As a result of the fast fashion trend, consumer shopping habits have altered, and clothes sales have surged at an unforeseen rate. It is anticipated that this tendency would continue, with a 63% increase by 2030. The textile business focused on long-term solutions despite the fact that rising consumption produces environmental, economic, and social concerns. In addition, customers began to be concerned with the environmental, economic, and social implications of textile products. Cotton has been used to manufacture textiles since prehistoric times and is currently the most popular natural material for textiles. Therefore, it should be closely monitored throughout the period. As an alternative to conventional cotton, environmentally and socially sustainable cotton cultivation variants such as organic and responsibly sourced certified cotton have evolved, and their use is rising rapidly. Furthermore, as the circular economy model gains popularity, academics and business have concentrated on mechanical and chemical recycling solutions to give cotton fiber a second life. Numerous research on the life cycle assessment of these cotton textiles and apparel have been published. According to these studies, cotton production has significant environmental implications because of its high water consumption, land occupation, energy, fertilizer, and pesticide use, all of which can impact the environment and human health. The cotton industry has the greatest impact on water consumption and drought, accounting for 2.6% of global water consumption. Acidification and eutrophication have detrimental environmental effects; pesticide use accounts for 11% of global consumption and roughly 50% of consumption in developing nations. In addition, when energy-intensive inputs such as fertilizers, herbicides, seeds, diesel fuel, and electricity are used, cotton growing is a large contributor to greenhouse gas emissions, accounting for between 0.3 and 1.0% of the total global warming potential. Due to the fact that it is cultivated on around 2.3% of the world's agricultural land, it has significant land use potential. In addition, research conducted in the textile industry reveals that it frequently entails a variety of concerns for stakeholders such as employees, local communities, players in the value chain, and society. Despite the infancy of social life cycle assessment research for textile products, the number of studies on this topic is gradually increasing. This chapter examines previous research to gain an understanding of current practices, advancements, and challenges in the use of life cycle assessment in the environmental, economic, and social dimensions of cotton raw material in the textile industry. Existing life cycle assessment studies were extensively described and grouped using content analysis according to the researched sustainability dimension and cotton type. Finally, the current uses, advancements, and challenges of life cycle assessment in cotton raw material for the textile industry, as well as future recommendations, were addressed. It is hoped that the study's findings will encourage others to perform additional research in the field of environmental, economic, and social life cycle assessment.