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Comparative Study of Bullying Victimization Among Students in General and Special Education

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Abstract

Research on bullying is an important avenue for understanding the social integration of students in special education. Focused on 3,305 students who self-reported victimization of two to three times per month or more, this study compared the pattern of verbal, relational, and physical bullying among students in general education and special education. Overall, students in special education reported more physical and emotional harm as well as more psychological distress as a result of their victimization. Self-reported rates of verbal and relational victimization were similar, but physical victimization was more often reported among students in special education. In addition, adult teachers and staff were more likely to verbally, relationally, and physically bully students in special education, according to student self-report.
... Physical, mental, or developmental pre-conditions. Dyslexic students (Anyanwu & Campbell, 2001) and students in special education (Hartley et al., 2015) reported significantly higher levels of emotional violence by teachers than non-dyslexic students and students in general education, respectively. Prevalence rates of emotional violence by teachers. ...
... Older students/students in higher grades and younger students/ students in lower grades did not differ in their exposure to EVBenbenishty et al. (2019), b El Bcheraoui et al. (2012), d (Longobardi et al. 2019b). dYounger students/students in lower grades were more likely to experience EV compared to older students/students in higher grades Physical, mental or developmental pre-conditionsAnyanwu & Campbell (2001), aHartley et al. (2015). d Students with learning disabilities were more likely to experience EV compared to students without disabilities Mental health and behavioral problems ...
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There is increasing evidence for the deleterious impact of emotional violence on children`s well-being and development. This systematic review focused on a) the prevalence and (b) correlates of emotional violence by teachers. A literature search of quantitative and peer-reviewed studies published in English between 1980 and April 2021 was conducted. Eighty-four studies met the inclusion criteria. Studies represented all geographical regions of the world, were predominantly cross-sectional and of moderate quality. Studies were heterogeneous in terms of their samples, conceptualization, and measurement of emotional violence. Results indicated that emotional violence by teachers is prevalent across cultural settings, although large variations within and between regions are noted. It is related to mental health, behavioral and academic problems of children above and beyond physical violence by teachers and victimization by peers and parents. Boys are at higher risk of experiencing emotional violence by teachers than girls. Family dysfunction, low socioeconomic status (of the family or the community), and violent school environments appear to increase risk as well. The observed patterns of co-occurrence of emotional violence with physical violence by teachers and victimization by peers as well as perpetration of violence against peers and teachers lend support to notions of poly-victimization and cycles of violence in the school settings. Future research should use representative surveys, examine antecedents, and consequences of emotional violence by teachers using longitudinal and experimental designs and evaluate interventions to prevent emotional violence by teachers.
... Based on this perspective, students with learning disabilities are more vulnerable to victimization because of their reduced ability to interpret social cues and respond appropriately, resulting in additional emotional and psychological difficulties. Indeed, the so-called "snowball effect" [41] suggests that such emotional and psychological issues may lead to a decline in academic performance, and the increased visibility of learning difficulties may expose these students to a higher risk of victimization, e.g., [40,[42][43][44][45][46][47][48]. ...
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Bullying is still a widespread social problem that needs serious attention. To date, research on this topic has shown that understanding the phenomenon requires a psychosocial perspective. The primary goal of the study is to identify the factors that contribute to the victimization of students with learning disabilities. The hypothesis is that the victimization experiences of this group of students can be explained by some socio-relational dynamics. Using a mediation model, this study demonstrates that perceived social integration completely mediates the association between the presence of learning disabilities and victimization experiences. This implies that students with learning disabilities are primarily victimized when they are not socially integrated into their class group. The implications for diagnosis and treatment are discussed.
... Specifically, Rose et al. (2009) middle school students with disabilities who were enrolled in self-contained special education class environments reported higher self-reported bullying than those in inclusive settings or part-time special education settings (21% vs. 16%, respectively). Additionally, students with disabilities who are bullied have reported higher levels of psychological distress and physical and emotional harm when compared to their peers without disabilities (Hartley et al., 2015). C. McLaughlin et al. (2010) suggests that the overrepresentation of students with disabilities within the bullying dynamic might be attributed to discrepancies in social and emotional skills. ...
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Motivational interviewing (MI), a therapy strategy used to guide students to help students better understand how to develop their social emotional learning (SEL) skills to make positive choices that resolve social conflict, bodes promising for helping youth to cultivate the social and emotional skills needed to address bullying, peer drama, and other issues affecting their mental, physical, and emotional health. Bulldog Solution, Inc., a Chicago-based organization, utilized MI research-informed approach to increase students’ social conflict management and leadership skills through self-awareness and self-discovery, as a mechanism for preventing bullying and supporting the social and emotional growth of young people. This study presents emerging themes resulting from a 9-week, motivational interview and SEL-based program titled, “Peace Over Drama,” implemented with middle school students (sixth–seventh–eighth grade) with disabilities and/or at risk for disability-identification ( n = 17) in one Chicago middle school on the south side. Implications for school-based prevention models and scaling of similar SEL and MI programing are discussed.
... Many disabled students continue to be dehumanized through exclusion in nearly all aspects of schooling (U.S. Department of Education [USDOE], 2016), facing the stigmatization of being labeled (e.g., Shifrer, 2013), being more likely to receive suspensions (e.g., Krezmien et al., 2006), being exposed to dangerous restraint and seclusion practices (Gage et al., 2020), as well as subjected to bullying and harassment (e.g., Hartley et al., 2015) compared to their nondisabled peers. Those with more "severe" disabilities are often thought of as visitors in general education classrooms (Tan, 2017b;Tan & Thorius, 2019) and at times forced to spend their academic learning time cleaning or collecting trash and recycle materials. ...
Article
Disabled students have historically been dehumanized in education, generally, and in research and practice related to school mathematics (K–12), particularly. Typically, they are only offered access to low-rigor school mathematics emphasizing rote procedures and narrow skills, often segregated physically and socially from their nondisabled peers. Educators are crucial to the humanization of disabled students via anti-ableist and antiracist work toward systemic transformation. The purpose of this review is to take stock of the current knowledge base of educator and disability research concerning school mathematics, recommending directions for humanizing future research and practice. Through a humanizing mathematics education lens, we analyze 61 articles involving educators, disabilities, and school mathematics published during the decade between 2007 and 2016. Results of our analysis point to not only the continued perpetuation of dehumanizing approaches and positioning but also substantial shifts toward humanization in mathematics education for disabled students. Over half of the studies reflected humanizing shifts. Yet, overwhelmingly, studies continue to avoid meaningful intersectional considerations of race and disability.
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Background Children with disabilities may be at increased risk for engaging in health risk behaviors compared to their peers without disabilities. Objective This secondary analysis aims to assess if Individualized Education Program (IEP) status, a proxy for having a disability, is a risk factor for youth to engage in health risk behaviors such as alcohol use, marijuana use, other substance use, or being the victim of bullying or cyberbullying. Methods Data from Connecticut Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) 2013, 2015, 2017, and 2019 were combined for a representative sample of 9,243 students, 850 reporting having an IEP. Having a disability was measured by asked if participants received special education services as part of an IEP. Logistic regression that accounted for the YRBSS sample design was used to assess main effects. Results Having an IEP significantly predicted the likelihood of being bullied (OR=1.81), cyberbullied (OR=1.49), and other drug use (OR=1.65), but did not predict engaging in sexual activity. Conclusions Students with disabilities as defined by the receipt of special education services as specified on an IEP are at increased risk for health risk behaviors than are students without disabilities during their high school years. The lack of questions on the national YRBSS about a participant’s special education status or disability further prevents analyses and comparisons across disability status. Secondary Analysis of CT Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) Data by Individualized Education Program (IEP) Status
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Amaç: Akran zorbalığı bir ya da birden çok çocuk tarafından daha güçsüz olan çocuğa yönelik amaçlı ve devamlı biçimde gösterilen saldırganlık davranışı olarak tanımlanabilmektedir. Bu çalışmada; akran zorbalığının tanımı, yaygınlığı, nedenleri, olası sonuçları, kekemelik ve akran zorbalığı ilişkisi ile kekemelik terapilerinde uygulanabilecek akran zorbalığına yönelik müdahale stratejileri ile ilgili bilgiler sentezlenmiştir. Böylelikle bu derleme çalışmasının, dil ve konuşma terapistlerinin kekemeliği olan çocuklara yönelik uygulamalarını zenginleştirecek ve kekemeliği olan çocukların maruz kalabildiği akran zorbalığı durumuna dikkat çekecek nitelikte olması amaçlanmıştır. Yöntem: Çalışmada geleneksel derleme yöntemi kullanılmıştır. Bu doğrultuda, kekemelikte akran zorbalığı yönetimine ilişkin alan yazın taraması gerçekleştirilmiştir. Bulgular: Akran zorbalığının, fiziksel, sözlü, ilişkisel veya siber zorbalık gibi farklı türlerde olabileceği görülmüştür. Ayrıca akran zorbalığının nedenlerine yönelik çeşitli görüşlere rastlanmıştır. Kekemeliği olan çocukların akran zorbalığı açısından risk altında olduklarına yönelik kanıtlara ulaşılmıştır. Dil ve konuşma terapistlerinin kekemeliği olan çocuklar için uygulayabilecekleri akran zorbalığına yönelik müdahale stratejileri saptanmıştır. Bu müdahale stratejilerinin temel olarak kekemelik ve akran zorbalığı hakkında çocuğu ve çevresini bilgilendirme, atılganlık eğitimi, kekemeliğe yönelik olumsuz otomatik düşünceleri olumlu düşünceler ile yer değiştirme ve akran eğitimi gibi başlıkları kapsadığı görülmüştür. Müdahale stratejilerinin bir kısmı klinik içinde (kekemelikte akran zorbalığı eğitimi, atılganlık eğitimi, bilişsel yeniden yapılandırma vb.), bir kısmı ise klinik dışında (akran, ebeveyn ve okul temelli eğitimler) uygulanabilmektedir. Sonuç: Kapsamlı bir kekemelik terapisi, kekemeliğe bütüncül bakış açısı sunan müdahale yaklaşımlarını gerektirmektedir. Kekemelik terapileri sadece konuşma akıcılığına değil, aynı zamanda kekemeliğin çocuğun yaşamı üzerindeki olası olumsuz etkilerini en aza indirmeye de odaklanmaktadır. Bu doğrultuda, akran zorbalığı müdahalesi, kapsamlı kekemelik terapisinin önemli bir parçasını oluşturmaktadır. Ayrıca dil ve konuşma terapistlerinin kekemelik ve akran zorbalığına yönelik bilgilendirici içeriklere terapileri içerisinde yer vermelerinin, kekemeliği olan çocuklar için önleyici hizmet kapsamında ele alınabileceği düşünülmektedir. Bu tarz içeriklerin, kekemeliği olan çocuğu karşılaşabileceği olası olumsuzluklara karşı hazırlayacağı öngörülmektedir.
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