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The Effect of Movement network on Upgrading of Informal Settlements During Spatial Configuration: Case of Erbil City- Kurdistan region –Iraq

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This paper examines the effect of spatial characteristics of streets and alleyways pattern on the upgrading process in informal settlements of Erbil city.The pattern of movement in settlements related intensely to the configuration of the street grid, Much research has found that the spatial configuration of streets shows an effective role in shaping differences in the concentration of movement. The pattern of movement in streets has the potential for affecting the type of social community created as well as development of commercial activity. This paper adopted a procedure of configurational measurement by building of space syntax computer model to measure the local and global integration, connectivity, illegibility and synergy which represent the principal measures in syntactic theory. This analysis is to evaluate the levels of importance (centrality) of movement routes in (Badaw) informal settlement in Erbil. The study concluded that the syntactic properties of informal settlement layout affect the levels of importance of movement routes, and determined the rate of centrality in Badawi informal area according to their streets and alleyways. The research contribution is to measure the rate of movement network`s influence on the priorities' scale of informal settlements upgrading in Erbil city.
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Advances in Environmental Biology, 9(4) March 2015, Pages: 14-17
AENSI Journals
Advances in Environmental Biology
ISSN-1995-0756 EISSN-1998-1066
Journal home page: http://www.aensiweb.com/AEB/
Corresponding Author: Kayfi Akram Mawlan,
School of Housing, Building and Planning, University Sains Malaysia.
Penang, Malaysia
E-mail: kayfi958@yahoo.com
The Effect of Movement network on Upgrading of Informal Settlements During
Spatial Configuration: Case of Erbil City- Kurdistan region Iraq
Kayfi Akram Mawlan, Norazmawati Md Sani, Kausar Hj Ali, Abdul Gaphar Othman
School of Housing, Building and Planning, University Sains Malaysia. Penang, Malaysia
A R T I C L E I N F O
A B S T RACT
Article history:
Received 12 October 2014
Received in revised form 26 December
2014
Accepted 1 January 2015
Available online 17 February 2015
Keywords:
spatial configuration, space syntax,
movement network, informal
settlement, Erbil city.
This paper examines the effect of spatial characteristics of streets and alleyways pattern
on the upgrading process in informal settlements of Erbil city.The pattern of movement
in settlements related intensely to the configuration of the street grid, Much research
has found that the spatial configuration of streets shows an effective role in shaping
differences in the concentration of movement. The pattern of movement in streets has
the potential for affecting the type of social community created as well as development
of commercial activity. This paper adopted a procedure of configurational measurement
by building of space syntax computer model to measure the local and global
integration, connectivity, illegibility and synergy which represent the principal
measures in syntactic theory. This analysis is to evaluate the levels of importance
(centrality) of movement routes in (Badaw) informal settlement in Erbil. The study
concluded that the syntactic properties of informal settlement layout affect the levels of
importance of movement routes, and determined the rate of centrality in Badawi
informal area according to their streets and alleyways. The research contribution is to
measure the rate of movement network`s influence on the priorities' scale of informal
settlements upgrading in Erbil city.
© 2015 AENSI Publisher All rights reserved.
To Cite This Article: Kayfi Akram Mawlan, Norazmawati Md Sani, Kausar Hj Ali, Abdul Gaphar Othman, The Effect of Movement
network on Upgrading of Informal Settlements During Spatial Configuration: Case of Erbil City- Kurdistan region Iraq. Adv. Environ.
Biol., 9(4), 14-17, 2015
INTRODUCTION
Informal settlements or settlements of the urban poor that result from unauthorised occupation of land,
usually without any responsibility to land use and building regulations physically and legally [1].Upgrading - or
informal settlement improvement refers to supply a package of essential services.And this improves the well-
being of the community, authorising and ‘regularizing’ the properties in conditions of insecure or unclear tenure,
in addition provides a package of improvements in streets and alleyways [2].
Spatial and locational dimensions, particularly the settlement`s layout and its relationship to its urban
environments, have played a primary role in the development course of the informal settlements. Accordingly,
the different degrees to which they have became upgraded [3]. In addition, the spatial layout of these settlements
has an effect on their pattern of movement [4]. And this pattern in the settlements related to the configuration of
the street grid [5]. The importance of configuration lies in this effect on movement because of the vital influence
of movement patterns in generating co-presence between people and therefore supporting social exchange [3].
Subsequently it is possible to predict movement patterns in urban space through configurational measures, [4].
Configurational measures are that they have been revealed to relate intensely with pedestrian and vehicular
movement in many cities, without reference to any other aspects such as land use or population density. The
configuration of the street network itself has an impact on the street level distribution of movement rates. Since
the streets passed through in any journey will tend to be those that provide the simpler routes through the grid
[3]. This spatial effect which assist the process of socio-economical and physical self-improvement of informal
settlements has observable obligation in the academic and decision-making source [6].
15 Kayfi Akram Mawlan et al, 2015
Advances in Environmental Biology, 9(4) March 2015, Pages: 14-17
Methodology:
The case study is Badawa informal settlement in Erbil city- the capital of Iraqi Kurdistan region - that is
located in the north of Iraq. The spatial structure of Erbil city constructed on a continuous growth around the
citadel [7]. The informal settlements of the city include the neighbourhoods (Badawa, Kurani Enkawa) and parts
of neighbourhoods (Khabat, Saydawa and Bahar) (Fig.1).The reasons of selection Badawa settlement for
determining spatial configuration are: It is the largest informal settlement in size (area) 38.1 ha and houses 3964
informal units. There is a lack of most public facilities in the settlement, moreover the public spaces (streets and
alleyways( characterised by both semi regular and traditional arrangements (Fig.2).
Fig. 1: Location of Selected Informal Settlements in Erbil City Land Use Map. (Source: Erbil Master Plan
Report 2008)
Fig. 2: An aerial view of Badawa informal settlement with surrounding area (Source: Directorate of Erbil
Municipality).
A model of the spatial system of selected informal settlement constructed for the configurational analysis
what in space syntax approach is called an axial map.The axial map represents public space (streets and
pathways) accessible for pedestrians and vehicles [5] [8]. This study will adopt a procedure of configurational
measurement by building of space syntax computer model to measure:
(i) Local integration: To calculate more localised measures of integration by limiting the
calculation to a specific number of steps of depth such as within three steps known as local integration (radius-
3).
16 Kayfi Akram Mawlan et al, 2015
Advances in Environmental Biology, 9(4) March 2015, Pages: 14-17
(ii) Global integration: refers to calculating the integration of streets relative to all other lines in a system
known as (radius-n).A computer model represents the integration values of each line in a colored spectrum of
red to blue (red-yellow-blue-green), from high to low integration.
(iii) Connectivity measure: Refers to the number of direct connections of each street which
gives the importance scale to each street.
(iv) Intelligibility and Synergy: They are Syntactic measurements that capture the relation between the local and
global confugrational properties of the system. The first refers to the relationship between global integration and
connectivity while the second to the correlation between global and local integration.
(v) Axial integration core: Refers to the most integrating lines and their relationship in the
system. Fig. 3 shows that the high integrating lines pass through the center and also biases towards one end of
the area and towards much of the [8].
Fig. 3: Example of integration core in a settlement [8]
Results and Conclusion:
(i) The rate of integrated axial lines as shown in figure 4(c ) classified according colors
from the yellow to blue, which represent the high to low integration or the importance of the axial lines (streets
and alleyways ).
(ii) The axial integration core (yellow color axial lines) Which can be considered as the
centre of informal areas gets more importance than the other areas for upgrading.
(iii) The syntactic properties of informal settlement layout affect the levels of importance movement routes. The
configurational measures contribute in determining the rate of centrality in informal areas according their streets
and alleyways.
(iv) The study contribution for Erbil municipality authorities is to understand the influence of movement
networks on the upgrading priorities of informal settlements in Erbil city.
(a) (b) (c)
Fig. 4: (a) Streets map of Badawa informal settlement. (b) Numbered axial map. (c) Axial analysis map
REFERENCES
[1] Huchzermeyer, M., 2009. The struggle for in situ upgrading of informal settlements: a reflection on cases
in Gauteng, Development Southern Africa, 26(1): 59-73.
17 Kayfi Akram Mawlan et al, 2015
Advances in Environmental Biology, 9(4) March 2015, Pages: 14-17
[2] El Menshawy, A., S.S. Aly and A.M. Salman, 2011. Sustainable up grading of informal settlements in the
developing world, case study: Ezzbet Abd El Meniem Riyadh, Alexandria, Egypt, 2011 International
Conference on Green Buildings and Sustainable Cities, Procedia Engineering, 21: 168-177.
[3] Hillier, B., M. Greene, J. Desyllas, 2000. Self-Generated Neighbourhoods: the role of Urban form in the
consolidation of informal settlements, Urban Design International, 5(2): 61-96.
[4] Greene, M., 2002. From Informal Settlements to Sustainable Neighbourhoods: The role of spatial
configuration in the urban system, PhD Thesis, The Bartlett School of Graduate Studies, University
College London.
[5] Hillier, B., 1996. Space is the machine, a configurational theory, Book, University of Cambridge, London,
UK.
[6] Shafiei, K., 2007. Internal Commercial Streets and The Consolidation of large Informal Neighbourhoods:
the case of Zahedan, Iran, proceeding, 6th In,ternational Space Syntax Symposium, Istanbul.
[7] Dar Alhandasa, 2008. Erbil City Master Plan Report (No. IQ0587-RPT-PM-04 Rev 1), Erbil, Iraq.
[8] Hillier, B., J. Hanson, 1984. The Social Logic of Space, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1984.
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