Conference PaperPDF Available

Collaborative Learning Through Drawing on iPads

Authors:

Abstract and Figures

Teamwork and collaboration skills are very important for improving learning efficiency and experience. Therefore an innovative iPad app, called Teamsketch, was developed to provide a collaborative sketch environment for devices with which pupils can simultaneously draw one sketch together. Up to four pupils can take part in a session and train collaboration just by drawing a sketch. First of all different features and issues of state-of-the- art applications were evaluated. Afterwards a prototype from scratch using Apple’s new programming language Swift has been implemented. Additionally, a web service, a web interface and also a web site were programmed in order to provide an evaluation tool for teachers. Furthermore, pupils can upload and download their drawn sketches and profile pictures. A first field test was carried out at the primary school Graz-Hirten. This test showed the potential of the app for training and evaluating team and collaboration skills.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Originally published in: Spitzer, M. & Ebner, M. (2015). Collaborative Learning Through Drawing on iPads. In Proceedings of World
Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunications 2015. pp. 633-642 Chesapeake, VA: AACE.
Collaborative Learning Through Drawing on iPads
Michael Spitzer
Institute for Information Systems and Computer Media
Graz University of Technology
Austria
michael.spitzer@student.tugraz.at
Martin Ebner
Social Learning - Computer and Information Services
Graz University of Technology
Austria
martin.ebner@tugraz.at
Abstract: Teamwork and collaboration skills are very important for improving learning
efficiency and experience. Therefore an innovative iPad app, called Teamsketch, was
developed to provide a collaborative sketch environment for devices with which pupils can
simultaneously draw one sketch together. Up to four pupils can take part in a session and train
collaboration just by drawing a sketch. First of all different features and issues of state-of-the-
art applications were evaluated. Afterwards a prototype from scratch using Apple’s new
programming language Swift has been implemented. Additionally, a web service, a web
interface and also a web site were programmed in order to provide an evaluation tool for
teachers. Furthermore, pupils can upload and download their drawn sketches and profile
pictures. A first field test was carried out at the primary school Graz-Hirten. This test showed
the potential of the app for training and evaluating team and collaboration skills.
Introduction
Collaborative learning describes situations in which a group of people tries to learn something together
(Dillenbourg, 1999). This concept can be transferred to Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) in
general.
Several studies prove the eligibility of computers to support collaborative learning (Haythornthwaite, 1999)
(Zurita & Nussbaum, 2004). As the devices got more and more computational power and their size decreased,
also mobile devices were investigated in their efficiency in collaborative learning (Mobile Device Collaborative
Learning (MDCL)) (Ebner & Kienleitner, 2014). Mobile devices support face-to-face communication of
collaboration groups because the devices are smaller than PCs and, hence, the pupils can sit close to each other
(Zurita & Nussbaum, 2004).
On the other hand, the smaller display could be a drawback because of the lack of space. Therefore, a clean and
well-considered user interface is necessary (Danesh, A., Inkpen, K., Lau, F., Shu, K. and Booth K., 2001).
Furthermore special usability issues have to be taken into account (e.g. button size, screen rotation, …) (Huber
& Ebner, 2013).
Nowadays, pupils know how to handle mobile devices very well. In the United States 52% of children aged
between 0-8 years have already used a mobile media platform such as smart phones and tablets but only 28% of
them have ever used educational game apps (Rideout, 2013). Even among older children (pupils at lower
secondary school in Austria, age: 10-14) only 6% of the pupils use their device frequently for learning (Grimus
and Ebner, 2014, p. 1603).
This issue should be targeted with well-designed and well-considered apps, which increase the educational
value. In this research study, we would like to introduce an innovative iPad app, called Teamsketch, which tries
to fulfill these requirements. Teamsketch is intended to serve as a collaborative drawing app for iPads, which
can be used by groups consisting of 2-4 group members.
Johnson, Johnson & Holubec (D. W. Johnson, R. T. Johnson & Holubec, 2002) define three different types of
collaboration groups: (1) pupils work together for a short period of time (a few minutes to one hour), (2) pupils
work together for a medium period of time to reach a collaborative goal, (3) pupils work together for a long
period of time.
Teamsketch targets groups, which work together for a medium period of time to reach a collaborative goal: One
collectively finished sketch. Before beginning the development of such an app several aspects have to be
considered to assist teachers using Teamsketch as a collaborative learning tool. At first, the group roles should
be assigned. In Teamsketch one pupil acts as a leader and starts the sketch and also sets the game parameters,
such as sketch time, line guides and sketch name. Others join the created sketch/session. Then the task and
Originally published in: Spitzer, M. & Ebner, M. (2015). Collaborative Learning Through Drawing on iPads. In Proceedings of World
Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunications 2015. pp. 633-642 Chesapeake, VA: AACE.
positive dependency should be explained to the pupils. A task could be a sketch theme, such as “wood”, “flower
meadow” or “farm”. The pupils should be aware that everyone could delete strokes of others. Therefore they
have to draw carefully and should arrange a collaborative drawing strategy. An important task for the teacher is
to observe and intervene if a group has problems or needs assistance. After the pupils finished the sketch, the
teacher should evaluate the team performance as well as managing the pupils’ reflection discussion as suggested
by D. W. Johnson & R. T. Johnson (2008).
Research Design
In our research study we strongly follow the approach of prototyping. According to (Alavi, 1984) as well as
(Larsen, 1986) prototyping is based on four steps: identifying basic requirements, development of a working
prototype, implementation and usage (field study), and revision.
The requirements have been defined as follows: The overall aim of this project was to develop a high responsive
sketch collaboration app for iPads. Synchronizing of the devices should be performed in real time without the
need of an Internet connection. Additionally, a web service and a web interface were required for uploading and
downloading sketches. Furthermore, teachers should be able to access sketches of their pupils.
Our research question is, whether it is possible to develop an app, which allows drawing together in real time.
Furthermore, we would like to investigate what the interface needs to look like in order to assist pupils in an
appropriate way. Finally, we will examine the prototype work in an educational environment.
State of the Art
After analyzing of three already available collaborative Sketch Apps (Baiboard1 (collaboration requires an
internet connection), Whiteboard Lite2 (collaboration over Wi-Fi) and Flockdraw3 (Browser based
collaboration)) the following conclusions were made:
Real-time sketch collaboration is already implemented in some applications but screen synchronization suffers
from draw update latency and/or synchronization errors. Fixing this issue became one main target in this
research project. The second one was implementing the application without requiring an internet connection.
Since the target audiences of Teamsketch are school classes, requiring an internet connection would lead to high
latency because all pupils would use the same internet connection at once. To address this issue, Bluetooth
should be available in case of Wi-Fi is not working or the performance is not satisfying. In Teamsketch only
basic drawing tools will be provided, no layers, text or customized shapes. Instead of drawing, the main focus
should be on collaboration and not on multiple app features. The undo function will not be implemented
because the app should encourage efficient and well-considered drawing. This assumption will be investigated
during the prototype test in a primary school class. No chat function will be added because pupils will be seated
at one desk while drawing and should communicate face-to-face. Furthermore, no predefined shapes (circles,
polygons and letters) will be implemented because students should practice free hand drawing to improve their
creativity and fine motor skills. Finally, drawn strokes should be optimized to look more realistic (less cornered)
when users often change the draw direction (no sharp directional changes). Therefore a line smoothing and
curve-fitting algorithm should be used.
Prototype
The prototype development was divided into three main parts:
Web service
Web interface
iPad app
Figure 1 shows the overall Teamsketch environment. App users as well as web interface users can login to
Teamsketch web service to access their profile picture and sketches. The Teamsketch web service forwards the
user authentication to the already existing User Management Web Service.
______________________________________
1 http://www.baiboard.com, last accessed: 15. Oct. 2014
2 http://www.greengar.com, last accessed: 19. Oct. 2014
3 http://flockdraw.com, last accessed: 17. Oct. 2014
Originally published in: Spitzer, M. & Ebner, M. (2015). Collaborative Learning Through Drawing on iPads. In Proceedings of World
Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunications 2015. pp. 633-642 Chesapeake, VA: AACE.
Web Service
The web service was implemented as a Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) service in Web Services
Description Language (WSDL). The Teamsketch web service forwards login requests to the User Management
SOAP service, which is used to identify pupils. All pupils in the test classes use this User Management service
for authentication therefore they only need to login using one single username and password to various learning
apps4 of the University of Technology, Graz (TU Graz). After authentication, the Teamsketch SOAP service
provides image upload and download functionality. Also a web interface was built to provide sketch evaluation
for teachers.
Web interface
The web interface (Figure 2) shows the pupil sketch view. The current implementation supports one profile
picture and three sketches in two different resolutions. Teachers can access sketches of students of their classes.
Students can only see and download their own sketches. When users log in to the web interface, the system
provides a download page to access the sketches, drawn with Teamsketch App. Teachers are provided with a
class list after they logged into the system. First, they select a certain class, then the student list will be shown.
After selecting one pupil, the student screen (Figure 2) displays the pupil’s sketches.
______________________________________
4 http://learninglab.tugraz.at/app/, last accessed: 26. Nov. 2014
Figure 2 Teamsketch web interface
Figure 1 Teamsketch environment
Originally published in: Spitzer, M. & Ebner, M. (2015). Collaborative Learning Through Drawing on iPads. In Proceedings of World
Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunications 2015. pp. 633-642 Chesapeake, VA: AACE.
App for iPads
The app was implemented in Apple’s new development language Swift and uses the Multipeer Connectivity
Framework to synchronize the sketches. One pupil starts a new sketch, configures some sketch parameters such
as line guides, time limit and sketch name. The next task is to invite other pupils to the session. After up to four
pupils are connected to one session, the host can start the sketch. Teamsketch supports Wi-Fi connections as
well as Bluetooth connections, which is a significant advantage in school environments. Schools are usually not
equipped with state-of-the-art wireless infrastructure. When all pupils of one class use collaboration apps over
Internet simultaneously, performance issues could occur. With two available connectivity options, this issue
could be addressed efficiently.
Figure 3 shows all screen transitions and inter-device communication workflows. The app starts with the main
screen (Figure 4). Users can access the user management screen (UserManagementViewController (Figure 6),
start a new sketch (StartNewSketchViewController) or join an already created sketch
(ServiceAdvertiserViewController).
Figure 3 Teamsketch screen transitions and inter-device communication
Originally published in: Spitzer, M. & Ebner, M. (2015). Collaborative Learning Through Drawing on iPads. In Proceedings of World
Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunications 2015. pp. 633-642 Chesapeake, VA: AACE.
When a user decides to start a new sketch, some basic sketch parameters, such as line guides, sketch name and
time limit can be set (StartNewSketchViewController). Then the LookingForPlayersViewController will be
shown. All nearby devices in “join sketch” mode (ServiceAdvertiserViewController) will be listed and players
can be invited to the session. As soon as more than two players engage in session, the sketch host can start the
sketch. The SketchViewController will be shown on all connected devices. AbortSketchViewController and
StoreSketchViewController implement pop-up controllers to save, restart or quit the sketch.
Figure 5 shows the details of the Teamsketch drawing screen.
Figure 5 Teamsketch on iPad
Figure 4 Teamsketch main screen
Figure 6 Teamsketch user management screen
Originally published in: Spitzer, M. & Ebner, M. (2015). Collaborative Learning Through Drawing on iPads. In Proceedings of World
Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunications 2015. pp. 633-642 Chesapeake, VA: AACE.
Field study
There are already some collaboration sketch apps on the market, but most of them suffer from synchronization
errors, high latency or require an Internet connection. After the features and issues of state-of-the-art
collaborative drawing apps were analyzed, the app prototype was implemented in Apple’s new programming
language Swift5. After the implementation of the prototype and also the web service had been finished, a field
study in a primary school was carried out. The test school class (3rd grade, age: 9 years) was a so-called iPad
classwith 16 pupils. They have been using the iPad since first grade hence they are very experienced using
mobile devices in school. Each experimental group consisted of four pupils. They all sat together at one table.
Figure 7 shows a typical group setting for a group of two. The other group of two was sitting opposite to them
on the same table.
Before the pupils started to draw a sketch, they got a brief introduction to the pairing process. They were already
experienced with the multi-peer connecting procedure because they previously used other collaborative apps
such as Buchstabenpost6. The field study was adapted from previous app tests in the iPad class (Kienleitner,
2013). At first the group was divided into smaller groups of two. These smaller groups drew one sketch together
to familiarize themselves with the app and the collaborative drawing concept. A MacBook was added as
observer (3rd participant) to the session to record the drawing process. They got a drawing topic such as “farm”,
“city” or “flower meadow”. After finishing the sketch, the groups of two were merged to one group of four.
They received a new assignment and drew one sketch together.
After the sketches were finished, a short verbal feedback round was held strongly according to the cut-off-
technology (Schönhart & Ebner, 2014). Pupils had to rate the app with different smileys. The most happy
looking smiley corresponded to the school mark “1” and the saddest looking smiley corresponded to the school
mark “5”. Three questions had to be rated: (1) Did you like drawing together? (2) Was it easy to use the app? (3)
Would you like to draw again? The groups had to give one rating per question together as a group. The main
goal was not to get a valuable rating, the main goal was to get information what they really thought about the
concept and the app while they were discussing (Fischer, 2007).
The following observations could be made: During device pairing phase, collaborative learning could be easily
observed. Usually one pupil understood the pairing process first and taught the other pupils how to connect to
the session. After the connection was established, all pupils started to draw immediately. After few seconds they
realized that drawing without discussing the strategy was not target-aimed. A few pupils got very angry because
others deleted or changed their shapes without discussing the changes. Some of them even refused to continue
drawing. Other pupils even refused to start drawing in the group at all, they preferred drawing alone. During
team drawing, one pupil usually assumed leadership and branched the work. All groups, except for one,
branched the work finally by dividing the drawing space into different parts. Every pupil drew a part separately.
In some cases this approach worked very well. Figure 8 shows a sketch, where all members of the group drew
very harmonically (group of two). The sketch looks as if only one pupil drew it. Then the group of two was
merged to a group of four. They got a new task: “draw a farm” (Figure 9). They had a lot of difficulties to
______________________________________
5 https://developer.apple.com/swift, last access: 25. Nov. 2014
6 https://itunes.apple.com/at/app/buchstaben-post/id736836885?mt=8, last access: 25. Nov. 2014
Figure 7 Setting of the field study
Originally published in: Spitzer, M. & Ebner, M. (2015). Collaborative Learning Through Drawing on iPads. In Proceedings of World
Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunications 2015. pp. 633-642 Chesapeake, VA: AACE.
arrange the sketch space effectively; therefore, two of them drew the carrot field, and the other two drew the
farm tractor and the cat. These two sketches show the expressiveness of collaborative drawn sketches.
The behavior of one group of two girls differed significantly; they did not separate the drawing space, one girl
drew the contours, the other girl colored the shapes of the houses. Figure 10 shows the finished sketch of this
group.
Additionally, significant observations could be made as far as the pupils’ group roles were concerned. In some
groups, two or more pupils tried to lead, this lead to controversial discussions. In other groups, some pupils
followed others blindly; they even asked others how to colorize their own shapes. Another interesting
observation was made as regards the reset option. The first two groups of four were introduced to the quick reset
function, which clears the whole screen. As the first disagreement occurred, at least one pupil had the idea to
just clear the whole sketch and start over without discussing the issues. The following groups were not
Figure 10 Contour and fill collaboration
Originally published in: Spitzer, M. & Ebner, M. (2015). Collaborative Learning Through Drawing on iPads. In Proceedings of World
Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunications 2015. pp. 633-642 Chesapeake, VA: AACE.
introduced to the reset option because they should try to solve the issues and not just delete their work. After a
group finished drawing, a short interview was held. The pupils gave detailed feedback about the user interface.
Some pupils did not understand how to adjust the felt pen width (double tap on felt pen); others were irritated by
the white felt pen. They did not realize that the white felt pen acts as a rubber but after a short explanation, every
pupil used the white felt pen appropriately. Other pupils touched felt pens (color change) accidentally in the
lower area, and hence, they changed the color unintentionally. The implemented zoom feature and overview
feature was not used by the pupils even though the functionality had been explained several times. They
preferred to see the whole sketch. Others would have liked more features, such as customized shapes, clipart
import and more shiny colors. These were only the main observations, many details can be revealed by
investigating the audio recordings and screen video recordings. The next section will analyze the recognized
observations.
Discussion
During the development, the question why pupils should draw on four iPads instead of just drawing on one big
sheet of paper was asked. The most significant advantage of the app is that all four pupils can draw on every
part of the sketch simultaneously. When they draw on a sheet of paper, only one pupil can be on a certain paper
location at once and, thus, the pupil covers the drawing area while drawing. Therefore, it is very difficult for
others to get an overview of the sketch. On the iPad, every pupil can see the whole sketch at all time.
Additionally, pupils do not distract others while drawing. Nobody can press forward, everybody draws on his
own screen. Furthermore, pupils are focused on their own shapes and it is not obvious who drew which part of
the sketch. When pupils draw on a real sheet of paper they usually observe each other and get distracted.
Pupils faced some troubles concerning the user interface. These issues will be addressed with the next
Teamsketch update. Double tap functionality will be substituted with a swipe gesture. The white felt pen symbol
will be changed to a rubber symbol. The use of the zoom function should be evaluated again after the pupils got
more familiar with the app. During the field study, pupils liked drawing on the enlarged sketch whereas they did
not like not being able to see the drawings of other pupils on other parts of the sketch.
Additionally, some pupils mentioned the lack of shiny colors as well as a custom shape import feature. These
additional features should not be implemented because the focus should be on the act of collaborative drawing.
More features could lead to distraction.
Collaborative drawing is more difficult than drawing alone; each individual pupil has to concentrate on his own
work as well as the group’s teamwork (D. W. Johnson & R. T. Johnson, 1989, D. W. Johnson, R. T. Johnson &
Holubec, 2002, D. W. Johnson, 2003, D. W. Johnson & R. T. Johnson, 2005 quoted from: D. W. Johnson & R.
T. Johnson, 2008).
Therefore, Teamsketch will only provide simple drawing tools and focuses only on collaboration rather than on
multiple features. Additionally, the field test showed that drawing together a collaborative sketch needs highly
developed skills. Groups need a significant amount of time in order to be able to draw together. After the field
study, the teacher of the iPad class was interviewed. She has more than four years of experience using iPads in
class room and therefore, her impressions should also be considered. She rated the collaborative learning
capabilities of the Teamsketch app as very high and she will continue using Teamsketch to train group skills
such as leadership, teamwork and face-to-face team communication. Table 1 summarizes once again all findings
unveiled during the field study.
Table 1 Teamsketch - challenges and positive effects
Challenges
User Interface
Double tap was not intuitive, felt pen switching process had to be explained to the pupils.
White felt pen
The white felt pen will be changed to a rubber because it was not intuitive for the pupils
Zoom function
Pupils did not use the zoom function they preferred to see the whole sketch at all time.
App features
Pupils would like the app to have more features, but collaborative drawing should focus on
teamwork and not on multiple functions, as they could distract pupils from reaching the
collaborative goal.
Clear sketch
The clear sketch function should be removed because pupils used it too often. Some pupils
preferred deleting the whole sketch to discussing their issues.
Originally published in: Spitzer, M. & Ebner, M. (2015). Collaborative Learning Through Drawing on iPads. In Proceedings of World
Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunications 2015. pp. 633-642 Chesapeake, VA: AACE.
Table 1 Teamsketch - challenges and positive effects
Positive effects
Teamwork
After a few minutes nearly all pupils managed to draw together a collaborative sketch, they
discussed their drawing strategy and found solutions without the teacher’s intervention.
Evaluation
Teachers can evaluate team skills of their pupils by observing them while they are drawing.
Group roles
Pupils can train different group roles: they can be assigned to the group leader by starting a
new sketch and managing drawing strategy, or just join the sketch without performing any
leadership tasks.
Simplicity
The concept of Teamsketch is very simple. Most pupils did not need an introduction because
they were already very familiar with iPads and drawing in general. Only the pairing process
has to be explained, but shortly after the introduction, pupils, who already understood the
pairing concept, taught others how to connect to the session.
Motivation
Most of the pupils like drawing, they don’t get the feeling that they have to learn or train
specific tasks and skills. They just draw a sketch. Most of the children didn’t want to stop
drawing after the time limit was reached.
Conclusion
Mobile devices can be used to train team and collaboration skills such as leadership, communication,
discretionary and conflict resolution. It can be concluded that with the Teamsketch prototype, collaborative
drawing on iPad was realized without requiring an Internet connection. The optional web service and interface
provide a platform to review student sketches. Collaborative sketches are very expressive; it is obvious to see
which groups had difficulties while drawing. Using the app, the pupils are engaged to work together. If they
don't work as a team, they will not manage to finish a sketch. The field study confirmed the assumption that
collaborative drawing on iPads could act as a collaborative learning tool and assessment. Experienced observers
in the field of education, psychology and social behavior should be able to evaluate the social and collaboration
development very efficiently with Teamsketch. Further research studies have to be carried out on how
collaborative drawing with Teamsketch could improve the collaboration and team skills. Additionally, teachers
could define specific educational scenarios to train specific team skills. In the meanwhile a larger field study
will be carried out.
References
Alavi, M. (1984). An assessment of the prototyping approach to information systems development.” In:
Commun. ACM 27, 6 (June 1984), pp. 556-563.
Danesh, A., Inkpen, K., Lau, F., Shu, K. and Booth, K. (2001). “GeneyTM: Designing a Collaborative Activity
for the palmTM Handheld Computer.” In: Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in
Computing Systems. CHI ’01. Seattle, Washington, USA: ACM, pp. 388395. ISBN: 1-58113-327-8.
Dillenbourg, P. (1999). Collaborative learning: cognitive and computational approaches.2nd Revised Edition.
Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
Ebner, M. and Kienleitner, B. (2014). “A Contribution to Collaborative Learning Using iPads for School
Children.” In: European Immersive Education Summit, 2014, Vienna, pp. 87-97
Ebner, M., Schönhart, J. and Schön, S. (2015) “Experiences with iPads in Primary School”. In: RESPUESTA
EVALUACIÓN. Revista PROFESORADO, accepted, in print
Fischer, J. (2007). Detektivische Methode - Legetechnik.”
URL: http://wissensreise.de/Intranet/Aufgabenkultur/forschen/Seiten/dMundLegetechnik.html, last accessed:
May 2014
Grimus, M. and Ebner, M. (2014). “Learning with Mobile Devices Perceptions of Students and Teachers at
Lower Secondary Schools in Austria.” In: Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia,
Hypermedia and Telecommunications 2014, pp. 16001609.
Originally published in: Spitzer, M. & Ebner, M. (2015). Collaborative Learning Through Drawing on iPads. In Proceedings of World
Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunications 2015. pp. 633-642 Chesapeake, VA: AACE.
Haythornthwaite, C. (1999). "Collaborative work networks among distributed learners." Systems Sciences,
1999. HICSS-32. Proceedings of the 32nd Annual Hawaii International Conference, vol.Track1, no., pp.16 pp.,,
5-8 Jan 1999, doi: 10.1109/HICSS.1999.772707
Huber, S. and Ebner, M. (2013). iPad Human Interface Guidelines for M-Learning.In: Z.L. Berge and L.Y.
Muilenburg (Eds.), Handbook of mobile learning, pp. 318-328. New York: Routledge.
Johnson, David W. (2003). “Social Interdependence: Interrelationships Among Theory, Research, and Practice.”
In: American Psychologist 40.11, pp. 934945. ISSN: 0003-066X
Johnson, David W. and Johnson, Roger T. (1989). Cooperation and Competition: Theory and Research.
Interaction Book Co.
Johnson, David W. and Johnson, Roger T. (2005). “New Developments in Social Interdependence Theory.” In:
Genetic, Social, and General Psychology Monographs, pp. 285358. ISSN: 8756-7547
Johnson, David W. and Johnson, Roger T. (2008). “Wie kooperatives Lernen funktioniert.” In: Friedrich
Jahresheft 26, pp. 1620. ISSN: 0176-2966.
Johnson, David W., Johnson, Roger T. and Holubec, Edythe J. (2002). Circles of Learning: Cooperation in the
Classroom.5th Printing. Interaction Book Company
Kienleitner, B. (2013). “A Contribution to Collaborative Learning Using iPads for School Children.” Master
thesis at Graz University of Technology
Larson, O. (1986). Information Systems prototyping.In: Proceedings Interest HP 3000 Conference, Madrid
pp. 351-364. URL: www.openmpe.com/cslproceed/HPIX86/P351.pdf, last accessed: October 2014
Rideout, V. (2013). Zero to Eight.Tech. rep. Common Sense Media Inc.
URL: https://www.commonsensemedia.org/file/zero-to-eight-2013pdf-0/download, last accessed: Nov. 2014
Zurita, G. and Nussbaum, M. (2004). “Computer supported collaborative learning using wirelessly
interconnected handheld computers.” In: Computers and Education 42.3, pp. 289314. ISSN: 0360-1315
... This study focuses on the early design stages of analysis and prototyping, that amongst others, involve collective externalizations, mind maps and sitemaps, as part of the conceptual planning and the information (application) architecture. Subsequent stages, such as prototyping, are investigated in a few studies only, which primarily look at collaborative sketching through the use of multiple devices [29,30]. However, substantial research on the role of m-learning in design education, especially in the creation of social design artefacts, compared to the spread and importance of this field, is scarce. ...
... This method was used to gain some extra information about the feelings of the children during their discussion on how to rate the current statement. This approach has already been used in previous studies (Spitzer & Ebner, 2015). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
With the introduction of Google Cardboard, a combination of mobile devices, Virtual Reality (VR) and making was created. This "marriage" opened a wide range of possible, cheap Virtual Reality applications, which can be created and used by everyone. In this chapter, the potential of combining making, gaming and education is demonstrated by evaluating an implemented math-game prototype in a school by pupils aged 12-13. The aim of the virtual reality game is to solve math exercises with increasing difficulty. The pupils were motivated and excited by immerging into the virtual world of the game to solve exercises and advance in the game. The results of the evaluation were very positive and showed the high motivational potential of combining making and game-based learning and its usage in schools as educational instrument.
... To this day, however, their goal is mainly to collaboratively produce an image or diagram, which is not processed or directly applied in the current context but stored for later reference. Most CSCW-oriented approaches such as [16,17] focus on supporting cooperative design in teams and generally serve the purpose of creating an aggregate image or diagram, while CSCLbased projects involving collaborative drawing in an educational context typically follow a more process-oriented approach [2,13]. ...
Conference Paper
The active examination of a specific subject is essential for an effective learning experience and memory retention. Mobile, technology-driven exploration settings particularly suggest themselves for tapping into the potential of visual reinforcement and the generation effect in order to help establish relevant knowledge. In this paper, we introduce such an approach based on the in-situ contour drawing of items of interest. Developed both for single-user and collaborative scenarios, it enables users to receive immediate feedback on their input which can be evaluated locally and independent of connectivity status. The contour drawing activity constitutes a novel element of the CollaTrEx framework for collaborative context-aware mobile training and exploration. Its design and performance are discussed based on a prototypical implementation for tablet devices and an exemplary application.
... The Smart Glasses were connected to a laptop to show the content of the Smart Glasses screen on the computer to investigate how the participants navigate through the video sections. This approach (observe the screen of the users while performing a task) was already used in previous studies, which turned out to be very helpful to evaluate a test scenario (Spitzer & Ebner, 2015). The first task was to fill out a survey with basic information as age, experience with LEGO ® Technic, fine-motor skills and defective sights. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Smart Glasses and 3D printers are now easily available on the market. The challenge is how to integrate them efficiently in a learning environment. This paper suggests a project-based learning (PBL) scenario how to construct, produce and assemble a planetary gear using Open Source tools, LEGO® Technic, 3D printers and Smart Glasses. The whole project-based learning scenario was implemented together with a 16-year-old student. Additionally, the assembly process using Smart Glasses was tested by seven users in a qualitative evaluation. The feedback of the student of the target group together with the feedback of other subjects was considered to improve the PBL scenario and the Smart Glasses (ReconJet) application. The evaluation showed the potential of Smart Glasses to improve hands-free assembly processes and supports the user to understand the structure and functionality of mechanical objects.
... From a practical point of view, web simulations in education (see Mills, 2002, for examples in teaching statistics) have turned out to be both economic and generally well understood by students. While online courses (Stiegler-Balfour, 2015) and learning questionnaires (e.g., Bebermeier, Nussbeck, & Ontrup, 2015) are already Learning Curves 21 common in statistic and psychology teaching, future applications of a learning curve tool might involve mobile apps (Diliberto-Macaluso & Hughes, 2016), student response systems in the classroom (Watling, Clarke, & Rowell, 2014), or collaborative online-tasks, e.g., on tablets (Spitzer & Ebner, 2015). An interactive collaborative app could visualize how the single, possibly jagged curves drawn or sampled by different people blend together in a smooth averaged learning curve. ...
Article
Teaching and theorizing in psychology has long been torn between targeting general underlying principles by observing dynamics in the individual or focusing on average behavior. As dealing with group averages is common practice in psychology, it is important for students to understand how individual learning curves relate to group average curves. In two experiments, we explore whether posing questions about the individual time course of learning can help psychology students to generate valid representations of the average time course of learning. Attempting to foster learning as a generative process, we provided students in Experiment 1 (N = 83) with vignettes asking them to draw hypothetical learning curves of individuals vs. averages over individuals (order of vignettes varied as experimental manipulation) into an empty coordinate system (time on the x-axis, performance on the y-axis; fixed start and endpoints). However, students who worked on the individual-time-course vignette first did not draw better average curves than those undertaking the reverse order of tasks. Experiment 2 (N = 36) found tentative evidence that providing students with a metaphor (falling leaves) can guide attention towards the variability of individual time courses.
... This method was used to gain some extra information about the feelings of the children during their discussion on how to rate the current statement. This approach has already been used in previous studies (Spitzer & Ebner, 2015). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
With the introduction of Google Cardboard, a combination of mobile devices, Virtual Reality (VR) and making was created. This “marriage” opened a wide range of possible, cheap Virtual Reality applications, which can be created and used by everyone. In this chapter, the potential of combining making, gaming and education is demonstrated by evaluating an implemented math-game prototype in a school by pupils aged 12-13. The aim of the virtual reality game is to solve math exercises with increasing difficulty. The pupils were motivated and excited by immerging into the virtual world of the game to solve exercises and advance in the game. The results of the evaluation were very positive and showed the high motivational potential of combining making and game-based learning and its usage in schools as educational instrument.
Article
Children start scribbling by two years of age and then they gradually learn to draw and paint on drawing sheets using crayons and watercolor. Nowadays, children also start interacting with smartphones at about two years of age and many of them like using drawing apps. We studied how children use drawing apps and how drawings made by them on drawing sheets and using apps differ. We observed 150 children aged between two and twelve years draw using the two mediums. We found that the two- and three-year-old children preferred apps to have a simpler interface, scribbling with glowing colors and listening to background music synchronized with their finger movement. The four- to six-year-old children could draw simple shapes with multiple colors and use the “eraser” feature of the apps. The seven- and eight-year-old children could draw sceneries with “brushes” of different thickness, use the “flood fill” and “undo” features, and open saved drawings. The nine- and ten-year-old children could also use the “redo” and “zoom” features, but complained about the small size of the “canvas”. The eleven- and twelve-year-old children could use “erasers” of different widths. We recommend developing different drawing apps according to the artistic and technical skills of children of different age groups, and believe that such apps can help in nurturing creativity in children.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Wearable devices, such as smart glasses, are nowadays easily available on the market; therefore, these devices could be used to evaluate more and more use cases in educational domain. After a short introduction to smart glasses functionality, features and user interaction techniques, several use cases are defined and described. To integrate smart glasses into the educational domain, specialized information systems and infrastructure is necessary. A basic concept of a suitable information system is defined and explained by a sample use case. The main advantage of using smart glasses in educational domain is that users can interact with the device hands-free therefore (fine motor skills) tasks can be performed while receiving visual and vocal support simultaneously. Additionally the teacher/observer can evaluate the performance remotely. Wearable devices become better available and cheaper, but should only be used in suitable use cases where the learning experience could be improved.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Collaboration has a very positive effect on students’ learning experiences as well as their social interactions. Our research study aims towards enhancing the learning experience, stimulating communication and cooperative behavior to improve learning. Making use of recent technological advancements (tablets) and gaming as a motivational factor, a prototype application in form of a multiplayer learning game for iPads was designed and developed. In a face-to-face setting, connecting up to four devices, the players (learners) have to solve word puzzles in a collaborative way. Furthermore, a web-interface for teachers provides the possibility to create custom content as well as to receive feedback of the children’s performance. A first field study at two primary schools in Graz showed promising results for the learning behavior of school children
Article
Full-text available
Tablet computers gain enormous attention nowadays and become more and more part of our daily life. Due to this it is not astonishing that even the educational sector is thinking about the use of such wearable devices in the classroom. Our research study aims to give insights about real life experiences with iPads in Austrian primary schools. Therefore we describe the development of appropriate learning apps and their use in classrooms. Finally each technology-enhanced lesson is observed as well as evaluated afterwards with the help of the cut-off technique. The research work carries out different circumstances the use of tablet computers has a positive influence on teaching and learning and gives practical hints how they should be used in classrooms.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Collaboration has a very positive effect on students’ learning experiences as well as their social interactions. Our research study aims towards enhancing the learning experience, stimulating communication and cooperative behavior to improve learning. Making use of recent technological advancements (tablets) and gaming as a motivational factor, a prototype application in form of a multiplayer learning game for iPads was designed and developed. In a face-to-face setting, connecting up to four devices, the players (learners) have to solve word puzzles in a collaborative way. Furthermore, a web-interface for teachers provides the possibility to create custom content as well as to receive feedback of the children’s performance. A first field study at two primary schools in Graz showed promising results for the learning behavior of school children.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Abstract: This publication aims to report on the findings of a study of readiness for integrating mobile phones in secondary schools (grade 5 – 8) in Austria. Surveys are used to examine the ownership and usage of mobile phones of kids of the age from 10 to 14 years, teachers and additionally teacher candidates. Findings indicate that gathered data show the reality outside school and the lack of readiness of teachers and teacher candidates. Educators and school authority need to take a serious approach to accepting 21st century technology. It can be summarized that the educational system has to be adapted to today’s and tomorrow’s technologies. Issues based on the research and compared with data from the recent JIM Study are discussed: Youth and mobile technologies, school - demands and challenges-, teacher education and Bring Your Own Device (BOYD).
Article
We have written this book with an eye and ear toward a variety of audiences, ranging from practitioners and professionals to researchers like ourselves. The vantage point from which we have approached the material is that of the experimental social psychologist who wants to formulate theory and research in ways that have practical applications. Students and professionals in other areas, however, will find the content of this book interesting and germane. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Collaborative learning is widely used in elementary classrooms. However, when working without technological support, some problems can be detected. We describe how weaknesses in coordination, communication, organization of materials, negotiation, interactivity and lack of mobility can be solved with a mobile computer supported collaborative learning environment with Handhelds interconnected by a wireless network. The collaborative activities, analyzed with and without technological support, are math and language activities for 6- and 7-year old children. The results of our work identify an effective way of using handheld computers to support collaborative learning activities that address the above mentioned weaknesses.
Conference Paper
This paper describes a project to explore issues surrouding the development of a collaborative handheld educational application for children. A user-centered, iterative design process was used to develop GeneyTM, a collaborative problem solving application to help children explore genetic concepts using PalmTM handheld computers. The design methodology utilized mock-ups of representative tasks and scenarios, pre-design meetings with targets users, prototype development, and feedback sessions with target users. The results of this work identify an effective way of utilizing handheld computers for collaborative learning and provide important insights into the design of handheld applications for children. This work also illustrates the necessity of user-centered design when new user groups are targeted, especially when novel user interface paradigms are employed that go beyond current windows-based interfaces.
Article
A two-phased research project comparing the prototyping approach with the more traditional life cycle approach finds that prototyping facilitates communication between users and designers during the design process. However, the findings also indicate that designers who used prototyping experienced difficulties in managing and controlling the design process.