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Protein quality of insects as potential ingredients for dog and cat foods


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Insects have been proposed as a high-quality, efficient and sustainable dietary protein source. The present study evaluated the protein quality of a selection of insect species. Insect substrates were housefly pupae, adult house cricket, yellow mealworm larvae, lesser mealworm larvae, Morio worm larvae, black soldier fly larvae and pupae, six spot roach, death's head cockroach and Argentinean cockroach. Reference substrates were poultry meat meal, fish meal and soyabean meal. Substrates were analysed for DM, N, crude fat, ash and amino acid (AA) contents and for in vitro digestibility of organic matter (OM) and N. The nutrient composition, AA scores as well as in vitro OM and N digestibility varied considerably between insect substrates. For the AA score, the first limiting AA for most substrates was the combined requirement for Met and Cys. The pupae of the housefly and black soldier fly were high in protein and had high AA scores but were less digestible than other insect substrates. The protein content and AA score of house crickets were high and similar to that of fish meal; however, in vitro N digestibility was higher. The cockroaches were relatively high in protein but the indispensable AA contents, AA scores and the in vitro digestibility values were relatively low. In addition to the indices of protein quality, other aspects such as efficiency of conversion of organic side streams, feasibility of mass-production, product safety and pet owner perception are important for future dog and cat food application of insects as alternative protein source.
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Protein quality of insects as potential ingredients for dog and cat foods*
Guido Bosch
, Sheng Zhang
, Dennis G. A. B. Oonincx
and Wouter H. Hendriks
Animal Nutrition Group, Wageningen University, PO Box 338, 6700 AH Wageningen, The Netherlands
Laboratory of Entomology, Wageningen University, PO Box 8031, 6700 EH Wageningen, The Netherlands
(Received 7 November 2013 Final revision received 26 January 2014 Accepted 20 February 2014)
Journal of Nutritional Science (2014), vol. 3, e29, page 1 of 4 doi:10.1017/jns.2014.23
Insects have been proposed as a high-quality, efcient and sustainable dietary protein source. The present study evaluated the protein quality of a selection
of insect species. Insect substrates were housey pupae, adult house cricket, yellow mealworm larvae, lesser mealworm larvae, Morio worm larvae, black
soldier y larvae and pupae, six spot roach, deaths head cockroach and Argentinean cockroach. Reference substrates were poultry meat meal, sh meal and
soyabean meal. Substrates were analysed for DM, N, crude fat, ash and amino acid (AA) contents and for in vitro digestibility of organic matter (OM) and
N. The nutrient composition, AA scores as well as in vitro OM and N digestibility varied considerably between insect substrates. For the AA score, the rst
limiting AA for most substrates was the combined requirement for Met and Cys. The pupae of the housey and black soldier y were high in protein and
had high AA scores but were less digestible than other insect substrates. The protein content and AA score of house crickets were high and similar to that
of sh meal; however, in vitro N digestibility was higher. The cockroaches were relatively high in protein but the indispensable AA contents, AA scores and
the in vitro digestibility values were relatively low. In addition to the indices of protein quality, other aspects such as efciency of conversion of organic side
streams, feasibility of mass-production, product safety and pet owner perception are important for future dog and cat food application of insects as alter-
native protein source.
Key words: Dog: Cats: Nutritional value: Amino acid composition: In vitro digestibility
Trends towards 2050 predict an increased demand for animal-
derived protein sources for human foods due to the combined
effects of human population increase and increasing standards
of living in developing countries
. This demand will increase
the global competition for proteins in human food, pet food
and livestock feed and stimulate the development of alterna-
tive and sustainable protein sources for assuring food security.
The Food and Agricultural Organization of the United
Nations has highlighted the potential of insects as food
and feed sources
. Insects are in general proteinaceous
and some species can be efciently grown on organic side
streams making these potentially sustainable alternatives for
current proteinaceous feed ingredients
. In addition, insects
are commonly consumed by feral cats around the world
contributing up to 6 % of their diet
. The information on
the protein quality is, however, currently limited for most
insect species. The aim of the present study was, therefore,
to evaluate the protein quality of a selection of insect species
as potential ingredients for dog and cat foods.
Experimental methods
Insect substrates were housey pupae (Musca domestica)
(donated by Jagran B. V. Hillegom), adult house cricket
(Acheta domesticus), yellow mealworm larvae (Tenebrio molitor),
lesser mealworm larvae (Alphitobius diaperinus), Morio worm
larvae (Zophobas morio) (all purchased from Kreca), black
* This article was published as part of the WALTHAM International Nutritional Sciences Symposium Proceedings 2013.
Abbreviations: AA, amino acid; CP, crude protein; OM, organic matter.
Corresponding author: G. Bosch, email
© The Author(s) 2014. The online version of this article is published within an Open Access environment subject to the conditions of the Creative
Commons Attribution license <>.
soldier y(Hermetia illucens) larvae and pupae (donated by
Laboratory of Entomology, Wageningen University) and adult
six spot roach (Eublaberus distanti), adult deaths head cockroach
(Blaberus craniifer) and adult female Argentinean cockroach
(Blaptica dubia) (donated by D. G. A. B. Oonincx). The black sol-
dier y larvae were fed a broiler starter diet (Agruniek Rijnvallei
Voer BV) and the roaches were fed household food waste. The
other insect species were sourced from companies that keep the
diet compositions condential. Reference substrates were poult-
ry meat meal (Sonac), sh meal (Research Diet Services) and
soyabean meal (Research Diet Services). Housey pupae,
black soldier y larvae, and pupae and cockroaches were
freeze-dried to a constant weight. House crickets, yellow meal-
worms, lesser mealworms and Morio worms were already
freeze-dried. Remaining poultry manure attached to the house-
y pupae and dirt attached to black soldier y pupae were
removed by hand. Before milling, housey pupae, Morio
worms, black soldier y larvae and pupae, and cockroaches
were broken using an ultracentrifugal mill without a sieve
(Retsch ZM 100, F. Kurt Retsch GmbH& Co. KG). Then
these insects were ground using a laboratory analytical mill
(A10, Janke & Kunkel GmbH u. Co KG), except for house
crickets that were ground in centrifugal mill with a 1 mm
sieve (Retsch ZM 100). Reference substrates were already in
a dried and ground form.
In vitro digestion
Substrates were in vitro digested according to an up-scaled
Boisen two-step method
with modications
the canine gastric and small intestinal digestive processes.
Chloramphenicol was added during incubation for its antibiotic
effect. The number of replicate incubations required was cal-
culated on the anticipated amount of residue per replicate
and the total amount of residue required for chemical analyses.
Substrates (10 g) were incubated in beakers with a phosphate
buffer solution (250 ml, 0·1M,pH6·0) and an HCl solution
(100 ml, 0·2M). The pH was adjusted to 2·0 with 1 MHCl
or 10 MNaOH. Fresh pepsin solution (10 ml, 25 g/l, porcine
pepsin 2000 FIP U/g, Merck 7190) and 10 ml chlorampheni-
col solution (0·005 g/mol ethanol) were added and each bea-
ker was covered with a glaze and placed in a heating chamber
at 39°C for 2 h under constant magnetic stirring. Then, 90 ml
phosphate buffer (0·2M,pH6·8) and 50 ml of a 0·6MNaOH
were added into the solution. The pH was adjusted to 6·8 with
1MHCl or 10 MNaOH. Fresh pancreatin solution (10 ml,
100 g/l pancreatin, Porcine pancreas grade VI, SigmaP-1750)
was added and incubation was continued for 4 h under the
same conditions. After incubation, the residues were collected
by ltration of the slurries on a nylon gauze (37 µm) folded in
a Büchner porcelain funnel. The sample was washed twice
with acetone (99·5 %) followed by ethanol (96 %). Then the
cloth with the residue was temporarily placed on a clean
paper to evaporate the remaining ethanol/acetone overnight.
The residue was collected from the nylon cloth and dried at
70°C overnight in a preweighed jar. Then the oven-dried
jars were reweighed to determine the amount of dry residue
for each replicate, which allowed the calculation of DM
digestibility for each replicate. For each type of substrate, the
selected oven-dried residues were pooled and ground in
laboratory analytical mill (A10, Ika-Werk). The ground resi-
dues were transferred into a new jar, pending further chemical
analyses for calculating the in vitro DM, organic matter (OM)
and N digestibility for each substrate.
Chemical analyses
DM and ash were determined by drying to a constant weight at
103°C and combusting at 550°C, respectively. Nitrogen was
determined using the Kjeldahl method
, and crude fat
was analysed according to the Berntrop method
. Amino
acids (AA) were analysed by ion exchange chromatography
and ninhydrin derivatisation
OM content was calculated at the 100 ash content (percent-
age of DM). Crude protein (CP) was calculated as 6·25 × N
and AA content was expressed as percentage of CP.
Digestibility of substrate OM and N was calculated as the
amount of residue collected (in g DM) × content in residue
(in percentage of DM basis)/amount of substrate incubated
(in g DM) × content in substrate (in percentage of DM
basis). The AA scores were calculated as described in Kerr
et al.
using minimal requirements for growth of kittens
and puppies
as reference values.
Results and discussion
Protein and fat contents varied considerably between insect
substrates (Table 1). The CP content of insect substrates
was in general higher than that in soyabean meal and close
to that in poultry meat meal and sh meal. House crickets con-
tained the most CP followed by lesser mealworms and the roa-
ches. Fat content ranged from 12·8to39·6 % of DM for black
soldier y larvae and Morio worms, respectively. Crude ash
content of insect substrates was between 3·0 and 5·6% of
DM, except for the black soldier y larvae and pupae contain-
ing about 13 %. Ash contents of black soldier y larvae ranged
in literature from 9·0to14·6% of DM
and 15·5% of
DM in prepupae
. Phe and Met contents of CP varied the
most between insect substrates, with highest contents found
for the housey pupae. Housey pupae were also high in
Lys as were the lesser mealworms. House crickets were rela-
tively high in Arg but low in His. As it has been suggested
that CP approximates the true protein for most species of
, the AA were expressed on a CP basis to gain insight
in the protein quality. Chitin contributes to non-protein N and
contributes 17 % of the whole-body N
. Differences in chi-
tin content of insect substrates may confound the estimation
of protein quality. AA contents for insect species vary consid-
erably among studies. For example, for house crickets, Arg
content in the present study (5·7 % of CP) was within the
range of other studies
(4·96·0 % of CP) but His was higher
(3·4v. 2·12·6 % of CP). Depending on the diet fed, Met con-
tent of yellow mealworms ranged from 0·48 to 1·80 % of
. For application of insects as a protein source in pet
food or feed, it would be of importance to monitor and con-
trol the variation in AA composition. Met and Cys in poultry
meat meal was lower in the present study than reported in the
literature, i.e. 1·05 v. 1·07 % in Clapper et al.
to 2·11 % in
Johnson et al.
and 0·69 % (data not shown) v. 1·34 % in
Clapper et al.
to 2·66 % in Murray et al.
, respectively.
For the AA score, the rst limiting AA for most substrates
was the combined requirement for Met and Cys. Highest
AA scores were found for housey pupae, followed by black
soldier y pupae and Morio worm and lowest scores for the
In vitro OM digestibility was highest for yellow mealworms,
Morio worms and lesser mealworms (Table 2). Black soldier
y pupae had lowest in vitro OM digestibility and was
16·2 % lower than for the larvae. This difference in digestibil-
ity is likely caused by a higher cuticular protein-sclerotisation in
the pupae. In vitro N digestibility was relatively high for the
house crickets, yellow mealworms, lesser mealworms and
Morio worms and low for black soldier y pupae, six spot
roach and deaths head cockroach. Information on the digest-
ibility of evaluated insect species is limited in the literature.
Apparent faecal N digestibility of a diet containing 33 %
black soldier y larvae meal as the main protein source was
76·0 % in 8·214·7 kg barrows
and a diet containing 50
% housey pupae meal had an apparent faecal N digestibility
of 79·0 % in broilers
Selected insect substrates differed considerably in nutrient
composition as well as in vitro OM and N digestibility. Of
the insect substrates studied, the pupae of the housey and
black soldier y were high in CP and had high AA scores
but were less digestible than the other insect substrates. The
CP content and AA score of house crickets were high and
similar to that of sh meal but with slightly higher in vitro
N digestibility. The cockroaches were relatively high in CP but
the indispensable AA contents, the AA scores and in vitro digest-
ibility values were relatively low. Next to these indices of protein
quality, other aspects such as efciency of conversion of organic
side streams
, feasibility of mass-production
, product
and pet owner perception will determine if insect
species are used in future pet food formulations. These and
other aspects require further study.
This research was funded by Wageningen University. All authors
contributed fundamentally to the present manuscript. G. B. con-
tributed to all facets including research questions and design,
Table 1. Proximate composition ( percentage of DM), indispensable amino acid composition ( percentage of CP) and amino acid (AA) score of insect and
reference substrates
Insect substrates Reference substrates
CP 62·556·152·170·652·064·847·066·365·064·469·171·051·6
Fat 19·212·819·717·733·922·239·625·122·024·512·89·22·5
Ash 5·612·613·95·33·94·13·03·63·94·415·419·96·8
Arg 4·23·74·25·74·64·84·63·63·93·55·84·56·3
His 4·84·44·73·45·14·94·84·34·64·53·73·43·1
Ile 4·04·04·24·04·64·65·03·43·73·23·84·85·0
Leu 6·16·16·56·67·36·77·25·45·95·36·47·17·8
Lys 6·25·45·45
Met 2·61·41·71·61·41·31·61·31·21·31·01·92·0
Phe 5·23·13·33·23·43·93·72·62·72·73·33·55·2
Thr 3·83·63·63·64·04·04·13·13·33·13·64·03·9
Val 5·05·55·75·76·35·96·55·66·15·44·65·05·0
tIAA 41·837·139·339·642·342·742·733·536·233·137·841·544·4
AA scores
Dog 94·063·474·469·368·460·473·853·055·559·744·673·189·1
Cat 106·179·293·086·685·575·592·266·269·474·655·891·6 107·5
CP, crude protein; HFp, housefly pupae; BSFl and BSFp, black soldier fly larvae and pupae; HC, house cricket; YMW, yellow mealworm; LMW, lesser mealworm; MW, Morio
worm; SSR, six spot roach; DHC, deaths head cockroach; ACR, Argentinean cockroach; PMM, poultry meat meal; FM, fish meal; SBM, soyabean meal; tIAA, total indispensable
amino acids.
Calculated as described in Kerr et al.
using minimal requirements for growth of kittens and puppies
as reference values.
Table 2. In vitro digestibility (%) of insect and reference substrates
Substrate OM N
Housefly pupae 83·284·3
BSF larvae 84·389·7
BSF pupae 68·177·7
House cricket 88·091·7
Yellow mealworm 91·591·3
Lesser mealworm 90·291·5
Morio worm 91·192·0
Six spot roach 77·876·4
Deaths head CR 79·478·4
Argentinean CR* 84·083·8
Poultry meat meal 85·887·9
Fish meal 82·185·7
Soyabean meal 80·694·7
OM, organic matter; BSF, black soldier fly; CR, cockroach.
execution of the study, analysing the data and writing the initial
manuscript. S. Z. contributed to execution of the study, analysing
the data and writing the manuscript. D. G. A. B. O. contributed
to research design, data interpretation and manuscript
preparation. W. H. H. contributed to securing funding, data inter-
pretation and manuscript preparation. There are no conicts of
interest to declare.
This paper was published as part of the WALTHAM
International Nutritional Sciences Symposium Proceedings
2013, publication of which was supported by an unrestricted
educational grant from Mars Incorporated. The papers
included in these proceedings were invited by the Guest
Editor and have undergone the standard journal formal review
process. They may be cited.
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... Table 1 shows that the protein content (dry basis) of insects included in pet foods is high and similar to soybean meal (40% to 45%) and meat meal (40% to 50%) [43]. Insect amino acids have high digestibility (76% to 98%) [44] as they are similar to animal proteins [45] and are rich in essential amino acids [18,46]. ...
... Bosch et al. [46] HP, AHC, ML, LML, MWL, BSFL, BSFP, SSR, DHC, AC ...
... The studies described in Table 3 are discussed below. Bosch et al. [46] evaluated the protein quality of several types of insects that were compared with ingredients commonly used in pet food, such as poultry meat meal, soybean meal and fish meal. The limiting amino acids for most of the insects were methionine and cysteine. ...
Full-text available
The objective of this review was to carry out a comprehensive investigation of the benefits of incorporating insects as a pet food ingredient and the implications this can have in determining a market demand for insect-based pet foods. Black soldier fly larvae (Hermetia illucens), mealworm larvae (Tenebrio molitor) and adult house crickets (Acheta domesticus) are currently used in pet food. These insects are widely fed to exotic pets, mainly in whole, live or dehydrated formats. They are also incorporated as meal or fat and are offered to cats and dogs as dry or wet food and treats. Scientific studies about the use of insects for dog and cat feed are scarce. Most studies are in dogs. Research shows that insect nutrients, mainly amino acids, have high digestibility, are beneficial to health, do not have any detrimental effect on the gut microbiota and are accepted by dogs. In several countries, insects are approved for use in pet food and commercialization has spread throughout the world. Pet owners are willing to try foods made with insect meal for their pets. In conclusion, the use of insects in pet food is a reality that is taking on more and more prominence.
... Insects that contain a crude protein content of 40 -50 % with lipids content ranging from 29 -32 % are Hermetia illucens L (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) (Barragán-Fonseca, 2018;Doberman et al., 2017;Cullere et al., 2016;Bosch et al., 2014). Utilization of H. illucens, namely leftover cultivation media, can be used as solid organic fertilizer, liquid organic fertilizer, and hydroponic nutrient solution from leachate, and the larvae become one of the compositions of animal feed such as broiler chicken feed (Abduh et al., 2020;Diener et al., 2009). ...
... Approximate Digestibility (AD) is the ability of broilers to digest the feed given (Bosch et al., 2014). The AD value of CCF and HiMCF treatment had no significant difference (T-test, P > 0.05). ...
... Crude fiber that cannot be digested will block the action of enzymes that digest other food substances (Nasruddin, 2010). The efficiency of Conversion Digestibility (ECD) is the efficiency value of feed consumption which is converted into broiler chicken biomass (Bosch et al., 2014). ...
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The development of the broiler farming industry to meet the needs of chicken meat in Indonesia has problems including the availability and high prices of commercial feed. This is due to the use of high-priced protein sources from a fish meal as a commercial feed composition. One option that can replace a fish meal as a composition of broiler feed is Hermetia illucens L. larvae flour. This study aims to determine the difference between H. illucens mixed chicken feed (HiMCF) and commercial chicken feed (CCF) on growth performance of Gallus domesticus L. with parameters Final Body Weight (FBW), Daily Feed Intake (DFI), Daily Weight Gain (DWG), Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR), Approximate Digestibility (AD), Efficiency of Conversion Digestibility (ECD), carcass weight with 3-joint wings, forequarter, and leg quarter, and the meat proximate content. In this study, G. domesticus were cultivated for 33 days with HiMCF and CCF treatment. The complete proximate content of feed and meat was analyzed descriptively, while growth and carcass weight were analyzed by statistical SPSS T-test (T-test, = 0.05). The feeding of HiMCF and CCF treatment on the growth of broiler chickens to DFI, DWG, FCR, AD, and ECD was the same except for FBW. While the feeding of HiMCF and CCF treatment to the carcass weight was not the same except for 3-joint wings. The feeding of HiMCF and CCF treatment gave the same proximate content of broiler chicken meat. Based on this research, the HiMCF can be an alternative feed for broiler chickens.
... The level of nutrients derivable from insects depends on their species, life stage and/or the nutrition used during their breeding. Most insect species are marked by high content of proteins (CP) of between 40 and 60%, which is similar to soy meal levels (50% CP) but lower than fishmeal (73% CP) (3,17,20,27). It should be noted that insect proteins are characterised by a high level of exogenous amino acids, e.g. ...
Full-text available
Introduction The use of insects and their processed animal proteins (PAPs) for animal nutrition creates the need for research into methods useful for routine surveillance for their presence. The aim of this study was to evaluate a modified microscopic method for the detection of particles of insects in poultry feed. Material and Methods A total of 90 samples including PAP of insects ( Hermetia illucens and Tenebrio molitor ), poultry feeds produced with different levels (0–27%) of insect PAP content, and other poultry feeds spiked with insect PAP at 1% were investigated using a modified microscopic method with a double sedimentation protocol. Results Characteristic features of insects including cuticulae, muscles, bristles and tracheoles were determined in the microscopic images obtained. In all spiked samples, characteristic fragments of insects were detected. The fragments of muscle and tracheoles only indicated the presence of material from members of the insect class but could not facilitate identification of organisms to species level. Conclusion The results obtained with this double sedimentation protocol for the isolation of insect PAP from feed for poultry have shown that the method can be used in routine analysis.
... Silkworms, yellow mealworm beetles, Tenebrio Molitor, locusts, and termites can also be used but they are less commonly used (Melgar-Lalanne et al., 2019). However, studies on the use insects as pets' food, such as dogs and cats, are being conducted (Bosch et al., 2014). Silkworm pupae can be a complete substitute for fish meal in the poultry diet, as well as a chicken diet supplement by up to 50%. ...
Insects are consumed as food by about 2.5 billion people in 113 countries around the world. It is estimated that there are about 1900 - 2000 species of edible insects. Insects are consumed in a variety of forms including cooked, dried, or even powdered along with other foods. Insect consumption as human diet, due to their low attractiveness and taste, has religious restrictions and cultural barriers, which require time, culturalization and presentation of products in new forms such as insect powders in combination with other foods. In addition, the use of insects in the livestock and poultry industry can be very helpful. In this study, we only discuss the findings of recent investigations through which the nutritional importance of insects in- human diet, usefulness in the livestock and poultry industry is highlighted. This will help in clarifying the overall status of entomophagy.
... Complete nutrient composition for both species has also been previously reported (Finke, 2002;Kouřimská and Adámková 2016). Protein quality of both species has been studied (Bosch et al., 2014;Zielińska et al., 2015;Nowak et al., 2016), and chitin content has been estimated (Finke, 2007). Lipid profiles for both species have been studied (Tzompa-Sosa et al.,2014;Paul et al., 2017). ...
The high protein content of insects has been widely studied. They can be a good food alternative, and therefore it is important to study the effect of digestion on their protein. This review examines the different in vitro protein digestibility methodologies used in the study of different edible insects in articles published up to 2021. The most important variables to be taken into account in in vitro hydrolysis are the following: phases (oral, gastric and intestinal), enzymes, incubation time and temperature, method of quantification of protein hydrolysis and sample preprocessing. Insects have high digestibility data, which can increase or decrease depending on the processing of the insect prior to digestion, so it is important to investigate which processing methods improve digestibility. The most commonly used methods are gut extraction, different methods of slaughtering (freezing or blanching), obtaining protein isolates, defatting, thermal processing (drying or cooking) and extrusion. Some limitations have been encountered in discussing the results due to the diversity of methodologies used for digestion and digestibility calculation. In addition, articles evaluating the effect of insect processing are very limited. It is concluded that there is a need for the standardisation of in vitro hydrolysis protocols and their quantification to facilitate comparisons in future research.
Although edible insect migratory locusts are considered sustainable food resources with proteins and n-3 lipids, their physiological effects on lipid metabolism are not clarified. Here, we clarified the amino acid (AA) value of the edible migratory locust powder (MLP), protein digestibility, and dietary effects of MLP on growth and lipid metabolism in rats. The AA score was 63, which was low score due to the limiting AA (Trp). MLP protein digestibility was resistant to gut pepsin but digestible to intestinal trypsin and chymotrypsin. Dietary MLP represented favorable growth and enhanced intestinal condition and lipid metabolism in rats, particularly, low-density lipoprotein metabolism and arteriosclerosis-related fatty acid profiles. Liver triglyceride accumulation and fatty acid desaturation indices were increased by activating lipids uptake into the liver, while lipogenic protein expression and enzyme activities and liver function indices were reduced by MLP. Conclusively, intestinal digestible MLP is a nutraceutical for the prevention of dyslipidemia.
Snakehead fish ( Channa striata ) is a carnivorous freshwater fish commodity that has high economic value. However, this cultivation takes a long period due to its poor growth rate. Maggot has been proposed as a possible alternative to fish feed because it is less expensive and has nutritional value. This study aimed to determine the effect of the dietary combination of maggot and pellets on the growth rate and feed conversion ratio of snakehead fish. This study used a completely randomized design (CRD) with five treatments and four replications. The treatments were P0: 100% pellet, P1: 100% maggot, P2: 75% pellets and 25% maggot, P3: 50% pellets and 50% maggot, P4: 25% pellets and 75% maggot. The result showed a combination of pellet feed and maggot feed had a significant improvement (p<0.05) on the growth rate of snakehead fish. However, there were no significant differences in the feed conversion ratio (p>0.05). The treatment of 75% pellet feed and 25% maggot feed (P2) generated the highest growth rate of 0.154 g/day and the lowest feed conversion ratio of 3.121. It can be concluded that the combination of maggot and pellet experienced better growth performance and feed conversion ratio of snakehead fish.
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Due to the increasing global population, the world cannot currently support the well-known techniques of food production due to their harmful effects on land use, water consumption, and greenhouse gas emissions. The key answer is a solution based on the use of edible insects. They have always been present in the diet of animals. They are characterized by a very good nutritional value (e.g., high protein content and contents of essential amino acids and fatty acids, including lauric acid), and products with them receive positive results in palatability tests. Despite the existing literature data on the benefits of the use of insects as a protein source, their acceptance by consumers and animal caregivers remains problematic. In spite of the many advantages of using insects in pet food, it is necessary to analyze the risk of adverse food reactions, including allergic reactions that may be caused by insect consumption. Other hazards relate to the contamination of insects. For example, they can be contaminated with anthropogenic factors during breeding, packaging, cooking, or feeding. These contaminants include the presence of bacteria, mold fungi, mycotoxins, and heavy metals. However, insects can be used in the pet food industry. This is supported by the evolutionary adaptation of their wild ancestors to the eating of insects in the natural environment. The chemical composition of insects also corresponds to the nutritional requirements of dogs. It should be borne in mind that diets containing insect and their effects on animals require careful analysis. The aim of this article is to discuss the nutritional value of insects and their possible applications in the nutrition of companion animals, especially dogs.
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Een haalbaarheidsstudie naar insecten als duurzame eiwitrijke diervoedergrondstof in varkens- en pluimveevoeders is uitgevoerd in opdracht van het Ministerie van Economische Zaken, Landbouw en Innovatie. De haalbaarheidsstudie omvatte een desk-studie en een workshop met stakeholders uit de verschillende schakels van de ‘insectenketen’. De doelstelling van de studie was om in samenwerking met stakeholders uit de ‘insectenketen’ en wetenschappers te onderzoeken of en hoe insecten op grote schaal ingezet kunnen worden als alternatieve eiwitbron in voer voor varkens en pluimvee.
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This book draws on a wide range of scientific research on the contribution that insects make to ecosystems, diets, food security and livelihoods in both developed and developing countries.
A digestion trial and a palatability trial were conducted to evaluate dried, ground soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae as a dietary supple-ment for swine. After processing, the larvae, which were collected from cattle feces and urine slurry, contained 42% crude protein, 35% ether extract and 5% calcium. Two diets were formulated to contain 20% crude protein and 13% ether extract using either the larvae meal or soybean meal plus stabilized brown grease. These diets were fed to six barrow pigs in a triplicated 2 • 2 latin square design digestion trial. Apparent digestibilities of dry matter, ni-trogen, ether extract, crude fiber, ash, NFE, calcium and phosphorus for the larvae meal diet were 77.5, 76.0, 83.5, 53.8, 45.2, 84.7, 38.9 and 23.0, respectively. Corresponding values for the soybean meal diet were 85.3, 77.2, 73.0, 49.2, 61.6, 91.3, 39.3 and 51.3, with values for dry matter, nitrogen, ash and NFE being greater (P<.05) than for the larvae meal diet. Nitrogen balance averaged 8.13 g per day for the larvae meal diet and 9.33 g per day for the soybean meal diet. When given a choice of three diets, pigs did not, as indicated by intake, discriminate against a diet containing larvae meal. Consumption of the larvae meal diet was greater (P<.05) than that of a soybean meal diet containing no added fat.
Novel protein sources (like insects, algae, duckweed, and rapeseed) are expected to enter the European feed and food market as replacers for animal-derived proteins. However, food safety aspects of these novel protein sources are not well-known. The aim of this article is to review the state of the art on the safety of major novel protein sources for feed and food production, in particular insects, algae (microalgae and seaweed), duckweed, and rapeseed. Potential hazards for these protein sources are described and EU legislative requirements as regard to food and feed safety are explained. Potential hazards may include a range of contaminants, like heavy metals, mycotoxins, pesticide residues, as well as pathogens. Some safety aspects of novel protein sources are intrinsic to the product, but many potential hazards can also be due to production methods and processing conditions. These aspects should be considered in advance during product development. European law is unclear on several issues regarding the use of novel protein sources in food and feed products. For food product applications, the most important question for food producers is whether or not the product is considered a novel food. One of the major unclarities for feed applications is whether or not products with insects are considered animal-derived products or not. Due to the unclarities in European law, it is not always clear which Regulation and maximum levels for contaminants apply. For market introduction, European legislation should be adjusted and clarified.
Abstract Fly larvae may provide an effective method to mitigate two large and growing global concerns: the use of fish meal derived from capture fisheries in aquaculture diets and manure management in livestock and poultry facilities. A 9-wk feed trial was conducted to determine whether fly larvae could be used as a partial fish meal and fish oil replacement in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, diets. A trout diet was formulated to contain 40% crude protein and 15% fat. Sixty-seven percent of the protein in the control diet was derived from fish meal, and all the fat was derived from fish oil. Two of the test diets included using the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens, prepupae, which are 40% protein and 30% fat, as 25 and 50% replacement for the fish meal component of the control diet. The total protein derived from black soldier fly prepupae in these two test diets was 15 and 34%, respectively. A third test diet included using housefly, Musca domestica, pupae, which is 70% protein and 16% fat, as 25% replacement for the fish meal component of the control diet. Data suggest that a rainbow trout diet where black soldier fly prepupae or housefly pupae constitute 15% of the total protein has no adverse effect on the feed conversion ratio of fish over a 9-wk feeding period. In addition, the diet with black soldier fly prepupae permitted a 38% reduction in fish oil (i.e., from 13 to 8%); however, fish fed black soldier fly diets low in fish oil had reduced levels of omega-3 fatty acids in their muscle fillets. The findings from this study suggest that either the black soldier fly or the housefly may be a suitable feedstuff for rainbow trout diets.
Edible insects, a traditional food all over the world, are highly nutritious with high fat, protein and mineral contents depending on the species and thus represent a noteworthy alternative food and feed source and a potential substitute e. g. for fishmeal in feed formulae. Research is required to develop and automatize cost-effective, energy-efficient and microbially safe rearing, harvest and post harvest processing technologies as well as sanitation procedures to ensure food and feed safety and produce safe insect products at a reasonable price on an industrial scale especially in comparison to meat products. In addition, consumer acceptance needs to be established. Potential and challenges along the production chain of insects for food and feed are discussed based on published data and future research needs are derived from recent literature.Industrial relevance textWith the increasing demand in alternative protein sources world-wide, insects represent an innovative food and feed source rich in high quality protein as well as other beneficial nutritional ingredients such as fat, minerals and vitamins. Despite traditional knowledge about insects and their harvest in the wild, for the industrial mass production of safe insects and insect products for consumption and for processing into food and feed, the development of rearing, harvest as well as post-harvest technologies is required.
An in vitro experiment was carried out using the gas technique to study the fermentation characteristics of different feed ingredients differing in their fermentable carbohydrate and protein composition by colonic bacteria isolated from pigs. The effect on in vitro bacterial protein synthesis was also evaluated. The ingredients used were wheat bran (WB), wood cellulose (Solka-floc®, SF), peas, pea hulls (PH), pea inner fibre (PIF), sugar beet pulp (SBP), flax seed meal (FSM) and corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). The samples were pre-treated with pepsin and pancreatin and the hydrolyzed substrates were then incubated with pig faeces in a buffered mineral solution. The nitrogen source in the buffer solution (NH4HCO3) was replaced by an equimolar quantity of 15N-labeled NH4Cl, used for the determination of the rate of bacterial protein synthesis. Gas production, proportional to the amount of fermented carbohydrate, was recorded for 48h and modelled. The fermented product was subjected to short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) analysis. The source of fibre affected the in vitro dry matter degradability (IVDMD), the fermentation kinetics and the gas production profile (P
The combined effects of population increase and increasing standards of living in developing countries are expected to create a high demand for animal-derived protein by 2050. New initiatives will be required to produce the necessary quantities of high quality protein. We explore a range of initiatives that will help to close this gap. We propose that three simultaneous changes will need to be made to meet future animal-derived protein demand. These are: shifting protein sources up the supply chain; use of plant-based substitutes or extenders for animal-derived protein foods; and use of novel sources for both animal and human nutrition.
Insects, a traditional food in many parts of the world, are highly nutritious and especially rich in proteins and thus represent a potential food and protein source. A compilation of 236 nutrient compositions in addition to amino acid spectra and fatty acid compositions as well as mineral and vitamin contents of various edible insects as derived from literature is given and the risks and benefits of entomophagy are discussed. Although the data were subject to a large variation, it could be concluded that many edible insects provide satisfactorily with energy and protein, meet amino acid requirements for humans, are high in MUFA and/or PUFA, and rich in several micronutrients such as copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, phosphorous, selenium, and zinc as well as riboflavin, pantothenic acid, biotin, and in some cases folic acid. Liabilities of entomophagy include the possible content of allergenic and toxic substances as well as antinutrients and the presence of pathogens. More data are required for a thorough assessment of the nutritional potential of edible insects and proper processing and decontamination methods have to be developed to ensure food safety.