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Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference for Design Education Researchers (volume 2)

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LearnxDesign2015=Design in Kindergarten Through Higher Education Welcome to the volume 2 conference proceedings themed ‘LearnXDesign2015’ a comprehensive engagement of topics across design pedagogy and research. The papers delivered at the 3rd International Conference for Design Education Researchers, co-organized by DRS, CUMULUS, and DESIGN-ED, are the focus of these volumes. The conference was graciously hosted by the School of the Art Institute in Chicago. Highlighted at the heart of the conference were varied presentations and workshops. To prepare for the conference, we asked design researchers to submit their work for consideration. Scholars proposed 289 paper abstract, 31 workshop and 2 symposia submissions. The International Scientific Review Committee invited 243 paper abstract submissions to proceed into the next stage to submit as full papers. After double blind full paper review by the International Review Board, a final 106 full papers will be presented at the conference, and be included in the conference proceedings. In addition, 23 workshops and 1 symposia were conducted.
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This special issue of Form Akademisk consist of four selected peer reviewed articles developed from papers held at The 3rd International Conference for Design Education Researchers - DRS/CUMULUS learnxdesign conference held in Chicago from the 28th of June – 30th of June 2015. The conference was implemented through close cooperation between the Design Research Society (DRS) and the International Association of Universities and Schools of Design, Art and Media (CUMULUS). It was hosted by School of the Art Institute of Chicago.
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The integration of sustainability into civil engineering education is discussed by describing tested teaching approaches for two of the fundamental concepts for sustainability, systems thinking, and biomimicry. Teaching modules for systems thinking and biomimicry that are appropriate for college-level civil engineering students were developed that are part of a civil engineering course in sustainable construction, which is offered at Clemson University. The learning objectives of the modules also align with Body of Knowledge's (BOK2) emphasis on problem recognition and solving, communicating to technical and nontechnical audiences, lifelong learning, and sustainability. Observations and student feedback made clear that the interactive activity used in 2008 was not effective in making progress toward learning objectives.
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According to Cross (2006), designing can be viewed as a form of intelligence so that its competences can be identified, clarified and cultivated. This paper reviews and extends existing design literature by refining the language that describes design-intelligence and the identification, clarification and cultivation of design-intelligence competences. This paper also reports on an initial study that used an Enhanced Reflective Practice Reporting Template within the context of professional practice to highlight: a) the value of improving a designer's professional inner self-awareness through reflective practice enhanced with non-analytical mental training techniques, and b) that such processes can aid access to a range of mental states helpful for coping with design uncertainty. Furthermore, the concept of 'stillness' as a competence of design-intelligence to manage the experience of the effects of design uncertainty resolution is introduced and discussed. This paper concludes that increased inner self-awareness and the ability to access mental states of stillness can help designers to become present to the possibility of transforming both themselves and the world through design. Thus enabling a fuller appreciation of the creative potential in design situations.
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Over the past two decades, a continuously expanding list of footprint-style indicators has been introduced to the scientific community with the aim of raising public awareness of how humanity exerts pressures on the environment. A deeper understanding of the connections and interactions between different footprints is required in an attempt to support policy makers in the measurement and choice of environmental impact mitigation strategies. Combining a selection of footprints that address different aspects of environmental issues into an integrated system is, therefore, a natural step. This paper starts with the idea of developing a footprint family from which most important footprints can be compared and integrated. On the basis of literature review in related fields, the ecological, energy, carbon, and water footprints are employed as selected indicators to define a footprint family. A brief survey is presented to provide background information on each of the footprints with an emphasis on their main characteristics in a comparative sense; that is, the footprints differ in many aspects more than just the impacts they are addressed. This allows the four footprints to be complementarily used in assessing environmental impacts associated with natural resource use and waste discharge. We evaluate the performance of the footprint family in terms of data availability, coverage complementarity, methodological consistency, and policy relevance and propose solutions and suggestions for further improvement. The key conclusions are that the footprint family, which captures a broad spectrum of sustainability issues, is able to offer a more complete picture of environmental complexity for policy makers and, in particular, in national-level studies. The research provides new insights into the distinction between environmental impact assessment and sustainability evaluation, properly serving as a reference for multidisciplinary efforts in estimating planetary boundaries for global sustainability.
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Design is a professional activity practiced by designers in various design fields, such as industrial design, graphic design, and interior design. Because the focus ofthe design discipline is changingfrom technological breakthroughs to satisfying users’ needs, many design processes have beenintroduced and adopted to achieve various design objectives. These design processes involve numeroussubprocesses and components that interact to form a comprehensive system. Severalfactors affect the process, causing design outcomes to vary. Design processes no longer conform to the conventional prototype, but conform to a divergent and interactive model thatincorporates new ideas and types of creativity to elicitbreakthroughs and innovations. This study was conducted to understand the relationship between designers’ emotions and every step of the decision-making process, and how these relationships affect the overall design process. Designers can understand the relationships between emotions and design processes.Hence,they would able to develop methods and techniques, for example, they would understand and manag their emotions,in order tomanipulatetheir design processesto be tailored to the required outcomes.
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DESIGNERS HAVE TRADIIONALLY FOCUSED ON ENHANCING THE LOOK AND FUNCTIONALITY OF PRODUCTS. RECENTLY, THEY HAVE BEGUN USING DESIGN TOOLS TO TACKLE MORE COMPLEX PROBLEMS, SUCH AS FINDING WAYS TO PROVIDE LOW-COST HEALTH CARE THROUGHOUT THE WORLD. BUSINESSES WERE FIRST TO EMBRACE THIS NEW APPROACH—CALLED DESIGN THINKING—NOW NONPROFITS ARE BEGINNING TO ADOPT IT TOO.
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Over the past three decades we have witnessed shifts, connections, and reframings in just about every area of design: how design is done, who is doing it, for what goals, and what its results are. These changes show a move from the designing of things to interactions to systems, and from designing for people to designing with people and by people. In this article we look at the development of design practice over the past 30 years and then look briefly into the future, from a co-design perspective. Our goal is to sketch a map of how these ingredients hang together and to illustrate that with examples from cases and underlying principles. Our perspective is informed by academic writing, but more so by our experiences with design practice in both industry and academia. Neither of us is a designer in the traditional sense; rather, we are practitioners and educators of co-designing. The observations here stem from many years of developing design research in the " fuzzy front end, " connecting design research to conceptualization and development, and educating future co-designers.