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Mind, Self, and Society

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... Mead (1913) was interested in how individual social conduct was connected to a double transformation of objects into subjects and conversely: when one acts with reference to oneself as one does towards others, one becomes a subject; when one is affected by the impression of one's own conduct, one becomes one's own object. He transformed Cooley's concept into a theory about the internalization of the attitudes of the 'generalized other' , which he considered to be integral and intertwined with not just self-consciousness, but with consciousness as such and the use of language or 'significant gestures' (Mead 1934). For Mead the self is in two dimensions: the 'I' being the self as an acting subject who perceives, chooses and has agency, and the 'me' being the self as an object to the 'I' , an internal reflection of the attitudes of the generalized other. ...
... This is an illusion. The self that is experienced as a 'thing' intrinsically embodies the mediation of the experienced attitudes of the generalized other towards the self (Mead 1934). ...
... In a similar sense, for Mead the facility with symbolic communication renders conscious thought possible and constitutes the matter out of which it can form. Mead (1934) uses the realm of consciousness to the Kantian field of sensory experience via the 'I' , whereas he refers self-consciousness to social relatedness and to the 'awakening in ourselves of the group of attitudes which we are arousing in others' . The negotiation can be more or less conscious in different ways and in different situations, but it runs very deep, to the point of being the building blocks out of which experience of reality is constructed. ...
Book
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This book explores how the Internet is connected to the global crisis of liberal democracy. Today, self-promotion is at the heart of many human relationships. The selfie is not just a social media gesture people love to hate. It is also a symbol of social reality in the age of the Internet. Through social media people have new ways of rating and judging themselves and one another, via metrics such as likes, shares, followers and friends. There are new thirsts for authenticity, outlets for verbal aggression, and social problems. Social media culture and neoliberalism dovetail and amplify one another, feeding social estrangement. With neoliberalism, psychosocial wounds are agitated and authoritarianism is provoked. Yet this new sociality also inspires resistance and political mobilisation. Illustrating ideas and trends with examples from news and popular culture, the book outlines and applies theories from Debord, Foucault, Fromm, Goffman, and Giddens, among others. Topics covered include the global history of communication technologies, personal branding, echo chamber effects, alienation and fear of abnormality. Information technologies provide channels for public engagement where extreme ideas reach farther and faster than ever before, and political differences are widened and inflamed. They also provide new opportunities for protest and resistance.
... Yet in this Indian context, our ethnography led us to pay particular attention to the manner in which pursuing alternate subcultural identities could also lead to stigma, which, as revealed in classic studies of social conformity and deviance, can in turn produce feelings of unworthiness (Goffman 2009). This means in part that gamers in places like Udaipur also partially internalize mainstream local views related to gaming being for "losers" and social rejects , which, as labeling theory tells us, could potentially come to form an important part of gamers' own self-concepts (Goffman 2009;Mead 1934). As such, gamers in Udaipur and elsewhere may not always straightforwardly celebrate their gaming lives and devalue mainstream society as we demonstrated earlier among US gamers . ...
... conforming to mainstream social norms was more socially monitored. And given that older Udaipuris condemned internet activities such as gaming as addictive, it is likely that our respondents partially internalized (Spiro 1987) such a stigma in their own self-concepts (Goffman 2009;Mead 1934). Such an interpretation could help explain how gamers in this Rajasthani town simultaneously reported that video gaming was the basis of their happiness and satisfaction in life and also a potentially dangerously addictive form of recreation. ...
... In the present context, we have drawn particularly from our earlier work on consonance, dissonance, and cultural complexity . But we joined those perspectives to psychological anthropological work on cultural internalization (Spiro 1987), to studies of globalization (Anderson 2006;Appadurai 1990), and also to social scientific traditions of research on stigma, labeling, and double consciousness (Fanon 2008;Goffman 2009;Mead 1934). ...
... Thus, we orient ourselves at shared goals or values. Very often we do not need to ponder upon our behavior [32,33]. Nothing seems to interfere: Neither the demands of others nor our own. ...
... Of course, the questioning of the adequacy of those normative demands is necessary. This critical thinking is at the core of moral thinking [33]. ...
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Digitalization efforts are rapidly spreading across societies, challenging new and important ethical issues that arise from technological development. Software developers, designers and managerial decision-makers are ever more expected to consider ethical values and conduct normative evaluations when building digital products. Yet, when one looks for guidance in the academic literature one encounters a plethora of branches of applied ethics. Depending on the context of the system that is to be developed, interesting subfields like big data ethics, machine ethics, information ethics, AI ethics or computer ethics (to only name a few) may present themselves. In this paper we want to offer assistance to any member of a development team by giving a clear and brief introduction into two fields of ethical endeavor (normative ethics and applied ethics), describing how they are related to each other and, finally, provide an ordering of the different branches of applied ethics (big data ethics, machine ethics, information ethics, AI ethics or computer ethics etc.) which have gained traction over the last years. Finally, we discuss an example in the domain of facial recognition software in the domain of medicine to illustrate how this process of normative analysis might be conducted.
... En effet, caractérisé comme des citoyens ordinaires, le groupe de touristes pouvait s'adonner à des activités d'obstruction, car il était légitimé aux yeux des autres citoyens. L'obstruction acquiert une tout autre symbolique lorsqu'il s'agit du citoyen ordinaire, car ce dernier est reconnu comme un autre en soi (Mead, 1934). Il possède les marqueurs de la citoyenneté ...
... Le répertoire de routines des mendiants consiste en fait à sortir les piétons de leur attitude blasée et attirer leur attention pour obtenir leur obole (Lankenau, 1999a). Un rapport asymétrique et hiérarchique permettant la reconnaissance et la considération est compromise, le citoyen ne reconnaissant pas l'autre en soi (Mead, 1934). (Goffman, 1974) malgré son activité potentiellement humiliante et dégradante (Lankenau, 1999b). ...
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This master thesis focuses on panhandling on the sidewalks of Sainte-Catherine Street in Montreal in 2019-2020. Through this ethnographic research, I wanted to understand how panhandlers are encouraged to adopt desired and expected behaviors in the eyes of citizens. To answer this question, I first wanted to disentangle the terms “homelessness” and “panhandling” by showing that the latter consists of an activity which is also practiced by people in a situation of precarious housing or at risk of homelessness. Conceiving panhandling as an active rather than a passive practice, I wanted to get away from the one-sided concept that turns the panhandler into a recipient for charity. I looked at the forms of regulation that govern this activity in public space, taking into account the historical, social and legal transformations of sidewalks and panhandling since the late 19th and early 20th century, particularly in the North American context. By mobilizing the theoretical framework on governmentality and citizenship, I wanted to understand how panhandlers maintain a behavior pattern conveyed by ordinary citizens. To do this, I analyzed six types of relationships that panhandlers maintain on a daily basis while they practice their activity: relationships with passers-by / pedestrians, panhandlers and other marginalized people, with shopkeepers adjacent to panhandling places, with foot patrols officers, spaces, environment and places as well as the relationship to oneself and one's identity. Analytical data is based on participant observation and jotting notes. I have also used photography to capture urban social landscapes and complement the analysis of relationships to space, environment and places. From this descriptive analysis, I tend to demonstrate that there are multiple modes of producing governmentality on the sidewalk. First, the foot patrol officers, institutionalized social actors, convey formal and state control. They maintain public order and regulate the panhandling activity, in particular through the production of tolerance under constraint or conditional on the adoption of desired and orderly behaviors. They also use body positioning and movement tactics to avoid undesirable elements such as obstructions. Second, the control between pedestrians and panhandlers is achieved through the production of deference to pedestrians, the latter conveying a desired and orderly mode of driving and using the sidewalk in its dominant functions. Third, there is a form of delegation of power among panhandlers, thus making it possible to maintain informal order in absence of formal control. The analysis shows the presence of self-control and identity work among panhandlers, the latter aimed at not disturbing the order on the sidewalk. There is also informal control over the appropriation of the place of panhandling, ranging from violent control over others to self-control allowing negotiation and delineation of space. Finally, I tend to demonstrate that governmentality operates at the spatial level and that it helps to make certain behaviors appropriate rather than others, deemed undesirable. The analysis of marginal and prime spaces informs us about an unequal social, geographical and spatial relationship between ordinary citizens and panhandlers/homeless people. In conclusion, I want to demonstrate that panhandlers try to legitimize their presence in the eyes of ordinary citizens by practicing what I call ordered or ordinary panhandling. Key words: panhandling, begging, homelessness, sidewalk, social control, governementality, citizenship, geography, public space, public order
... Allan argues that Steinthal (1848) took Humboldt's views and passed them down to Whitney (1875), who also argued that mind is a function of the inner form of language, a view that was later adopted by Boas (1911) and also by Sapir (1929) as well as Whorf (1956). Nevertheless, much of the research on socialization in the first half of the 20th century came from (1) foundational anthropology, which was interested in cross-cultural studies of childhood and early adolescence as well as from (2) pre-1960s sociology, which was interested in theories of social order and the factors that impact its continuation or discontinuation across generations (Mead 1928, Mead 1934, Parsons 1951, Whiting et al. 1975, Schieffelin, Ochs 1986a, Schieffelin, Ochs 1986b, LeVine et al. 1994. As such, language as the greatestforce of socialization -à la Sapir (1921) -remained the Cinderella of socialization research, and "language socialization" remained an uncharted and pristine territory for academic research. ...
Article
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Language socialization is an interdisciplinary area of linguistic inquiry that addresses the question of how the processes of socialization and language acquisition lead to and benefit from each other. It comprises both a theoretical perspective on the processes of socialization and language acquisition and a methodological approach to the study of human development in socio-cultural milieus. Its comparative research agenda is an amalgamation of longitudinal research, microanalysis, and ethnography, and it is founded on the assumptions (1) that socio-culturally defined contexts are prerequisite to human learning, and (2) that human language has the capacity to index implicit and explicit meanings present in character or emergent from content and context. This paper provides an overview of language socialization and expatiates upon its potential to predict the future of human societies. The pars destruens, à la Bacon (1620), of this paper aims at removing all errors and misunderstandings that exist in connection to language socialization, and its pars construens aims at presenting a true picture of the topic from the perspective of sociosemiotics. The landslide aftermaths of language socialization for human societies in general, and totalitarian and/or theocratic societies in specific, are discussed.
... Instead, schools should have the function of awakening and stimulating these passions; of guiding students on pathways capable of merging reason and imagination and of linking thought, action, and emotion-factors that are all but neglected in our current school and university curricula. The focus on facts and figures, on calculations and results, should be complemented by the teaching of a culture of error, an "epistemology of error" (Dominici, 2010), whereby the three aspects of education mentioned earlier (error, doubt, and unpredictability) should be encouraged and encompassed within the educational format, in the framework of a systemic view of ecosystems and of life itself (Arendt, 1958;Ashby, 1956;Barabási, 2002;Bateson, 1972;Bocchi & Ceruti, 1985;Canguilhem, 1966;Capra, 1975Capra, , 1996De Toni & Comello, 2005;De Toni & De Zan, 2015;Dominici, 1996Dominici, , 2003Dominici, , 2010Dominici, , 2014aDominici, , 2016Dominici, , 2017bDominici, , 2017cDominici, , 2019aDominici, , 2019bDominici, , 2019cEmery, 1969;Ferrarotti, 1997;Feyerabend, 1975;Foucault, 1988;Gallino, 1992;Gandolfi, 2008;Gell-Mann, 1994;Gleick, 1987;Holland, 1975;Israel, 2005;Kauffman, 1993;Kuhn, 1962;Maturana & Varela, 1980, 1985Mead, 1934;Merton, 1965;Morin, 1973Morin, , 1977Morin, , 1980Morin, , 1986Morin, , 1990Morin, , 1991Morin, , 2001Morin, , 2004Musgrave & Lakatos, 1970;Parisi, 1992Parisi, , 2001Popper, 1934;Prigogine, 1996;Prigogine &-Stengers, 1979;Simon, 1962;Taleb, 2012;von Bertalanffy, 1968;von Foerster, 1981;Wiener, 1948Wiener, , 1950. ...
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Before discussing the prospects for educating young people toward becoming global citizens, we must ask ourselves: is global citizenship reality or illusion? What can be stated is that plain citizenship itself can no longer be considered merely a legal or judicial question. Today, citizenship is only partially linked to rights and duties deriving from the recognition of an individual as belonging to a community (local, national or international). Future citizens of the digitally hyper-connected global village face two dangers: simulation of participation and the illusion of having a less asymmetrical relationship to power. The rules of engagement are not being written by legislators but by agencies producing and sharing knowledge; citizenship (global or otherwise) is intimately correlated with access to quality education. Three concepts form the basis for educating toward global citizenship: awareness that citizenship and education are inseparable, awareness that democracy and education are inseparable, and awareness that democracy is complexity.
... Our analysis will thus focus on how each speaker constructs a dialogical self that is established in relation to a you, who is the empirical reader of the texts produced (in this case, the teacher). Finally, we will use George H. Mead's (1972) concept of the 'generalized other' to explain the existence of 'the social' and of the groups that lie outside the sender-receiver relationships delineated in the analyzed texts. Mead's 'generalized other' explains the existence of a set of communicative norms existing in social contexts that individuals must learn in order to behave according to social expectations of them. ...
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Introduction and Objectives. This article explores the interaction between voice and gender relations in the context of radio broadcasting education. The research speaks to the gender inequalities that are increasingly being questioned, especially by younger generations. Methodology. We have employed Critical Discourse Analysis in a corpus of twenty texts elaborated by the students of Radio National de España's Master's Degree. They were asked to write a reflection on their personal experiences with voice, drawing connections to their gender identities. Results and Conclusions. The results show a previous knowledge and acceptance of gender theories, their relationship with radio dogmas, and their resistance and creativity in the face of voice normalization.
... 24 Infatti, l'identità rappresenta un progetto strategico (CUCHE 2004), cioè fondato su un processo in parte consapevole di autoriconoscimento attraverso il quale il soggetto si appropria di elementi della cultura (SCIOLLA 2012). L'identità individuale è sempre anche sociale, sia perché sviluppata all'interno del sistema di relazioni che connotano i gruppi di cui un dato soggetto si ritrova a far parte (MEAD 1934), sia perché fondata su mediazioni simboliche -quali, appunto i testi -prodotte all'interno di un evento comunicativo che è, in quanto tale, sociale (RICOEUR 1986). 25 Questa dicotomia è ripresa da WRIGHT MILLS (1959). ...
... A benefit of volunteering within churches is the ability to develop positive self-concept via role identity (Burke, 1991;Stryker, 1980). Role identity theory has its origins in the idea that social interactions influence our understanding of who we are (Mead 1934, Blummer 1966. Roles have a specific place in the social structure with expected behaviors, rights, and responsibilities attached to them which help dictate our interactions (McCall and Simmons 1978). ...
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Churches, as voluntary organizations, provide pathways for exercising civic engagement, building social capital, and even demonstrating skills for employment. Taking part in leadership roles within churches can be crucial to the development of identity and self-efficacy. Are these benefits available to all, or does ethnic background restrict the leadership positions available to congregants? Drawing on Australia’s National Church Life Survey we investigate how being an ethnic minority in a church affects the possibilities for and benefits of church involvement. We find that ethnic minority congregants are less likely to be elevated to leadership roles, except in areas that serve other ethnic minorities. We further find that these congregants are less likely to develop role-based self-efficacy as a result of volunteering. Given that this occurs in both mono-Anglo and multiethnic congregations, our findings reinforce the role of churches may take to perpetuate racial/ethnic discrimination even when they are diverse organizations.
Article
In contrast to those who more characteristically approach emotion as an individual realm of experience of more distinctive physiological and/or psychological sorts, this paper addresses emotionality as a socially experienced, linguistically enabled, activity-based process. While conceptually and methodologically situated within contemporary symbolic interactionist thought (Mead 1934; Blumer 1969; Strauss 1993; Prus 1996; 1997; 1999; Prus and Grills 2003), this statement is centrally informed by the pragmatist considerations of emotionality that Aristotle (circa 384-322 BCE) develops in Rhetoric. Although barely known to those in the human sciences, Aristotle’s Rhetoric provides a great deal of insight into people’s definitions of, and experiences with, a wide array of emotions. Addressing matters of persuasive interchange in political, judicial, and evaluative contexts, Aristotle gives particular attention to the intensification and neutralization of people’s emotional states. This includes (1) anger and calm, (2) friendship and enmity, (3) fear and confidence, (4) shame and shamelessness, (5) kindness and inconsideration, (6) pity and indignation, and (7) envy and emulation. Following an introduction to “rhetoric” (as the study of persuasive interchange) and “emotionality,” this paper briefly (1) outlines a pragmatist/interactionist approach to the study of emotionality, (2) considers Aristotle as a sociological pragmatist, (3) locates Aristotle’s work within the context of classical Greek thought, (4) acknowledges the relationship of emotionality and morality, and (5) addresses emotionality as a generic social process. Following (6) a more sustained consideration of emotionality within the context of Aristotle’s Rhetoric, the paper concludes with (7) a short discussion of the importance of Aristotle’s work for studying emotionality as a realm of human lived experience on a contemporary plane.
Article
In this paper I propose to read and understand gestures as logical tools within a synthetic paradigm of knowledge. This interpretation of gesture is drawn from a new pragmatist reading of reasoning in general, and synthetic reasoning in particular. Complete gestures are actions with a beginning and an end that bear a meaning. It is our regular way to embody vague ideas into singular actions with general meaning. The tool is forged by a dense blending of icons, indices, and symbols and by a complexity of phenomenological characteristics as feelings, actual actions, general concepts and habits (firstness, secondness, and thirdness in Peirce’s phenomenology). The paper illustrates this new way to look at gestures and different kinds of complete and incomplete gestures.
Chapter
Interpretations of Scioto Hopewell social life over the past twenty-five years have repeatedly put forward the notion that its showy material record, and particularly the massive ceremonial deposits of glistening raw materials and paraphernalia that were ritually destroyed and placed within charnel houses, indicate intense social competition among individuals and among social groups. Ceremonial flamboyance has been cast as a sociopolitical or political-economic strategy that self-aggrandizing individuals and competitive lineages used to display and augment their social power and prestige, and to recruit social followings and mates, in both the Scioto Hopewell and Illinois Hopewell cases (e.g., Braun 1986; Brown 1981; Buikstra and Charles 1999; Fagan 1995; Milner 2004; Seeman 1988; Spielmann 2013; see also Artursson et al. 2015; Lynott et al. 2015). This interpretation aligns with the popular, if not pervasive, view in sociocultural anthropology and anthropological archaeology that competition among individuals and among social groups is necessary to the development of social complexity in all small and midscale societies (e.g., Friedman and Rowlands 1977; Hayden 2001; Service 1962).
Chapter
A. Irving Hallowell, in his classic article, “Ojibwa Ontology, Behavior, and World View”, offered a guiding principle for the adequate and accurate description of the social lives, world views, and cultures of non-Western peoples. The principle establishes the fundamental place of a people’s own concepts of personhood and, more generally, being, in cultural description and analysis. According to Hallowell
Chapter
Typically during excavation and analysis, a human burial context is approached as a static entity. Interpretation proceeds as if the grave and its occupant were frozen in time at the moment of interment (Tielser 2007). On the contrary, a grave context is a dynamic location, both biologically and culturally. From the moment of death onward, biological and cultural taphonomic processes, including ritual sequences, act upon the body and its subsequent resting place or places. It is well documented in many cultures that mortuary rituals begin well before the actual moment of burial and extend well after it (Hertz 1960 [1907]; Metcalf and Huntington 1991; Parker-Pearson 1999; Rakita et al. 2005). Elaborate ritual dramas are sometimes played out at the death of a person, whether an elite or a commoner, as this book and other literature document (e.g., Brown 2003; 2006; 2010; Hall 2000; Shimada et al. 2004). Thus, in order to accurately portray a mortuary program, including ritual dramas of the kind of interest here, it is necessary to document the entire mortuary sequence and to distinguish between the taphonomic processes that result from human behavior, intentional or unintentional, and those that are chemical, biological, and pedological. Recent advances in taphonomic research (Duday 2006; Stodder 2008) provide a means by which to reconstruct the sequential actions of mortuary ritual.
Chapter
Will man die politischen Effekte von Parteiorganisationen begreifen, dann lohnt sich eine Neulektüre von Michels’ Parteiensoziologie. Seine Erklärung für die Entstehung bürokratischer Hierarchien ist zwar längst Gemeingut. Michels entwickelt aber auch eine Mikroanalyse der internen Dynamiken, durch die Parteiorganisationen einen Wandel politischer Plausibilitäten herbeiführen – zunächst für die eigenen Mitglieder, aber mit Rückwirkungen auf die politische Ordnung als ganze. Die Stärke dieser Effekte zeigt sich für Michels daran, dass Parteiorganisationen zum Ver­schwinden der politischen Alternativen beitragen, die die jeweilige Partei selbst vertritt. Allerdings ist dieser Teil von Michels’ Parteiensoziologie viel weniger ausgearbeitet und wurde wohl auch darum weniger rezipiert. Um die hier sichtbaren Argumentationslücken zu schließen, knüpft dieser Text an den klassischen Pragmatismus (James, Dewey, Mead) an, der eine Theorie des sozial vermittelten Wandels von Aufmerksamkeitsmustern, Reflexionsstilen und Selbstverhältnissen bietet. Damit lassen sich die von Michels beschriebenen Mechanismen, durch die Parteien ihre Mitglieder verändern, systematisch rekonstruieren; diese Mechanismen können auch heute helfen, das Verschwinden politischer Alternativen zu erklären.
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The social sciences have long been interested in the relationship between the individual and its social environment. In order to pursue this interest, researchers usually follow one of two routes: either study this relationship in the form of groups or as social networks. This work resulted in various theories that differ from each other in their goals, approaches, methods, and levels of analysis. Taking into account the different theories highlights the variety and necessity of the diverse approaches and can illuminate how they complement each other in understanding human nature.
Article
Social mattering refers to an individual’s perceived sense of significance in the world and is a key aspect of overall mental health. Using data from a representative survey of adult Americans, we test the extent to which societal-level status, community engagement, group memberships, and interpersonal attachments affect men’s and women’s sense of mattering. We find that women gain social significance to the extent that they feel attached to others interpersonally, in terms of romantic relationships, parenthood, friendships, and closeness to family. Men’s sense of mattering is significantly influenced by broader social factors, like their strength of attachment to the Republican Party, their social media use, and their ability to donate money to the community. These differences suggests that gender norms lead men to also seek significance from the broader community and through group memberships while women rely mainly on their close social ties to feel like they matter.
Article
Systems that have yet to stand the test of time carry imperfections that need to be skillfully addressed with the least amount of authoritarianism as possible. The communication and transmission of knowledge that we hold dear are essential pillars to social progress. As such, it is necessary to analyze with the greatest scientific objectivity the applications arising from the deep revolution rooted in the total sequencing of the human genome which affects all aspects of our societies. This extraordinary advance in human knowledge and the resulting technological achievements should not lend themselves to the fears or fantasies often fueled by those who criticize all scientific progress calling into question the most established dogmas. Certain supposedly scholarly analyses of the health situation with which we are currently confronted worldwide are a perfect illustration of this unfortunate trend. It is undeniable that the progress of molecular genetics has opened up a wide range of applications in many fields, affecting the well-being of humans, their mental and physical health. The apparent universal and individual interest for the most advanced genetic profile analyzing technologies is a testimony to this strong common desire to better understand one’s genetic heritage and to control their usage. Despite this movement, little attention is given to the recent advances in genetics applied to essential aspects of the social life of individuals through their inter-personal interactions. It is particularly distressing that the contributions of molecular biology and genetics to the daily well-being of individuals have not yet allowed open-access non-medical genetic testing to gain the recognition it deserves and are still viewed as recreational applications. Through an analysis of the cross influences that genetic biotechnologies have had since the beginning of the century in the fields of nutrition and cosmetics, we have tried to project ourselves into the near future which should witness major behavioral and social upheavals.
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Chapters 1 and 2 identified conceptual and methodological problems with AL, especially with regards to successionism and interpretivism, two dominant perspectives in contemporary AL characterized by a marked empiricist penchant. By emphasizing the centrality of theory, the argument was also made that greater sophistication of AL research should involve its integration within a robust social ontology. This chapter lays the necessary conceptual grounds for this discussion by providing (a) a summary of some important stages in the evolution of the structure–agency debate over more than a century of sociological and philosophical deliberations, (b) drawing connections between this debate and specific AL issues, and (c) bringing readers’ attention to the need for a complexity-informed realist ontology in AL scholarship.
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This study bridged the gap in the literature by exploring the overlaps between public financial accountability and religious sentiments. Previous studies have considered accountability in specific religions and religious organisations through the expositions of their application of accounting concepts and procedures. However, the ways in which religious sentiments affect public accountability are rarely researched. Yet, religion and religious sentiments play central roles in the lived experiences of many people and affect their decisions and perceptions. We used the issuance of Sukuk as a way to understanding how religious sentiments can impact public financial accountability. Our analysis of the online commentaries on the media report of the Sukuk issuance relied on the theory of Symbolic Interactionism and an interpretivist research approach that recognises multiple realities and supports exploring people’s lived experiences. Symbolic Interactionism suggests that people create meanings from their interactions with others through symbols, actions and multiple roles in social settings. Our findings showed that the Sukuk issuance elicited conflicting symbolic meanings amongst Netizens that affected their opinions of governments’ efforts to enhance public infrastructure using alternative financing options. We argued that clarity on the intersection between religious sentiment and public financial accountability can lead to deeper understanding on the nature of public accountability. It could also support the design of appropriate accountability frameworks especially in contexts with social fissures capable of undermining public accountability.
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This study aims to fill two interrelated knowledge gaps in the extant literature on the association between perceived discrimination and health. First, potential selection bias associated with pre-existing health conditions has rarely been rigorously tested in empirical studies. Second, whether there is a reciprocal relationship between perceived discrimination and health has been underexplored. Using longitudinal data from the Americans’ Changing Lives data, waves 3 to 5 (N = 1058), we test the reciprocity between perceived discrimination and health with a formal mediation analysis technique. We also use the Heckman correction to adjust for the potential selection bias associated with attrition. Our analysis indicates that perceived discrimination is associated with poor self-rated health and depressive symptoms even when previous health conditions are considered. Furthermore, net of other confounders, there is a reciprocal relationship between perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms. However, this reciprocity does not hold for self-rated health. These findings indicate that there is a vicious circle between perceived discrimination and mental health. That is, poor mental health may lead to perceived discrimination, and heightened perceived discrimination may subsequently increase depressive symptoms. Sensitivity tests suggest that this reciprocity may vary by gender and race.
Article
Cognitive perspective-taking research has primarily been conducted under the rubric of theory of mind (ToM), with the core skill believed to involve the correct attribution of mental states to oneself and others as a means of explaining and predicting behavior. Relational frame theory (RFT) has provided a behavioral account of performances on true and false belief protocols by appealing to the three perspective-taking (deictic) relations. The current research sought to investigate the relative strength of cognitive perspective-taking abilities within the context of a false belief vignette and related IRAP. Experiment 1 investigated the impact of block order presentation and vignette stimuli order on IRAP performances. That is, across four conditions, rule order presentations (i.e., vignette consistent vs. vignette inconsistent) and vignette stimuli presentation were manipulated. Results indicated that vignette consistent responding was observed to varying degrees across conditions. To decrease this variability across conditions, Experiment 2 presented a vignette before each block of trials but again the IRAP showed only limited sensitivity to the vignette. The current findings and considerations for future research are discussed in terms of a recently published conceptual analysis of false belief by Kavanagh et al. (2020).
Chapter
Transitions are complex happenings at any age. As adults we encounter them frequently across various spheres of our life: a change of career, a shift of city or country, a change of a romantic partner. There is anticipation, joy, excitement, or equally grief and disappointment, and if we’re lucky, recovery. With each experience we grow—in understanding ourselves and others, in how to be in our new situations, and in what to expect from life in general.
Thesis
Scholars of international politics have long linked states’ quest for prestige with assertions of national power: diplomatic saber-rattling, scrambles for colonies, arms races, and outright war. This thesis charts a sharply divergent, previously neglected, path to international prestige—foreign policy restraint. The argument in brief is that states seek prestige by conspicuously holding back from the use of power and thereby spurning opportunities for national gain. Departing from the prevailing conception of restraint as merely a kind of inaction, this thesis reframes restraint as a performance. Performances of restraint are constituted intersubjectively when a state is perceived to refrain from pursuing its interests to the extent that its power allows. Forswearing the acquisition of nuclear weapons, liquidating profitable military interventions, renouncing territorial claims, de-escalating diplomatic crises, curbing carbon emissions—each of these policies of self-limitation, and many more besides, may constitute performative restraint if recognized as volitional (emanating from the actor’s will) and supererogatory (exceeding the actor’s normative obligations). To secure others’ recognition of their performances, states appeal to existing normative standards of restraint in international society. By conspicuously exceeding those standards, states express both (1) their material capacity—the abundance of underlying resources that equips them to voluntarily forgo self- interested behavior; and (2) their moral character—the exemplary virtues that underlie their prosocial choices. When states believe that they can credibly perform restraint, triggering these signaling mechanisms, they may “hold back” from acquisitive or assertive policies in order to “rise above” others in terms of prestige. Notably, “holding back to rise above” appeals to states as an expressive strategy exactly because it is materially costly and socially non-obligatory. This thesis draws upon insights into the performative nature of restraint from cognate disciplines and everyday life, integrating them into an overarching account with reference to Erving Goffman’s dramaturgical model of social action. It illustrates how “holding back to rise above” applies in four diverse historical cases: (1) the United States’ Good Neighbor Policy of non-intervention in Latin America (1933-40); (2) Germany’s post-reunification foreign policy, culminating with its non-participation in the US “Coalition of the Willing” for the Iraq War (1991-2005); (3) India’s decades of spurning of nuclear weapons and championing non-proliferation (1964-98); and (4) China’s restraint of its carbon emissions in the context of global climate change mitigation (1992-2017). In short, the thesis contributes to a wide range of debates in IR over the sources of international prestige and the reasons for states’ costly compliance with social standards.
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This chapter examines the pattern of relationship among identity, religious beliefs, and well-being for the four different religious groups. It was observed that social aspects of identity were more salient for all four groups. Identity aspects were also related to religious beliefs and practices, though the strength of the relationship varied for the different identity components. In particular, self-reliance and consistency were salient components of identity across all four religious groups. Inclusion of others in self was a predominant dimension of identity, indicating the value attached to relational self. It was also noted that religiousness was a predictor of well-being. The results also showed that uniqueness, as a component of identity, was a factor for the Muslim, Christian, and Sikh participants. This indicated that belonging to a minority religious group increases the desire to be different from the majority group.
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In its general form, consumer behaviour is an enthralling phenomenon. It is even more fascinating when measured in the viewpoint of heterogeneity among consumer groups. One of the supporting ideologies in marketing is the theory of market segmentation, which emphasizes the fact that we are considerably constrained in our knowledge of consumer behaviour without recourse to the typically obvious factors that differentiates one consumer group from another. Using demography suggests that it is intelligible to distinguish the old consumer from the 21st century consumer. The 21st century consumer is considered a young consumer; however, there has been very little thinking about the concept of the consumer since the dawn of professional marketing.
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Der vorliegende Beitrag nimmt eine Innen- und Außenperspektive auf Familie ein, um das Unverwüstliche, aber auch das Veränderliche von Familie als besondere Beziehungs- und Lebensform im zeithistorischen Verlauf herauszuarbeiten und die dialektische Beziehung zwischen Familie und Gesellschaft aus historischer Perspektive auszuweisen. Es wird deutlich werden, dass das, was Familie auszeichnet, eben nicht nur interaktionistisch oder praxistheoretisch im Sinne eines ‚doing family‘ zu entwerfen ist, sondern eben auch strukturtheoretisch: Familie ist ein diffuses Beziehungsgefüge, für das die Merkmale der Kernfamilie in ihrer Kontinuität kennzeichnend sind. Auch wenn sich Familie im Zuge von Individualisierungs- und gesellschaftlichen Transformationsprozessen verändert, unterscheiden sich familiale Beziehungen eigentlich nur in der Art und Weise der Anverwandlung und Bewältigung von individuellen Geschicken und gesellschaftlichen Veränderungen.
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Der Körper wurde in der Phänomenologie erstmals im Spätwerk von Husserl behandelt (1973, 1983), insbesondere im zweiten Band seiner „Ideen“ und in „Erfahrung und Urteil“. Die Thematik wurde dann von Vertretern des Existenzialismus wie (Sartre,.Being and Nothingness, Routledge, 1969) und (Beauvoir,.The Second Sex, Picador, 1988), aber vor allem (Merleau-Ponty, Maurice (1962). The Phenomenology of Perception. London: Routledge (dt. Phänomenologie der Wahrnehmung, Berlin/New York: de Gruyter 1966).) aufgegriffen, die sich alle auf Husserl und Heidegger bezogen.
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Chimpanzees and humans are close evolutionary relatives who behave in many of the same ways based on a similar type of agentive organization. To what degree do they experience the world in similar ways as well? Using contemporary research in evolutionarily biology and animal cognition, I explicitly compare the kinds of experience the two species of capable of having. I conclude that chimpanzees’ experience of the world, their experiential niche as I call it, is: (i) intentional in basically the same way as humans’; (ii) rational in the sense that it is self-critical and operates with logically structured causal and intentional inferences; but (iii) not normative at all in that it does not operate with “objective” evaluative standards. Scientific data do not answer philosophical questions, but they provide rich raw material for scientists and philosophers alike to reflect on and clarify fundamental psychological concepts.
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Epistemic reflexivity means that the methods used to describe, classify and measure phenomena contribute to the construction of those phenomena themselves. The chapter, focused primarily on qualitative methods, examines some key aspects of methodological reflexivity: ethnographic fieldwork, interviewing, coding and transcribing among them. The chapter then describes the reflexivity of classifications and categories, and discusses researchers’ positionality in relation to reflexivity. The significance of textual representations is also discussed.
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