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Archaeology and Economic Development

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... Internationally, one of the problems in assessing these successes and failures is the limited data available which can be used to review such initiatives. Within archaeology, published reports on these projects are sparse, and methodologies often fall far behind the stated desires of such projects (Gould and Burtenshaw 2014;Gould 2016). However, the available record does give us some general lessons. ...
... This in turn relies on the archaeologists, local communities and other actors having good quality information and guidance to be able to make plans which have the potential to be beneficial and sustainable. Currently the tools and guidance for this local information to inform good planning are lacking within the discipline (Gould and Burtenshaw 2014). While not the only aspect which makes these projects successful or not, the results presented here focus on that part of the processhow archaeologists can properly inform their projects, what kind of data can be collected and what methods can be employed to collect that data so that we can make informed plans which have the potential to benefit both archaeology and local publics. ...
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The Deep Past as a Social Asset in the Levant (DEEPSAL) project, conducted in 2015–16 by the Council for British Research in the Levant, examined two communities in southern Jordan, Beidha and Basta, who live near significant Neolithic archaeological sites. The project collected information on the communities’ current socioeconomic conditions, their relationship with local cultural heritage and how that cultural heritage currently benefits or hinders them. The information was used to inform nascent strategies to utilize the sites sustainably as development assets and suggest alternative strategies as necessary. The results showed that a tourism-based strategy is suitable for Beidha but there was a need to focus on basic business skills. For Basta a tourism-based strategy is currently unsuitable, and efforts should rather focus on supporting educational activities. The results of the project are presented here within the context of archaeology’s increasing interest to use archaeological resource to benefit local communities, and outlines lessons for that effort.
... It is generally accepted, that contribution of archaeological heritage to the livelihood of local community is often achieved through tourism (Gould and Burtenshaw 2014, p. 3), whereas one of the most important aspects in increasing number of tourists is investment in tourism infrastructure (Jovanovic and Ilic 2016, p. 288). Even such seemingly low-maintenance sites as ancient burial grounds or hillforts, in terms of tourism development, still request certain degree of investment in laying a path, installation of benches, informational stand, waste bins with regular maintenance, lawn mowing and tree/shrub cutting, etc. ...
Article
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Archaeological sites as part of cultural heritage satisfy a broad range of interests of different stakeholders. Along with satisfying cultural, social, scientific, etc., interests, their role is no less important in strategic socioeconomic development. Unlocking a socio-economic potential of archaeological sites requires clear vision of how to conserve and protect each particular site, how and by what means to maintain and manage the object as well as what to do with it next. It is widely acknowledged that archaeological sites, in particular those having the status of archaeological monuments, play a socially important role, but their maintenance and development often require significant investment. While the laws make owners of archaeological sites, both private and public, solely responsible for conservation, restoration and maintenance of cultural monuments in their property, there should be appropriate mechanisms that mitigate the financial and legal burden and support owners along the way. Based on the review of legal regulation, scientific literature, information of the authorities and mass media, multiple expert interviews, consultations with professional archaeologists, and using an integrated socioeconomic and legal approach to the researched issue, the article provides theoretical and practical insight into the actualities of archaeological heritage development potential in Latvia (making international comparisons) and possible solutions thereto.
... In recent years, archaeology has been called upon to fulfill a much more fundamental role in helping contemporary society to tackle problems such as climate change and sustainable development [8]. In a way, the core of public archaeology has acknowledged as much through the Public Archaeology monographic issue Archaeology and Economic Development [9]. In it, the editors posit that archaeologists really do not understand the impact they have in society, not just economically speaking-which is their main concern-but also, I would argue, regarding the real social, cultural, and educational impact of their activity. ...
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This paper intends to weigh the importance of archaeology by how much impact it has, or could have, on society. Heritage values are precisely the language in which that impact translates to the general public. It is necessary, however, to balance the duty to protect heritage with the mutating and negotiated nature of these values. Archaeologists should not be seen as the wardens but rather as the enablers, the midwives, of local communities coming to terms with a deeper understanding of their past. The more effectively this heritage stimulates the relation of the community with these values, the greater the potential it will have to stimulate social innovation, which is the foundation for sustainable development or abandonment. For many the boon of cultural heritage is tourism, and this is true but to an insufficient extent. In order to be sustainable, tourism must be part of a broader social innovation strategy that foregoes easy pickings in favor of the creation of quality brands, employment, and the protection of traditional lifeways. Only in this way can heritage truly unlock a sustainable horizon.
... Aplicar el principio de la investigaciónacción a la arqueología revela que es una disciplina con un enorme potencial de acción social, pero que carece de los recursos y estímulos necesarios para llevarlo a cabo sobre el terreno (Gould and Burtenshaw, 2014). No obstante, si el arqueólogo se ciñe a controlar y gestionar el proceso de transferencia del conocimiento, por el propio bien de su disciplina, las consecuencias pueden ser enormemente positivas. ...
Article
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La Convención Europea del Paisaje cumple 20 años. Sin embargo, todavía existen carencias a la hora de conceptualizar el significado que esto tiene tanto para la arqueología, como para la sociedad. La definición allí contenida integra la realidad física del territorio, con la población que en él habita, y el tiempo. En este artículo se van a explorar las consecuencias que esto tiene para la práctica arqueológica, y para la gestión del patrimonio cultural. La progresiva asociación de los conceptos de paisaje y patrimonio es el fruto de grandes esfuerzos por parte de organismos y asociaciones, que con variado éxito han recogido las políticas públicas y científicas. Cuando el patrimonio es paisaje, ya no hay límites, acotaciones ni zonificación. Todo es importante porque todo es testimonio de los procesos que lo han formado, y que lo transformarán de nuevo. Es difícil, desde la perspectiva del patrimonio cultural, comprender la transitoriedad del mismo, su fluidez. Pero es necesario. La arqueología, al gestionar esta última fase, y ejercer su papel como mecanismo para el desarrollo sostenible de las comunidades locales en adelante, se convierte en una disciplina cuya relevancia principal reside en cómo su conocimiento es transferido, y utilizado en dicho proceso.
... • Developments in American Archaeology 563 the regulations are not outmoded, ineffective, insufficient, or excessively burdensome and that they need not be revised or repealed" (Nelson 2016, p. 33). A different kind of critique is raised concerning the association of archaeology with capitalism, in particular as expressed by modern development (e.g., Gnecco & Dias 2015, Gould & Burtenshaw 2014, articles in Hamilakis & Duke 2007, Koriech & Sterling 2013. This view is not so much a direct critique of the NHPA, but of the CRM framework that has developed to implement one of the goals of the NHPA, as expressed in its findings and policy sections to balance the engine of the modern US economy with the preservation of the American historical environment. ...
Article
Keywords archaeology and the law, history of archaeology, cultural resource management, CRM Abstract Since its enactment over five decades ago, the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA) and the organizations, policies, and regulations implementing it have strongly influenced how archaeology is conducted in the United States. The NHPA created a national network of archaeologists in government agencies. This network reviews the possible impact on important archaeological resources of tens of thousands of public projects planned each year. These reviews often include investigations, of which there have been millions. The archaeological profession has shifted from one oriented mainly on academic research and teaching to one focused on field investigations, planning, resource management, public outreach, and resource protection, bundled under the term cultural resource management (CRM). Since 1966, growth has produced good outcomes as well as some troubling developments. Current and new challenges include avoiding lock-step, overly bureaucratic procedures and finding the financial, professional, and technical resources, as well as political support, to build on the achievements so far. 553 Annu. Rev. Anthropol. 2018.47:553-574. Downloaded from www.annualreviews.org Access provided by Arizona State University on 10/25/18. For personal use only.
... As the community engagement work at Çatalhöyük took form, so too did discourse, theory, and practice on community archaeology. Scholarship on public outreach in archaeology since 1993 has offered numerous means of assessing archaeology's contribution to the concerns of resident and stakeholder communities, and through several of these different lenses (Tully 2007;Chirikure and Pwiti 2008;Simpson and Williams 2008;Nevell 2013;Coben 2014;Burtenshaw 2015;Baker et al. 2019). This literature informed the studies carried out in the final years of the project, which ultimately revealed the limitations of community outreach at Çatalhöyük. ...
Article
Ov the twenty-five years of community engagement at Çatalhöyük, local community members played integral roles in the production of knowledge about the site. As workers, as cooks and housekeepers, as ethnoarchaeological consultants, as museum exhibit collaborators, men and women living around Çatalhöyük supported the research team in creating the archaeological record of the site. Still, while local community members were involved in so many dimensions of the excavation process, community involvement initiatives at Çatalhöyük saw both successes and limitations. Many individual community engagement programs achieved their targeted aims, but at the same time were just that-individual and targeted. Most were driven by particular organizers and took place only while these specific people were involved in the project. Moreover, the degree to which such initiatives accomplished their goals was shaped by broader conditions at the local, regional, and national scales. Here, we offer a comprehensive and contextualized view of community engagement as a continual component of the work at Çatalhöyük. Our analysis proceeds chronologically in order to illustrate the diachronic changes in defining what community engagement meant at Çatalhöyük over the course of the project. Our aim is both to describe the goals, strategies, and outcomes of the many community engagement initiatives at Çatalhöyük, and to draw out the broader social, political, and material realities that shaped program outcomes.
... This help can come in a variety of forms: economic, educational, and emotional. From an economic perspective, public archaeologies often have no direct product, but the results of archaeological activity can often be linked to economic activity in some way -tourism, housing and regeneration, and conservation to name only a few examples (see also Bewley and Maeer 2014;Burtenshaw and Gould 2013;Little and Shackel 2007;Rockman and Flatman 2012). Public archaeology can directly contribute to learning (Beatrix 2013; see also Malone et al� 2000) -helping to make learning more enjoyable; helping people explore the human past, multi-culturalism, and promote tolerance and appreciation of others. ...
Book
Full-text available
How should communities be engaged with archaeological research and how are new projects targeting distinctive groups and deploying innovative methods and media? In particular, how are art/archaeological interactions key to public archaeology today? This collection provides original perspectives on public archaeology’s current practices and future potentials focusing on art/archaeological media, strategies and subjects. It stems from the 2nd University of Chester Archaeology Student Conference, held on 5 April 2017 at the Grosvenor Museum, Chester: Archaeo-Engage: Engaging Communities in Archaeology.
... (Walker & Carr, 2013). This has changed over the past decade, which has witnessed several publications addressing this topic directly (Burtenshaw, 2017;Timothy, 2014;Walker & Carr, 2013). ...
Article
The objective of this study is to examine the management strategies for archaeological heritage sites and to identify optimal managerial strategies for such sites. The study is primarily qualitative in nature and consists of two main stages: a) development of a conceptual framework based on measures for site evaluation; 2) application of the methodology to four case studies. The findings indicate that in addition to the realms of Environment and Economy, heritage sites have three other significant realms that are relevant to archaeological sites: Values and Culture, Organization and Legislation, and Society and Community. These three realms were found to hold significance for the long-term management of archaeological tourism, although they are currently underdeveloped in the four case studies investigated. The study also proposes a model called the Sustainability Index for Archaeological Sites (SIAS), which can serve as a basis for operative decisions in the management process.
... This will facilitate the incorporation of broader input in the formulation of research objectives and logistical planning. Prior examples of community-oriented research designs have yielded valuable insights into the possible benefits and complications of taking such an approach [4,5,14,17,24,38,45]. Taking the explicit step from community participation to integration in project planning has the potential to augment local community support for the cultural heritage goals and add new dimensions to knowledge production. ...
Article
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This paper explores specific challenges that archaeologists face when attempting to involve a broader community of local stakeholders in cultural heritage research. We combine our perspectives as a US-based archaeologist and a local community member in a discussion of practical approaches for promoting more equitable research collaborations in the Puuc region of the northern Maya lowlands. The format of the paper includes a blend of dialogue, narrative, and analysis. First, we evaluate the importance of engaging in social interactions outside of the fieldwork setting and examine the limitations to full-coverage community participation. Next, we discuss the structural barriers discouraging greater local interest in cultural heritage research. We assess the potential of linguistic education and digital conservation programs for encouraging broader-scale engagement with knowledge production. Finally, we highlight the importance of employment by archaeological research projects as the critical factor influencing local participation in heritage-related activities. Barring immediate structural changes to the socio-economy of the Yucatán, the most significant way to promote local involvement in cultural heritage projects is for archaeologists and community members to work together to try to secure funding for more sustainable employment opportunities.
... Despite these case studies chapters being quite long and descriptive, the author has drawn out from her selection the complex social roles that heritage plays. The disagreements may be about the interpretation of artefacts, authenticity of the presentation, economic factors, and social developments, or political influences (Clark 2008;Gould and Burtenshaw 2014;Turner and Tomer 2013). The development-led excavations had drawn completely opposite attitudes about the in situ preservation from the general public. ...
... However, many people, especially in developing communities, may underestimate the importance of these invaluable treasures. Moreover, antiquities are a main contributor to the economy for their significant role in attracting tourists (Gould and Burtenshaw 2014;Vasile 2019), mainly in areas that comprise several archeological considerable and vital landmarks, as tourists' interest in various touristic facilities would provide good revenue in various foreign currencies (López et al. 2018). ...
Article
Many archeological sites and cultural heritage in Iraq have suffered from disappearance as a result of climate factors and human interventions. In this study, principal component analysis (PCA) was used to interpret the dual-polarimetric ALOS image for the purpose of identifying the archeological remnants in the site of Tulul al-Ukhaidir. The results led to the identification of 21 potential sites, four of them in the right shoulder of Wadi Al-Abyadh (white valley), and 17 in the left shoulder. Nine sites were appeared as not covered and clearly visible after comparing them with the recent high-resolution image and the field observations, which were in the form of hills containing scattered stone remains, brick walls, and the remains of ancient archeological structures, whereas 12 sites nominated as potential archeological remains, which were completely covered with loose sand. 3D ground penetrating radar (GPR) investigation was performed in site P5 using a 250 MHz shielded antenna covering an area of 9 × 42.5 m, in order to verify the results of ALOS imagery and to characterize and depict the potential subsurface of the buried objects. The results of the GPR survey revealed a number of anomalies interpreted as demolished walls appeared on shallow depths begin approximately 0.15 to 0.3 m below surface, continue down to various depths, and have a width ranging from 0.5–5 m. One of the important anomalies that has been distinguished is the fence (sur) at a depth of about 0.2 m and it has a width reach of 7 m.
... But, as Neal Ascherson explained in his editorial to the first volume of the journal Public Archaeology (2000: 1-4), public archaeology is much more than that: it is also about ethics, the understanding of archaeology as an opening towards many societal themes such as integration, differentiation, ecology, economic or even political development. Observing much of the activities that have been undertaken in this sense since the beginning of the twenty-first century (e.g., Freedman et al. 2011;Gould and Burtenshaw 2014 in the case of tourism and economy), I continue to believe that public archaeology concerns almost every action archaeologists undertake, as well as how he or she does it. ...
Book
Archaeological sites opened to the public, and especially those highly photogenic sites that have achieved iconic status, are often major tourist attractions. By opening an archaeological site to tourism, threats and opportunities will emerge.The threats are to the archaeological record, the pre-historic or historic materials in context at the site that can provide facts about human history and the human relationship to the environment. The opportunities are to share what can be learned at archaeological sites and how it can be learned. The latter is important because doing so can build a public constituency for archaeology that appreciates and will support the potential of archaeology to contribute to conversations about contemporary issues, such as the root causes and possible solutions to conflict among humans and the social implications of environmental degradation. In this volume we will consider factors that render effective management of archaeological sites open to the public feasible, and therefore sustainable. We approach this in two ways: The first is by presenting some promising ways to assess and enhance the feasibility of establishing effective management. Assessing feasibility involves examining tourism potential, which must consider the demographic sectors from which visitors to the site are drawn or might be in the future, identifying preservation issues associated with hosting visitors from the various demographic sectors, and the possibility and means by which local communities might be engaged in identifying issues and generating long-term support for effective management. The second part of the book will provide brief case studies of places and ways in which the feasibility of sustainable management has been improved.
... But, as Neal Ascherson explained in his editorial to the first volume of the journal Public Archaeology (2000: 1-4), public archaeology is much more than that: it is also about ethics, the understanding of archaeology as an opening towards many societal themes such as integration, differentiation, ecology, economic or even political development. Observing much of the activities that have been undertaken in this sense since the beginning of the twenty-first century (e.g., Freedman et al. 2011;Gould and Burtenshaw 2014 in the case of tourism and economy), I continue to believe that public archaeology concerns almost every action archaeologists undertake, as well as how he or she does it. ...
Book
This book will suggest new agendas for identity and heritage studies by means of presenting contentious issues facing archaeology and heritage management in a globalized world. The book is not only present the variability of heritage objectives and experiences in the New and Old World, and opens a discussion, in a shrinking world, to look beyond national and regional contexts. If the heritage sector and archaeology are to remain relevant in our contemporary world and the near future, there are a number of questions concerning the politics, practices and narratives related to heritage and identity that must be addressed. Questions of relevance in an affluent, cosmopolitan setting are at odds with those relevant for a region emerging from civil war or ethnic strife, or a national minority battling oppression or ethnic cleansing. A premise is that heritage represents a broad scope of empirically and theoretically sound interpretations – that heritage is a response to contemporary forces, as much as data. It is therefore necessary constantly to evaluate what is scientifically accurate as well as what is valid and relevant and what can have a contemporary impact.
... This is increasingly the sort of project undertaken by archaeologists seeking to create economic opportunities in communities rich in archaeological and heritage resources. The projects of the Sustainable Preservation Initiative ( www.sustainablepreservation.org ) and the Global Heritage Fund ( www.globalheritgefund.org ) are but two examples of projects sponsored by numerous non-governmental organizations and individual archaeologists (for other examples, see Burtenshaw and Gould 2015 ). The objective of these projects is to promote local economic development that is identifi ed with the heritage resource, in the hope that economic benefi ts will encourage communities to prevent looting and support preservation of archaeological sites or heritage resources. ...
Book
Archaeology has an often contentious relationship with the consequences of economic development. Tourism, urban development and natural resource exploitation have generated adverse impact on the archaeological record, indigenous cultures and local communities worldwide. Over the decades, international conventions, national laws and corporate ventures have sought to address the problems, but too often they have fallen short and immense challenges remain. Looking ahead, the contributions to this volume constitute a global conversation on the most salient issue facing archaeology as it interacts with economic development: Is collision with development still the best course? Or, is a more effective strategy to pursue collaborative relationships with the forces of economic and social change?
... Thus, public archaeology as currently understood involves not only cultural resource management, but educational outreach projects, and community-based or communityled archaeology projects (Ascherson 2000; Faulkner 2000; Merriman 2004; Okamura and Matsuda 2011) and is implicated in the regeneration of economies and civic society, sustainable development initiatives, entertainment industries, and even efforts towards conflict resolution (see Gould and Burtenshaw 2014; Holtorf 2013; Little 2002; Stottman 2010). All these speak to the discipline's accountability to the public and encourage a view that the discipline does not harbour intrinsic merit, but exists to serve various communities (including academic ones). ...
Thesis
This thesis examines the use of social media by museums aiming to establish collaborative relationships with the public. Social media platforms have been widely espoused as transformative in allowing diverse, new or previously excluded audiences to enter into egalitarian, participatory relationships with museums. This thesis deconstructs the concepts of participation and collaboration and identifies the various factors that constrain the extent to which social media enables participatory relationships between previously unequal actors. These factors include the historical disciplinary aims and cultural authority of museums, persistent social inequalities, and the motivations of social media followers. It elucidates crucial questions such as, are various publics enabled to participate on an equal level with each other and with museums? Who benefits from collaborative projects in general and which parties benefit from the use of social media in particular? What are the factors that limit the establishment of collaborative practice? And, conversely, what are the factors that define truly collaborative practice? This research examines museums’ use of and discourses surrounding social media as well as social media followers’ motivations for engaging with museums online. A large body of quantitative and qualitative data gained through in-depth web-based surveys is analysed, primarily using critical discourse analysis, and informed by other critical orientations including media archaeology and the sociology of expertise. The analysis indicates that museums consider social media to be a transformative, democratising technology. However, museums’ acceptance of technologically determinist arguments significantly inhibits positive societal change and the extent to which collaborative relationships can be established with various publics. This research contributes significantly to the existing archaeological and museum studies literature by providing a theoretically and empirically informed critical analysis of the prevailing positive discourses surrounding social media and participation. It has important practical implications for museums in arguing that targeted, critically informed and ethically aware projects are necessary to achieve situations resembling ‘collaboration’. It provides a significant body of data that will inform the formulation and continuation of collaborative projects in museums. Furthermore, it informs broader archaeological debates on involving various publics in archaeological practice. This thesis also demonstrates the importance and effectiveness of critical discourse analysis and related critical approaches for analysing large bodies of qualitative data.
... This is increasingly the sort of project undertaken by archaeologists seeking to create economic opportunities in communities rich in archaeological and heritage resources. The projects of the Sustainable Preservation Initiative ( www.sustainablepreservation.org ) and the Global Heritage Fund ( www.globalheritgefund.org ) are but two examples of projects sponsored by numerous non-governmental organizations and individual archaeologists (for other examples, see Burtenshaw and Gould 2015 ). The objective of these projects is to promote local economic development that is identifi ed with the heritage resource, in the hope that economic benefi ts will encourage communities to prevent looting and support preservation of archaeological sites or heritage resources. ...
Chapter
For an archaeologist hoping to contribute to community development, treating archaeological heritage as a common pool resource (CPR) for primary stakeholders seems like a way to develop a sustainable tourist economy. A sustainably developed CPR could provide the economic stability that many believe underpins human rights. This paper describes the marginal success of the development of the archaeological site of Chau Hiix, Belize as a CPR for Crooked Tree Village. An alternative type of contribution that archaeologists can make in support of human rights is suggested.
... This is increasingly the sort of project undertaken by archaeologists seeking to create economic opportunities in communities rich in archaeological and heritage resources. The projects of the Sustainable Preservation Initiative ( www.sustainablepreservation.org ) and the Global Heritage Fund ( www.globalheritgefund.org ) are but two examples of projects sponsored by numerous non-governmental organizations and individual archaeologists (for other examples, see Burtenshaw and Gould 2015 ). The objective of these projects is to promote local economic development that is identifi ed with the heritage resource, in the hope that economic benefi ts will encourage communities to prevent looting and support preservation of archaeological sites or heritage resources. ...
Chapter
The “commons” is gaining attention as a possible alternative model for managing tangible and intangible heritage in a manner that devolves authority and responsibility to local communities through mechanisms that are democratic and privilege local over national or global interests. This chapter reviews the literature on the commons within archaeology and heritage management, evaluates theorizing on the commons in the context of heritage, and explores, through literature review and case studies from Belize and Peru, the challenges and opportunities that arise should archaeologists and heritage managers seek to adopt the commons as a guiding principle for community projects. The chapter emphasizes that the problem of governance—the rules under which the competing interests of stakeholders in a venture manage their activities and resolve their differences—is an underappreciated but critical ingredient in the design of effective commons-like models for heritage management.
Article
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Archaeology and archaeological work are tightly linked to contemporary societal challenges. Archaeology has much to contribute to the understanding, contextualising and working out of global challenges from migration to environmental change. In parallel to how archaeology impacts society, the society, societal changes, and challenges impact archaeology and its public mission of preserving and interpreting the physical and curating the informational archaeological record. Similarly, they impact archaeological practices, that is how archaeology is done in practice. This article draws attention to the need to comprehend what the increasing diversity and multiplicity of links between archaeological practices, knowledge work, and contemporary societal challenges implies for the understanding of how archaeology is achieved and archaeological knowledge is produced. The discussion is based on input collected from 50 members of the COST Action Archaeological Practices and Knowledge Work in the Digital Environment (www.arkwork.eu) who shared their views on how archaeology can contribute to solving contemporary societal challenges and what societal changes and challenges are likely to affect the field of archaeology during the next 5 years. In addition to a continuing need to increase the understanding of archaeological practices and their implications, distilling the outcomes of the state of the art into shared, validated, and actionable lessons learned applicable for societal benefit remains another major challenge.
Article
Archaeological heritage has significant impacts on development in the Global South. Projects have informed environmental policies or improved local communities’ prospects in managing their heritage resources, and sites promote local economic development through tourism. However, many of these development impacts are short-lived or disappointing due to a lack of critical awareness and tracing of how the project fits with local objectives and its consequences over time. This is related to inadequate or insufficient evaluation. This paper argues that the heritage sector has much to gain from considering evaluation problems through a development lens. It reviews how archaeology contributes to development, the successes and shortcomings of past efforts, and how evaluation can help. The paper then discusses public archaeology as a natural theoretical and methodological bridge between archaeology and international development, and examines the limits of current evaluation methods, which are not systematic or focus on a limited number of impacts. Looking ahead, the review recommends testing development evaluation methods in the context of archaeological projects to develop the toolbox of evaluation methods available in the heritage sector.
Chapter
The main aim of this book was to determine in what ways heritage, sustainability, and development intersect in Africa. This firstly implied that the relationships, tensions, and challenges between heritage, development, and sustainability in Africa had to be investigated. Secondly, it required reflection on how heritage is conceptualized in diverse African contexts and how it interfaces with social, economic, and political priorities. For this epilogue, the chapters of the volume have been analyzed in the context of these objectives. In what follows, an attempt will also be made to reflect on what issues relating to heritage, development, and sustainability are specifically relevant to Africa and whether they are distinct to certain parts of Africa. Possible actions to be considered to rectify tensions and to address challenges will be indicated.
Article
The case study presented in this paper is an account of six months of ethnographic fieldwork that I conducted between 2010 and 2013 in the villages within the UNESCO World Heritage site of Butrint National Park, located on the Albanian-Greek border. My ethnography reveals the particularly complex tangle that exists between development and heritage projects in transitioning countries such as Albania, which is re-positioning its governance within a neoliberal framework. The research takes an anthropological approach to investigate how the “heritage for development” projects at Butrint National Park are affecting the local community and distressing local power relations and social inequalities, while at the same time are instilling a sense of place for many of these communities that have relocated or were forced from their homes during the post-communist period as a result of confusion over land ownership. This case study demonstrates that while sustainable heritage practices are often overpowered by neoliberal agendas, heritage repurposed towards development has real and powerful effects on the communities connected to the site. In this paper I argue that we need anthro­pologically informed studies that give due attention to the realities of the communities connected to the site in order to reveal how sustainable heritage policies that are not set up to protect the community can have detrimental effects on the locals, including reinforced structural inequality, marginalization of minorities, and divisions among communities.
Article
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It is increasingly necessary to have a self-reflective debate about the ethical responsibilities towards the public and the impact of archaeology on the “real world”. Not only is the public’s interest in archaeology higher than ever before, the public also wishes to active-ly participate and be involved in the decision-making process. Archaeologists must be on equal footing with the public, engage in a dia-logue and involve it in the decision-making and work process. It must be acknowledged that the past has different meanings and values for different groups. Open Access publications and dissemination of information through new media are only the first steps, a true demo-cratisation of archaeology must include public participation and support for community-led research projects. This cultural empowerment gives the public its own ‚archaeological voice‘, higher quality of life and generates higher interest and motivation in the preservation of cultural heritage. In exchange, archaeology gains a valuable resource that can be used for excavations, crowdsourcing and monitoring purposes. Initiatives and alternative funding models used in the anglophone world can serve as examples. The aim should be, that public archaeology must be part of the education of new generations of archaeologists.
Article
El objetivo de este ensayo es presentar las bases analíticas de la economía de la arqueología. Se caracteriza el patrimonio arqueológico como un bien económico de características particulares, como su carácter dotacional e irreproducible, sometido a condiciones de sostenibilidad, que reúne las peculiaridades de un bien público o recurso de propiedad común, vinculado además a escenarios de información imperfecta. Estas características hacen que las condiciones de provisión no estén bien resueltas en una economía de mercado. Se profundiza, entonces, en los componentes de valor de la arqueología, distinguiendo entre valor cultural, valor económico, valor social e impacto económico. Se muestran finalmente distintas metodologías y aplicaciones sobre valoración e impacto económico del patrimonio arqueológico.
Book
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Dossier Petrovaradin reflects the logic of the Case Petrovaradin project and brings together key concepts, new research, ideas for interventions, and recommendations created throughout the project. In tracing the ideas, discussions, and knowledge gained throughout Case Petrovaradin, the Dossier traces the principles of sharing, cooperation and interdisciplinarity that have been embedded in each activity of the project. Over forty authors, many of whom did not know each other before coming to Petrovaradin, created a mosaic of approaches, findings, ideas, and imaginings which all attempt to portray as fairly as possible the astonishing complexity of Petrovaradin Fortress. Their contributions are presented in four Folders, beginning with conceptual discussions, followed by field research, then ideas and interventions, and ending with policy recommendations.
Article
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Models and classifications have been a part of thinking about public archaeology since at least the early 2000s, but how are these ideas translated into practice? By looking into the development of such classifications and models and by examining archaeologists’ attitudes to an archaeological education outreach project for schoolchildren in Oslo, Norway, this paper looks at the relationship between classification, theory, and practice in public archaeology. © 2018, © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.
Article
Since its enactment over five decades ago, theNational Historic Preservation Act (NHPA) and the organizations, policies, and regulations implementing it have strongly influenced how archaeology is conducted in the United States. The NHPA created a national network of archaeologists in government agencies. This network reviews the possible impact on important archaeological resources of tens of thousands of public projects planned each year. These reviews often include investigations, of which there have been millions. The archaeological profession has shifted from one oriented mainly on academic research and teaching to one focused on field investigations, planning, resource management, public outreach, and resource protection, bundled under the term cultural resource management (CRM). Since 1966, growth has produced good outcomes aswell as sometroubling developments. Current and new challenges include avoiding lock-step, overly bureaucratic procedures and finding the financial, professional, and technical resources, as well as political support, to build on the achievements so far.
Chapter
Archaeological heritage tourism may be considered as a specific facet of public archaeology, while it refers to a certain number of international charters and conventions. There is probably no single way to manage a touristic project in relationship with an archaeological site, but defining standards of good practice may help with the implementation. Effective and sustainable archaeological tourism is based on several principles, including training and research, preservation and protection, quality and authenticity and interpretation and cooperation between all partners.
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During the 2014 excavation campaign at Vignale an impressive late antique mosaic depicting Aion, the God of Time, was discovered. This artifact of 100 m ² became a milestone for outreach activities; fund-raising, theatrical performances, and archaeological trekking sessions were tailored to this finding, in collaboration with local associations. The discovery of the mosaic consolidated the promotional lines followed for this project, on-site and off-site, capable of engaging different audiences. Taking into account the recent debate about emotion as an essential constituent of the heritage-making process, a preliminary analysis of these initiatives questions the existence and the development of an emotional connection between the public and the archaeological site. Since an emotional connection emerged, further analyses and studies need to specify the kinds of emotive connection that occur. Assessment of the emotional impact intrinsic to public outreach will provide clues to transforming the “intellectual” emotion of discovery into a shared and valuable emotion for the benefit of both the archaeological project and its stakeholders.
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The study explored the value that local residents place on historic ruins, focusing on their socio-economic value. It also explored the implications of conventional Cultural Heritage Management’s (CHM) indifference to this. Using in-depth data from 22 residents in Kilwa Kisiwani World Heritage Site in Tanzania, the study found that residents not only attach cultural value to the ruins, but also consider them a conservation project and tourist attraction, from which they can earn money and get employment and see infrastructure and social facilities developed. It also found that the destructive activities of illegally digging to construct toilets and water collectors, letting domestic animals wander in the ruins, quarrying old underground walls for coral stones, and lighting fires are partly the result of limited socio-economic benefits, inconsistent business opportunities, complaints about employment and payment, and few feasible alternatives for making a living. By engaging with the socio-economic discourse, this study broadens our understanding of the integration of conservation in the broader social agenda, and contributes to the economist-anthropologic debate on CHM. It informs heritage managers and policy makers on alternative strategies that would maintain the sustainability of the heritage.
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The relatively short-lived, early modern Portuguese military presence along the Omani coast, but also that of the nowadays United Arab Emirates, has left few physical remains. Some forts have been partially excavated, whilst others seem to have been so heavily reconstructed that their original layout remains invisible. As a result, they have little impact on the visitor experience. This paper seeks to provide a framework that renders these forts, and the narratives around them, pertinent in terms of authenticity. A second step deals with their integration as a potentially distinctive heritage resource. Both approaches need to ponder whether such structures are to become major tourist attractions, which seems unfeasible in the near future, yet destinations may still capitalize on them as part of an integrated marketing strategy. As an exercise, the following text can build on comparable examples, ranging from certain prehistoric sites to forms of intangible heritage, as their commodification faces, to some extent at least, similar challenges. In any case, in the heavily Dubai-centered tourism industry of the UAE, the sustainable use of cultural niche areas along the coast does fit well the national design for diversification.
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An archaeological project and a community museum in Agua Blanca, Ecuador, have helped catalyse a remarkable process of ecological and cultural awareness complemented by economic advances. Some twenty-five years after the museum’s inauguration, as well as visiting the archaeological site and museum, tourists can observe the Machalilla National Park’s distinctive flora and fauna, camp, hike, swim, stay in village homes, buy locally made handcrafts, and eat in the community restaurant. These initiatives have been set up by the village in collaboration with local, national, and overseas agencies, in ways which spread benefits as widely as possible. After the introduction of a new constitution in 2008, which recognizes the multi-ethnic character of Ecuador’s population, Agua Blanca and adjacent communities asked to be officially recognized as ‘Pueblo Manta’ — an identity derived from the area’s pre-Spanish archaeology. Agua Blanca’s experience shows that much can be achieved through confidence in cultural identity, and that locally managed community tourism brings tangible economic benefits to local people, while serving to protect vulnerable archaeological sites from destruction.
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El patrimonio es hoy una palabra en boca de todos. Ha sido enarbolado por naciones e instituciones, estudiado por intelectuales y científicos, criticado por su capacidad de generar conflictividad en relación con la identidad y la memoria, y mercantilizado globalmente a partir de criterios semejantes, desde Tailandia hasta Bolivia. Pero estas investigaciones han partido mayoritariamente del supuesto de que el patrimonio es algo dado, incluso bueno y valioso por sí mismo, y que ha existido siempre. Por ello, el concepto de patrimonio no ha sido cuestionado como categoría, es decir, como una forma de relación propia de sociedades fetichistas y, por tanto, históricamente determinada y con unas raíces histórico-culturales intrínsecamente conectadas al surgimiento y expansión del capitalismo y de la epistemología de la Ilustración, moderna y occidental. Este libro propone una crítica a la categoría de patrimonio a partir de una etnografía en la comarca de Maragatería, España. La etnografía analiza empíricamente las transformaciones y procesos que llevan, o no, al patrimonio a pasar a existir entre los habitantes maragatos. El libro también deconstruye el mito del pueblo maragato como maldito y marginal, mito que atrajo ayer y hoy la atención de tantos intelectuales y científicos, mostrando la relación intrínseca entre la construcción del Estado-nación español, la generación de identidades diferenciales subalternas, el desarrollo capitalista, y el surgimiento y la mercantilización del patrimonio cultural.
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The Egyptian revolution of 25 th January 2011 brought the authoritarian regime of Hosni Mubarak to an end and gave hope of greater social, political and economic freedom to millions of people. However, the lack of administrative continuity, government funding, disappearance of the police and enforceable laws and regulations in the field of cultural heritage management over subsequent years left Egypt's cultural heritage highly vulnerable. Museums and magazines were attacked and robbed, and hundreds of sites looted, often by well organised criminal gangs wielding automatic weapons. Terrorist attacks and sectarian violence have resulted in the destruction of museums, churches and other historic buildings, as well as illicit and illegal encroachments onto both protected and unprotected archaeological land, often as a ruse to conceal looting activity. The population of Egypt is booming; however, reclaimed desert has been neglected as a venue for construction, with developers favouring convenient archaeological sites, or historic Belle Époque buildings that have been razed for the construction of tenements. This is not only destroying the aesthetics of the great cities, but strikes at the very heart of Egypt's multiethnicity. Many individuals –both heritage workers and the general public – have come together to protect their heritage from the unscrupulous, from forming human chains around vulnerable monuments to the formation of social media campaigns to warn against the imminent destruction of cultural heritage, and to demand greater security at sites and monuments. This is an opportunity for greater cooperation between Egyptian and international archaeologists, and with the general public who live beside these sites and monuments. It is an opportunity to create new systems of administration and laws to protect cultural heritage, and to listen to the voices of the modern Egyptians in formulating heritage management and values.
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The paper investigates ways to make archaeological heritage accessible to a wide public. Although archaeological sites, museums and historical monuments are amongst the most appealing cultural establishments, their visitation is occasional. Therefore, the potential of growth is significant. The diversity of sites and a wide array of valorisation strategies could support a much more intense visitation. The paper is methodologically based on a literature review of the management of archaeological sites in order to observe the solutions adopted around the world and to identify a typology of strategies in correlation with the form of archaeological sites considered. The second part of the research investigates both the reasons which facilitate and which prevent the public from visiting archaeological sites amongst Romanians and other Europeans. The final part offers some insights into strategic approaches of archaeological sites` management that could cope with the present cultural environment and help visitors to better understand the past.
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Two PhD students due to attend WAC 8 reflect on what brought them to Kyoto and what they hope to gain from the encounter.
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One of the most creative innovations of Stephen Shennan’s directorship is the annual Institute of Archaeology Conference Competition. This scheme is now in its seventh year (with the result of the eighth competition just announced) and it seems a good time to document and celebrate its success. The competition takes place in the spring of each year, with the winning conference being held in the following academic year. In the present format, applicants are asked to outline and justify the conference topic, list the proposed speakers and present a rough budget, with an indication of where the rest of the funds will be obtained if the conference costs are likely to exceed the £2000 of the award. There is no restriction as to the subject of the conference or its scale, though it is stipulated that the award must make a significant difference to the viability of the conference and that the conference fee for Institute attendees should be minimal, with a maximum of £10 for students.
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