to flaccidity of cells and increased neck bend, petal shrinkage and subsequent color change and ultimate manifestation of flower death (Thwala et al., 2013). Also, water balance in cut flower is a major factor determining longevity (Da Silva, 2003) and can be affected by water-deficit stress imposed when water uptake lags behind transpiration. ...
Article
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Cut flower vase life can be extended by various natural products, but their efficacy when mixed with compost tea is not reported. A study was performed to determine cut carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus cv. White Sim) vase life in 1 L of formulations (1) C3.5: 3.5% compost tea + 15 mg putrescine; (2) R5L10: C3.5 + 5 mL rosemary (Salvia rosmarinus) + 10 mL lemon (Citrus limon) extracts; (3) R10L10: C3.5 + 10 mL rosemary + 10 mL lemon extracts; (4) R5L20: C3.5 + 5 mL rosemary + 20 mL lemon extracts; (5) R10L20: C3.5 + 10 mL rosemary + 20 mL lemon extracts; (6) Chrysal: Floral Chrysal Clear (positive control); and (7) Dw: distilled water alone (negative control). The 15 mg putrescine significantly (P=0.002) reduced compost tea turbidity by 34%. The neutral pH of C3.5 and Dw did not change. However, pH increased by 24% in Chrysal and reduced by 39% in R5L10, R10L10 and R5L20 and by 54% in R10L20 on day 11. TDS and EC were highest in Chrysal from days 1 to 11. Petal discoloration, wilt, shrinkage and neck bend were delayed by C3.5 followed by Chrysal and then R5L10, but were accelerated by the other treatments. In conclusion, the cut carnation cv. White Sim longevity as influenced by variations in the vase solutions was Chrysal (14 days) > C3.5 (12.6 days) > R5L10 (10.7 days) but ≤ 9 days in the other treatments. These results were confirmed by a 2-D principal component analysis biplot. Future study will investigate microbial interaction.
... White Sim remained intact on the stem in all the vase solutions under the conditions of the present study (data not shown). This suggested that there were adequate nutrients reserve in the plant tissue and the vase solutions to support the petals throughout the 11 days of vase life as similarly reported by Thwala, Wahome, Oseni & Masariambi (2013). On the contrary, there were significant differences (P<0.05) in the extent to which petal deterioration occurred amongst the different treatments ( Fig. 2A-D). ...
... Cut flower petal wilt can be ascribed to depleted plant food and inability of the plant to draw up water. This can eventually lead to flaccidity of cells and increased neck bend, petal shrinkage and subsequent color change and ultimate manifestation of flower death (Thwala et al., 2013). Also, water balance in cut flower is a major factor determining longevity (Da Silva, 2003) and can be affected by water-deficit stress imposed when water uptake lags behind transpiration. ...
Article
Full-text available
Cut flower vase life can be extended by various natural products, but their efficacy when mixed with compost tea is not reported. A study was performed to determine cut carnation Dianthus caryophyllus cv. White Sim) vase life in 1 L of formulations (1) C3.5: 3.5% compost tea + 15 mg putrescine; (2) R5L10: C3.5 + 5 mL rosemary Salvia Rosmarinus ) + 10 mL lemon Citrus limon ) extracts; (3) R10L10: C3.5 + 10 mL rosemar y + 10 mL lemon extracts; (4) R5L20: C3.5 + 5 mL rosemary + 20 mL lemon extracts; (5) R10L20: C3.5 + 10 mL rosemary + 20 mL lemon extracts; (6) Chrysal: Floral Chrysal Clear (positive control); and (7) Dw: distilled water alone (negative control). The 15 m g putrescine significantly (P=0.002) reduced compost tea turbidity by 34%. The neutral pH of C3.5 and Dw did not change. However, pH increased by 24% in Chrysal and reduced by 39% in R5L10, R10L10 and R5L20 and by 54% in R10L20 on day 11. TDS and EC were h ighest in Chrysal from days 1 to 11. Petal discoloration, wilt, shrinkage and neck bend were delayed by C3.5 followed by Chrysal and then R5L10, but were accelerated by the other treatments. In conclusion, the cut carnation cv. White Sim longevity as influenced by variations in the vase solutions was Chrysal (14 days) > C3.5 (12.6 days) > R5L10 (10.7 days) but ≤ 9 days in the other treatments. These results were confirmed by a 2 D principal component analysis biplot. Future study will investigate microbial interaction.
... Indeed, bulks of exploratory work regarding the selection of preservatives have been carried out for a better postharvest performance of cut flowers, such as nano-silver [1], 8-hydroxyquinoline sulfate [31], sugar [32], etc. However, on the one hand, many of them are deleterious to humans, which is not suitable for a large-scale application [33]; on the other hand, some of them are already contained in commercial preservatives that show a low efficiency and a greater susceptibility to microbial occlusion because of the presence of sugars [34]. Si is an eco-friendly and safe agent in cut flower preservation and has been reported to successfully extend the vase life and enhance the flower quality in carnation [35], Argyranthemum [36], and rose [11]. ...
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As a commercial high-grade cut flower, the marketability of herbaceous peony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall.) is limited by its short vase life in water. Si (silicon) is an alternative to improve the postharvest life of cut flowers. However, the effects of the combined application of Si and preservatives on the postharvest performance of cut peony flowers are unknown. In this study, the effects of a Si application and a preservative alone and collegial on the longevity of the vase life, water loss, antioxidant defense system, and stock carbohydrates level of cut flowers of three peony cultivars were investigated. It was observed that Si effectively prolonged the vase life, while the preservative alone, to a lesser extent, but markedly induced an early flowering and a greater flower diameter (flower open degree). The simultaneous use of Si and the preservatives not only showed larger flowers, but also improved the postharvest performance as characterized by an extended vase life and delayed the water loss. In addition, the Si supplementation dramatically intensified the antiox-idant defense system (ameliorated antioxidant enzymes and alleviated ROS accumulation) in petals but did not increase the stock carbohydrates (starch and soluble sugars) levels, as compared to the treatment with the preservative alone. We show that a Si supplementation to a preservative is highly recommended for a large-scale use to promote the postharvest performance and competitiveness of marketed cut flowers.
... Essential oils can be used as natural additives to preserve many crops because of their antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant properties [4,5]. The antimicrobial effect of essential oils was attributed to the inhibition of the synthesis of DNA, RNA, protein and polysaccharides [6]. ...
Article
Full-text available
In a postharvest laboratory experiment, to measure the effectiveness of some essential oils (EOs) of Peppermint, Cumin, Thyme, and Cinnamon at the concentrations of 0, 150 and 200 µlL-1 for each and two mixtures, one composed of Peppermint oil (150 µlL-1) and Cumin oil (150 µlL-1), and the other composed of Thyme oil (150 µlL-1) and Cinnamon oil (150 µlL-1), to extend the vase life of Lilium orientalis L. cv. Santander cut spikes. This experiment was done in two consecutive years, 2014 and 2015, between 23 rd November and 15 th December and was repeated in 2018 for the anatomical studies. It was found that, all the used EOs at either concentration, as well as mixtures had significant positive effects on enhancing most of the features of spike quality, maintaining the photosynthetic pigment content in the leaves of cut spikes, increasing the total carbohydrate content of the spikes, suppressing the growth of microorganisms in the vase solution and enhancing the anatomical structure of the stalk end of cut spikes. Concerning most of these advantages, the mixture of Peppermint oil and Cumin oil had superiority over the mixture of Thyme oil and Cinnamon oil. Accordingly, it can be said that the harmful chemical preservatives used abundantly in floral preservative solutions can be replaced by safe natural materials such as EOs.
... Epidendrum radicans is one of the most highly valued flowers, potentially exhibiting the longest vase life in the cut-flower industry. It thrives in the tropics and subtropics [33]. At present, all wild orchids worldwide are listed in the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), and it is essential to safeguard these resources for the future. ...
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In nature, Orchidaceae seeds establish a relationship with orchid mycorrhizal fungi to obtain essential nutrients for germination. The orchids, Cymbidium mannii and Epidendrum radicans, have significant ornamental and economic value. We isolated and cultured mycorrhizal fungi from C. mannii, E. radicans, and C. goeringii roots. Three strains of fungi, Tulasnella calospora (Tca), T. asymmetrica (Tas), and T. bifrons (Tbi), were identified using ITS-rDNA sequencing. Their mycorrhizal compatibility, germination-promoting effects, and symbiosis with the seeds of C. mannii and E. radicans were studied in vitro using various concentrations of oatmeal agar (OA) medium. Tca exhibited significant seed-germination-promoting effects on C. mannii (92.1%) and E. radicans (84.7%) on 2.0 and 4.0 g/L OA, respectively. For Tbi and Tas, the highest germination percentages were observed on 4.0 g/L OA in E. radicans (73.60% and 76.49%, respectively). Seed germination in C. mannii was enhanced by high oatmeal concentrations (8.0 and 12.0 g/L) during symbiosis with Tas, whereas Tbi had no effect regardless of OA concentration. Tca exhibited high compatibility with C. mannii and E. radicans, and the oatmeal concentration of the medium affected this compatibility. The findings of this study will aid in the propagation of endangered orchid species for conservation and commercial purposes using mycorrhizal technology.
... Essential oils are natural products taken from aromatic plants for their antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant properties, and then they can be used as natural additives to preserve many crops (Teissedre et al., 2000;Thwala et al., 2013). Gogoi et al. (1997) attributed the antimicrobial effect of essential oils to the synthetic inhibition of DNA, RNA, protein and polysaccharides. ...
Thesis
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In a postharvest laboratory experiment, to measure the effectiveness of some eco-friendly or natural substances to extend the vase life of Lilium orientalis L. cv. Santander cut spikes, they were treated with silver nano-particles (SNP) at the concentrations of 0, 2.5, 5, 10, 15, and 20 ppm, and essential oils (EOs) of Peppermint, Cumin, Thyme, and Cinnamon at the concentrations of 0, 150 and 200 µlL-1 for each. Two mixtures were also used, one composed of Peppermint oil (150 µlL-1) and Cumin oil (150 µlL-1), and the other composed of Thyme oil (150 µlL-1) and Cinnamon oil (150 µlL-1). This was done in the form of two separate experiments in two consecutive years, 2014 and 2015, between 23rd November and 15th December at the Ornamental Plants and Woody Trees Laboratory at the National Research Centre in Dokki, Giza, Egypt and at the Ornamental Horticulture Dept. at the Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza. The results of the first experiment revealed that SNP at the concentration of 2.5 ppm was the most efficient in prolonging the vase life of cut Lilium spikes, maintaining their water balance, increasing the change of weight of cut spikes relative to the fresh weight R.F.W. %, increasing the stalk diameter, decreasing their number of opening florets in the first opening to one floret, delaying the first wilting, prolonging the vase life of the florets, increasing their total carbohydrates content and enhancing the anatomical structure of the stalk end. In the second experiment, it was found that, Thyme oil at the concentration of 200 µlL-1 and Cinnamon oil at the concentration of 150 µlL-1 were the most effective treatments in prolonging the vase life of the lilium cut spikes compared to the control. All the used EOs at the either concentrations, as well as mixtures had significant positive effects on increasing the water uptake, water loss, water balance and the R.F.W. % of the cut Lilium spikes. They, as well, significantly enhanced most of the features of spike quality, maintained the photosynthetic pigment content in the leaves of cut spikes, increased the total carbohydrates content of the spikes, suppressed the growth of microorganisms in the vase solution and enhanced the anatomical structure of the stalk end of cut spikes. Concerning most of these advantages, the mixture of Peppermint oil and Cumin oil had superiority over the mixture of Thyme oil and Cinnamon oil. Accordingly, it can be said that the harmful chemical preservatives used abundantly in floral preservative solutions can be replaced with less hazardous substances at very low concentrations such as SNP, or with safe natural materials such as EOs.
... Essential oils are natural products taken from aromatic plants for their antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant properties, and then they can be used as natural additives to preserve many crops (Teissedre et al., 2000;Thwala et al., 2013). Gogoi et al. (1997) attributed the antimicrobial mechanism of essential oils to the synthetic inhibition of DNA, RNA, protein and polysaccharides. ...
Article
Full-text available
In a postharvest laboratory experiment, to measure the effectiveness of some eco-friendly or natural substances to extend the vase life of Lilium orientalis L. cv. Santander cut spikes, silver nano-particles (SNP) at concentrations of 0, 2.5, 5, 10, 15, and 20 ppm, and essential oils (EOs) of peppermint, cumin, thyme, and cinnamon at concentrations of 0, 150 and 200 µlL-1 and mixtures (Peppermint oil [150 µlL-1 ] + Cumin oil [150 µlL-1 ] and Thyme oil [150 µlL-1 ] + Cinnamon oil [150 µlL-1 ]), were used in two separate experiments at the Ornamental Plants and Wooden Trees Laboratory at the National Research Centre in Dokki, Giza, Egypt, between 23 rd November and 15 th December in two consecutive years 2014 and 2015. The results of the first experiment revealed that SNP at the concentration of 2.5 ppm was the most efficient in prolonging the vase life of cut Lilium spikes as recorded 18 days in the two years compared to the control, which scored 14.5 days in the 1 st year and 15 days in the 2 nd year. It was also the most effective in maintaining water balance and relative change of flower fresh weight until the fifth day in the 1 st year and till the seventh day in 2 nd year. The concentration of 15 ppm SNP registered the highest results in the water uptake and was the first competitor to concentration 2.5 ppm in prolonging the spikes' vase life. On the other hand, all used EOs at the both concentrations as well as mixtures had significant positive effects on extending the spikes' vase life in the two years. Also, all the used EOs and their mixtures were able to significantly increase the water uptake, the water loss, the water balance and the relative change of flower fresh weight of the cut Lilium spikes. The most efficient EOs were thyme oil at the concentration of 200 µlL-1 , cinnamon oil in the concentrations of 150 and 200 µlL-1 and the first mixture (Peppermint oil [150 µlL-1 ] + Cumin oil [150 µlL-1 ]). Thus, it can be said that the harmful chemical preservatives which are used abundantly in floral preservative solutions can be replaced with less hazardous substances and in very low concentrations such as SNP, or safe natural materials such as EOs.
... Penggunaan perak nitrat memberikan nilai terbaik dengan tidak adanya bunga terserang cendawan sampai akhir pengamatan. Thwala et al. (2013) mengatakan bahwa perak nitrat mengurangi kontaminasi bakteri seperti senyawa anti etilen. ...
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Percobaan dilaksanakan pada April sampai Juni 2014 di Laboratorium Pasca Panen dan Ruang Forum Pasca Sarjana IPB, Dramaga, Bogor. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mendapatkan komposisi ekstrak rebusan daun sirih yang tepat sebagai anti mikroba pengganti perak nitrat dalam larutan pengawet anggrek potong Dendrobium ‘Sonia’. Rancangan yang digunakan adalah rancangan acak lengkap (RAL) dengan faktor tunggal komposisi larutan pengawet. Terdapat 5 perlakuan yaitu akuades sebagai kontrol larutan pengawet, perak nitrat dan ekstrak rebusan daun sirih 250 g l-1, 350 g l-1 dan 450 g l-1 yang diulang sebanyak 4 ulangan dengan 5 sampel tangkai bunga per ulangan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penggunaan berbagai komposisi larutan pengawet tidak berpengaruh nyata dalam memperpanjang umur kesegaran anggrek potong. Kesegaran bunga anggrek Dendrobium ‘Sonia’ dengan penggunaan semua perlakuan larutan pengawet dapat bertahan rata-rata hingga 20 hari. Volume larutan pengawet yang diserap paling besar yaitu penggunaan akuades (7.6 ml). Penggunaan ekstrak rebusan daun sirih konsentrasi 250 g l-1, 350 g l-1 dan 450 g l-1 dengan hasil jumlah bunga terserang cendawan yaitu 2.8, 2.3 dan 2.3 kuntum, hampir separuh jumlahnya dari penggunaan perak nitrat yaitu 5.3 kuntum, menunjukkan adanya kecenderungan positif terhadap penekanan cendawan.
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Epidendrum, one of the three largest genera of Orchidaceae, exhibits significant horticultural and ornamental value and serves as an important research model in conservation, ecology, and evolutionary biology. Given the ambiguous identification of germplasm and complex evolutionary relationships within the genus, the complete plastome of this genus (including five species) were firstly sequenced and assembled to explore their characterizations. The plastomes exhibited a typical quadripartite structure. The lengths of the plastomes ranged from 147,902 bp to 150,986 bp, with a GC content of 37.16% to 37.33%. Gene annotation revealed the presence of 78–82 protein-coding genes, 38 tRNAs, and 8 rRNAs. A total of 25–38 long repeats and 130–149 SSRs were detected. Analysis of relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU) indicated that leucine (Leu) was the most and cysteine (Cys) was the least. The consistent and robust phylogenetic relationships of Epidendrum and its closely related taxa were established using a total of 43 plastid genomes from the tribe Epidendreae. The genus Epidendrum was supported as a monophyletic group and as a sister to Cattleya. Meanwhile, four mutational hotspots (trnCGCA–petN, trnDGUC–trnYGUA, trnSGCU–trnGUCC, and rpl32–trnLUAG) were identified for further phylogenetic studies. Our analysis demonstrates the promising utility of plastomes in inferring the phylogenetic relationships of Epidendrum.
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Narcissus is one of the cut flowers which postharvest problems cause loss of quality and shorter vase life. In this research, silver thiosulphate (STS) was used for improving quality and vase life of cut flowers. The flowers were harvested at the goose neck stage and pulsed in the different concentrations of STS (control treated with distilled water, 0.2, and 0.4 mM) for 24 hours. Results showed that the 0.2 mM STS was the best treatment and increased vase life of narcissus cut flowers to 10 days. After the short period of treatment, concentration of 0.4 mM STS caused severe burning of the tepals and was toxic. The 0.4 mM treatment slightly reduced the rate of senescence of flowers. Also, results showed that there was positive relationship between the fresh weight and water uptake with longevity of narcissus cut flower.
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The study of the postharvest physiology of cut flowers is still in its infancy, but showing growth. In 1936, Laurie (20) made the following statement in his presidential address to the members of the American Society for Horticultural Science: “ Although many attempts have been made to study the keeping quality of cut flowers, little definite and specific information is yet available. The workers at Illinois, Iowa, Cornell, Boyce-Thompson and Ohio are largely responsible for these studies. The use of various chemicals as well as carbon dioxide has been tried with some degree of success in specific cases … At present, studies in Ohio are being made with the correlations between refrigeration and humidity as well as the factors which reduce respiration rate and rapid maturity ” Some 36 years later, we find an increasing interest in the postharvest physiology and biochemistry of cut flower senescence. However, much basic information and applied work is needed to aid the expanding flower industry of this country. This paper will attempt to review in detail the research literature to date on the internal metabolic changes in cut flowers.
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Senescence of excised Easter lily leaves is typically marked by a rise in respiration without a concomitant production of ethylene. Treating excised leaves with 500 mg · L-1 of gibberellic acid (GA3) or benzyladenine (BA) significantly delayed the onset of leaf yellowing, lowered the respiration rates by one-third to one-half, and markedly delayed the respiratory rise. Similar effects on respiration were detected in leaves treated with BA or GA3 before a 4-week period of cold storage and in leaves treated after chlorosis had initiated. Results of this study indicate that excised Easter lily leaves respond to the growth regulators with a significant decrease in respiration rate.
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Postproduction leaf yellowing of Easter lily (Lilium longiflorum Thunb.) can be prevented by using growth regulators. Solutions containing benzyladenine (BA) reduced the percentage of yellow leaves in cold-stored plants, but solutions containing gibberellic acid (GA3) were not effective. Treatment with commercial products containing GA4+7 (Provide) or GA4+7 and BA (Promalin) nearly completely prevented the development of leaf yellowing. Concentrations as low as 25 mg·L-1 were effective. Leaf yellowing was prevented by growth regulators only on leaves that had been treated, indicating that the growth regulators were not mobilized in the plants. Growth regulator solutions halted further development of leaf yellowing when applied to plants that already had some chlorotic basal leaves. This result suggests that growth regulators need not be applied preventively. Treatment can be delayed until chlorotic lower leaves are first seen on plants. The striking effects of growth regulators in preventing leaf yellowing did not affect the development and opening of flower buds.
Article
The vase life and floret opening of cut tuberose inflorescences were significantly decreased by cold storage. The ideal storage temperature was found to be 0°C for short durations because even storage at 2°C for only 3 d significantly decreased floret opening and the vase life of stored inflorescences. There was no significant difference between "wet" storage in a preservative solution (250 ppm 8-hydroxyquinoline citrate, 2% sucrose) and "dry" storage (spikes wrapped in polythene film to reduce water loss). Pre-storage pulsing with a 20% sucrose solution (containing HOC) significantly improved the vase life and opening of cold-stored spikes. The vase life and floret opening of spikes treated in this way were equal, after 6 d of storage at 2°C, to those of fresh cut inflorescences. The end of the vase life of cut tuberose spikes coincided with the time taken to return to their initial fresh weight. Cold storage resulted in a pronounced increase in ethylene production by the florets, particularly by immature buds. Ethylene treatment of fresh cut tuberose spikes reduced floret opening, but ethylene induced by cold storage did not appear to be the cause of reduced floret opening. Pretreatment of spikes with STS eliminated the effects of exogenous ethylene on fresh spikes, but had no effect on the reduced vase life of cold-stored flowers and substantially increased ethylene production by their florets. Ethylene production by florets of sucrose-pulsed spikes was similar to that of the controls. It appears that the shortened vase life of cold-stored tuberose is not due to the induction of ethylene biosynthesis.
The effects of Development of floral organ and physiochemical different preservative solutions on the vase life changes of cut Iris hollandica 'Blue Magic' of cut tuberose (Polianthes tuberose L.) cv. according to plant growth regulators and storage Goldorosht-e-mahallat
  • M M Jowkar
  • H Salehi
Jowkar, M.M. and H. Salehi, 2006. The effects of Development of floral organ and physiochemical different preservative solutions on the vase life changes of cut Iris hollandica 'Blue Magic' of cut tuberose (Polianthes tuberose L.) cv. according to plant growth regulators and storage Goldorosht-e-mahallat. J. Sci. and Techn. Agri. and temperature. Acta Hort., 673: 315-321. Natural Resources, 10: 306-309.
Uptake and 18 Emongor, metabolism of sucrose in cut roses Effect of accel, Sucrose and silver thiosulphate
  • R E L Kaltaler
  • P L Steponkus Hutchinson
  • D K Chebet
Kaltaler, R.E.L. and P.L. Steponkus, 1974. Uptake and 18. Hutchinson, M.J., D.K. Chebet and V.E. Emongor, metabolism of sucrose in cut roses. J. Amer. Soc. 2003. Effect of accel, Sucrose and silver thiosulphate Hort. Sci., 99: 490-493. on the water relations and postharvest physiology of
Handling of cut flowers for air Pretreatment effect of novel ethylene inhibitors on transport
  • M S Reid
Reid, M.S., 2012. Handling of cut flowers for air Pretreatment effect of novel ethylene inhibitors on transport. http://ucce.ucdavis.edu/file/datastore/234-extending longevity of carnation, larkspur and sweet 1373.pdf. 05/09/12. pea cut flowers. Kinki Chugoku Agric. Res., 93: 65-70.
An historical and critical review (Narcissus pseudonarcissus L
  • M N Rogers
Rogers, M.N., 1973. An historical and critical review (Narcissus pseudonarcissus L. 'Dutch Master').