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Abstract

The prevailing behavioral account of marriage must be expanded to include covert processes. This article therefore examines the attributions or explanations that spouses make for marital events. A review indicates that dissatisfied spouses, compared with satisfied spouses, make attributions for the partner's behavior that cast it in a negative light. Experimental, clinical outcome, and longitudinal data suggest further that attributions may influence marital satisfaction. Rival hypotheses for these findings are examined. Because continued empirical development in this domain depends on conceptual progress, a framework is presented that integrates attributions, behavior, and marital satisfaction. This framework points to several topics that require systematic study, and specific hypotheses are offered for research on these topics. It is concluded that the promising start made toward understanding marital attributions holds considerable potential for enriching behavioral conceptions of marriage.

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... From a cognitive perspective, the attributions couples make for their partner's negative behaviors affect marital satisfaction (Bradbury and Fincham 1990). Benign attributions are found to be protective against poor marital outcomes, and, conversely, dissatisfied partners tend to make more negative attributions (Bradbury et al. 1996;Bradbury and Fincham 1990;Fincham and Bradbury 1993). ...
... From a cognitive perspective, the attributions couples make for their partner's negative behaviors affect marital satisfaction (Bradbury and Fincham 1990). Benign attributions are found to be protective against poor marital outcomes, and, conversely, dissatisfied partners tend to make more negative attributions (Bradbury et al. 1996;Bradbury and Fincham 1990;Fincham and Bradbury 1993). Among couples in unfulfilling or dissatisfying relationships, partner behaviors are often judged to be intentional, unchanging, and part of their character (Bradbury and Fincham 1990). ...
... Benign attributions are found to be protective against poor marital outcomes, and, conversely, dissatisfied partners tend to make more negative attributions (Bradbury et al. 1996;Bradbury and Fincham 1990;Fincham and Bradbury 1993). Among couples in unfulfilling or dissatisfying relationships, partner behaviors are often judged to be intentional, unchanging, and part of their character (Bradbury and Fincham 1990). These types of negative attributions have also been related to ineffective problem-solving behaviors (Bradbury and Fincham 1992), which can further perpetuate relationship dissatisfaction. ...
Article
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Parents of children on the autism spectrum are particularly susceptible to strain in their romantic relationships due to unique risk factors. While some relationships deteriorate, however, others endure and thrive. The Vulnerability Stress Adaptation (VSA) Model of Marriage (Karney & Bradbury, 1995; Fig. 1) offers a framework to explain, not only poor marital outcomes, but also the process by which degradation of relationships occurs over time. The VSA Model posits that a combination of internal (within-person) vulnerabilities and external stressors influence relationship quality and, in turn, stability, by affecting couples’ abilities to collaborate to adapt to stressors and solve problems (i.e., adaptive processes). With robust theoretical grounding, this review comprehensively summarizes and integrates literature pertaining to the romantic relationships of couples raising an autistic child through the lens of the VSA Model. Vulnerabilities, stressors, and adaptive processes relevant to these couples are identified, and empirical evidence pertaining to the proposed pathways in the VSA Model is explored. The body of research reviewed provides support for many of the proposed pathways in the VSA Model, especially related to certain stressors (i.e., child behavior problems) and vulnerabilities (i.e., parent depression), yet it falls short in exploring mechanisms by which these factors beget marital dysfunction (i.e., through adaptive processes). Additional gaps and methodological limitations in the literature are highlighted, and recommendations for future research are provided.
... Karney and Bradbury (2000) stated that the relationship between attributions and satisfaction is the strongest link in the literature on close relationships. According to Bradbury and Fincham (1990), the attributions or explanations that spouses propose for a partner's behavior have been constantly related to their marital quality. Theoretically, the basis for considering attributions within the context of marriage stemmed from the observation that in distressed marriages one spouse's negative behavior often precipitated the other spouse's negative behavioral response (Bradbury & Fincham, 1990). ...
... According to Bradbury and Fincham (1990), the attributions or explanations that spouses propose for a partner's behavior have been constantly related to their marital quality. Theoretically, the basis for considering attributions within the context of marriage stemmed from the observation that in distressed marriages one spouse's negative behavior often precipitated the other spouse's negative behavioral response (Bradbury & Fincham, 1990). In literature it is hypothesized that distressed spouses make attributions for negative events that emphasize their impact (e.g., they find the cause in their partner, see it as stable or unchanging, and see it as global or influencing many areas of the relationship), whereas nondistressed spouses are thought to make attributions that minimize the impact of negative events (e.g., they do not find the cause in the partner and they see it as unstable and specific). ...
... The research findings point out that maladaptive attributions of the partners for events in their relationship are predictor factors of decreasing marriage quality (Bradbury & Fincham, 1990;Fincham, 1994;Bradbury et al, 1996). Studies on attributions and marital satisfaction show that spouses who attribute their spouse's negative behaviors to internal factors are more likely to be martially distressed (Fincham, 1994;Epstein & Baucom, 1993;Fincham, Beach, & Bradbury, 1989). ...
Article
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In this study, the relationships between constructive thinking, attributions and marital satisfaction in married individuals were investigated and tried to reveal the predictive role of constructive thinking on attributions and marital satisfaction. Correlational research design was used in the study. The study group of the research consisted of a total of 202 married individuals, 142 females and 60 males. In order to collect data Constructive Thinking Inventory, Relational Attribution Measure and Marital Life Scale were used. Pearson Moments Correlation Coefficient Analysis and Multiple Regression Analysis were used in the analysis of the data. According the results of multiple regression analysis in order to reveal what extent to constructive thinking predicts attributions it is seen that the model as a whole is meaningful and the variables in the model all explain 20% of the total variance of attributions. According to the results, emotional coping and superstitious thinking have highest contribution on the model. According to the results of the multiple regression analysis in order to reveal what extent to constructive thinking and attributions together predict marital satisfaction, it is seen that the model as a whole is meaningful. The variables in the model all explain 47% of the total variance of marital satisfaction. Causal attributions, total attributions and behavioral coping have highest contribution on the second model. Öz Bu çalışmada evli bireylerde yapılandırmacı düşünme, yüklemeler ve evlilik doyumu arasındaki ilişkiler incelenmiş ve yapılandırmacı düşünmenin, yüklemeler ve evlilik doyumu üzerindeki yordayıcı etkisi ortaya çıkarılmaya çalışılmıştır. Değişkenler arasındaki ilişkileri ortaya koyma amacı taşıyan araştırmada ilişkisel desen kullanılmıştır. Araştırmanın çalışma grubu, 142'si kadın, 60'ı erkek olmak üzere toplam 202 evli bireyden oluşmaktadır. Verilerin toplanmasında Yapılandırmacı Düşünme Envanteri, İlişkilerde Yükleme Ölçeği ve Evlilik Yaşamı Ölçeği kullanılmıştır. Verilerin analizinde Pearson Momentler Korelasyon Katsayısı Analizi ve Çoklu Regresyon Analizi kullanılmıştır. Analiz bulguları, yapılandırmacı düşünmenin yüklemeleri ne ölçüde yordadığına ilişkin modelin bir bütün olarak anlamlı olduğunu ve modeldeki değişkenlerin tümünün yüklemelerdeki toplam varyansın yüzde 20'sini açıkladığını göstermektedir. Analiz sonuçlarına göre modele en fazla katkıda bulunan yapılandırmacı düşünme alt boyutlarının; duygusal başa çıkma ve batıl inançlarla düşünme olduğu görülmüştür. Analiz sonuçlarına göre, yapılandırmacı düşünme ve yüklemelerin evlilik doyumunu ne ölçüde yordadığına ilişkin ikinci modelin bir bütün olarak anlamlı olduğu görülmektedir. Modeldeki değişkenlerin hepsi, evlilik doyumunun toplam varyansının % 47'sini açıklamaktadır. Standartlaştırılmış regresyon katsayısına göre, modele en fazla katkıda bulunan değişkenler, nedensel yüklemeler, nedensel ve sorumluluk yüklemelerin toplamı ve yapılandırmacı düşünmenin alt boyutu olan davranışsal başa çıkma olmuştur.
... Eşlerin evlilik olayları için yaptıkları atıfları veya açıklamaların incelendiği çalışmada memnun olmayan eşlerin genellikle bunun sebebini karşı tarafın olumsuz bakış açısına yordadıkları belirtilmiştir. Evlilikle ilgili olumsuzlukların eşlerin ve çocuklarının fiziksel ve duygusal iyi olma durumları üzerinde derin ve negatif etkisi olmaktadır (Bradbury & Fincham, 1990). ...
... 1900'lü yılların başında yapılan araştırmalar eş seçimi, rol beklentileri ve birbirini tamamlama ihtiyacı gibi konulara yoğunlaşırken, 1970'li yıllarda eşlerin birbirlerine karşı davranışları ve evlilik doyumları konularındaki akademik çalışmalar başladı. Son çalışmalar evlilik etkileşiminin duygusal ve bilişsel yönleri üzerinde durmaktadır (Bradbury & Fincham, 1990). ...
Conference Paper
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Toplumun en küçük birimi olarak kabul edilen aile birliğinin, insan yaşamında vazgeçilmez bir önemi vardır. Bireyin yaşamdan doyum alması, fonksiyonlarını etkili bir şekilde yerine getirmesi ve yaşadığı topluma uyumlu bir kişi olarak hizmet etmesi, öncelikle evlilik birliği içinde sağlanır. Evlilik toplumun devamlılığı açısından da ayrı bir öneme sahiptir. Aynı zamanda toplum düzeninin sağlıklı bir şekilde devam edebilmesi aynı zamanda evliliğin nasıl algılandığı ile de doğrudan ilişkili olmaktadır. Bu nedenle özellikle de evlilik kurumu içerisinde olan ebeveynlerin evliliğe ilişkin bakış açıları önemli olmaktadır. Bu çalışmanın amacı ebeveynlerin evlilik kavramına ilişkin algılarının metaforik olarak incelenmesidir. Bu bağlamda, anne ve babaların, bu kavramlara ilişkin algılarını ortaya çıkarmak amacıyla metaforlardan yararlanılmıştır. Araştırmanın çalışma grubunu Muş ilinde gerçekleştirilmiş olan “Çocukları Tanıma ve Anlama Seferberliği: Çocukmuşuz Bilim Şenliği Projesi”ne katılan ve çocuk sahibi olan ebeveynler oluşturmuştur. Buna göre toplam 161 anne ve baba araştırmaya katılmıştır. Nitel yöntemde yapılmış bu araştırmada veri toplama aracı olarak demografik bilgi formu ve araştırmacı tarafından hazırlanmış olan metafor forumundan yararlanılmıştır. Veri toplama aracı iki kısımdan oluşmaktadır. Birinci kısımda ebeveynlerin demografik özelliklerine ilişkin sorulara yer verilmiştir. İkinci kısımda ise ebeveynlerin şu ifadeyi tamamlamaları istenmiştir: “ Evlilik ……. gibidir. Çünkü……” Katılımcıların yazmış oldukları ifadeler, Microsoft Word dosyasına aktarılmıştır. Araştırma verileri içerik analizi ile çözümlenmiştir. Sonuç olarak “evlilik” e ilişkin elde edilen temalar “karmaşık bir yaşam, düzenli bir hayat, büyüyen bir kurum, eğlenceli bir şey, paylaşılan bir hayat” şeklinde olduğu saptanmıştır.
... As mentioned before, global perceptions of the partner and the relationship might influence how a woman perceives and evaluates her spouse's behavior in a particular situation. Furthermore, attributions have also been found to influence whether a certain behavior is perceived as being supportive (e.g., Bradbury & Fincham, 1990, 1992. This might also apply to the perception of a partner's attitudes and beliefs regarding a particular life situation such as the return to work. ...
... Relating received and provided support to each other Social support as outcome Differentiating forms of support Importance of transitionrelated self-efficacy beliefs Based on previous research and theoretical considerations (e.g., Bradbury & Fincham, 1990, 1992Cutrona et al., 1997;Gant et al., 1999;Mandemakers & Dykstra, 2008;Norton & Manne, 2007), women's personality traits, relationship quality (relationship satisfaction and problems), and transition-specific relationship beliefs were examined as predictors of the discrepancy score. "Transition-specific beliefs" included two concepts developed for the study: First, the partner's assumed attitude towards the woman's return to work, in other words, whether the woman thinks her partner approves of her re-entry and second, her couple-related self-efficacy belief facing return to work. ...
Article
Menschen brauchen soziale Beziehungen, um ihr grundlegendes Bedürfnis nach Bindung und Anschluss zu befriedigen (Baumeister & Leary, 1995; Bowlby, 1980; Harlow, 1958). Nicht nur häufige Kontakte und die Einbindung in ein soziales Netz sind wichtig, sondern auch das Gefühl, dass andere sich sorgen (Baumeister & Leary, 1995). Soziale Unterstützung betrifft Letzteres, die qualitative Ebene sozialer Beziehungen. Soziale Unterstützung führt zu besserem Wohlbefinden, besserer Gesundheit und einer höheren Lebenserwartung (z. B. Cohen & Wills, 1985; House, Landis et al., 1988; Uchino et al., 1996). Doch die Konsequenzen sozialer Unterstützung sind nicht immer nur positiv, ihre Wirkmechanismen komplex und ihre Determinanten teilweise noch ungeklärt. Ein Ziel dieser Arbeit ist es, das Konzept der erhaltenen Unterstützung besser zu verstehen und zu beleuchten, wie sie mit affektivem Wohlbefinden und Beruf-Familie Konflikten zusammenhängt. Weil ausserdem bekannt ist, dass soziale Unterstützung zeitabhängig wirkt, also beispielsweise abhängig davon, ob Menschen gerade akuten oder chronischen Stress erleben (z. B. Bolger et al., 2000; Kaniasty & Norris, 1993, 1996), wird sie deshalb im Kontext einer Transition betrachtet, nämlich des beruflichen Wiedereinstiegs von Müttern nach einer familienbedingten Erwerbsunterbrechung. Da der erste Arbeitstag planbar ist, können einerseits Zusammenhänge vor und nach dem Wiedereinstieg untersucht werden, andererseits ist für alle Frauen mindestens zeitlich vergleichbar, wie weit sie in der Transition schon fortgeschritten sind. Diese Arbeit gliedert sich in drei Teile, die verschiedene Fragen behandeln. In Teil I geht es um ein besseres Verständnis erhaltener Unterstützung. Fragt man Empfänger und Geber sozialer Unterstützung nach konkreten Unterstützungsleistungen innerhalb eines bestimmten Zeitraumes, so hängen diese Angaben erhaltener und gegebener Unterstützung nur moderat miteinander zusammen (z. B. Burkert et al., 2006a) und es ist noch weitgehend unklar, welche Merkmale eine Diskrepanz dieser Angaben vorhersagt. Anhand von Fragebogendaten von 207 Wiedereinsteigerinnen und ihren Partnern werden drei Determinanten aus der Sicht der Empfängerin untersucht: ihre Persönlichkeitseigenschaften (Big Five), die Beziehungsqualität, sowie ihre Beziehungsüberzeugungen in Bezug auf den Wiedereinstieg. Letztere umfassen zwei Konzepte, die für die Studie entwickelt wurden: die Einstellung des Partners zum beruflichen Wiedereinstieg aus der Sicht der Frau und ihre paarbezogenen Selbstwirksamkeitsüberzeugungen hinsichtlich des Wiedereinstiegs, also ob sie glaubt, mit vereinten Kräften die Berufsrückkehr meistern zu können. Entgegen den Erwartungen hängen die Persönlichkeitseigenschaften der Frau nicht mit dem Diskrepanzmass zusammen. Eine höhere Partnerschaftszufriedenheit sagt hingegen eine geringere Diskrepanz vorher – allerdings nur, wenn nicht zugleich Selbstwirksamkeitsüberzeugungen in die Analysen mit einbezogen wurden: Ausgeprägte paarbezogene Selbstwirksamkeitsüberzeugungen zwei Wochen vor dem Wiedereinstieg sagen – als einzig signifikanter Prädiktor – eine geringere Diskrepanz einen Monat nach dem Wiedereinstieg vorher. Teil II beleuchtet, wie emotionale, instrumentelle, informationale und so genannte companionship Unterstützung durch den Partner mit positivem und negativem Affekt der Frau beim Wiedereinstieg zusammenhängen. Ferner wird untersucht, ob bestätigte oder enttäuschte Erwartungen an diese Unterstützung darüber hinaus zur Vorhersage beitragen. Dazu wurden Fragebogenangaben der Frauen zwei Wochen vor ihrem Wiedereinstieg, einen Monat und zwei Monate danach analysiert. Erhaltene Unterstützung hängt mit erhöhtem affektiven Wohlbefinden beim Wiedereinstieg zusammen, allerdings abhängig vom Zeitpunkt in der Transition. Emotionale Unterstützung hat dabei von allen Unterstützungsformen den stärksten Einfluss. Erwartungen an die Unterstützung tragen ausserdem zur Vorhersage des affektiven Befindens der Frau bei und scheinen im Zeitverlauf wichtiger zu werden. In Teil III wird untersucht, ob und auf welche Weise soziale Unterstützung durch verschiedene Quellen, nämlich durch den Partner, die Familie, Vorgesetzte und Arbeitskollegen, mit Konflikten zwischen Beruf und Familie zusammenhängt. Es werden Fragebogendaten von 107 berufstätigen Müttern analysiert sowie Tagebuchangaben einer Substichprobe von 69 Müttern. Zwei theoretische Modelle werden überprüft: erstens ein Antezedenzmodell, in welchem soziale Unterstützung nicht direkt auf Beruf-Familie Konflikte wirkt sondern vermittelt über die Beanspruchung durch Beruf und Familie, zweitens ein Moderatormodell, in dem soziale Unterstützung abhängig von der erlebten Beanspruchung auf die Konflikte wirkt, also die vorhandene Korrelation zwischen Beanspruchung und Konflikten schwächt. Die Ergebnisse bestätigen teilweise das Antezedenzmodell, während sich für das Moderatormodell keine Belege finden. Fragebogen- und Tagebuchangaben führen zu verschiedenen Resultaten. Eine umfassende Diskussion integriert die Ergebnisse der drei Teile und liefert Ideen für künftige Forschung. In three parts, this thesis explores received social support and the role it plays in the well-being of working mothers and women re-entering the workforce after maternity leave. Part I examines whether women returning to work report the same amount of received social support as their partners indicate that they provided, and whether personality, relationship quality, and transition-related beliefs predict the discrepancy between these reports. It analyzes data from 207 women and their partners. As in previous research, received and provided support are only moderately correlated. Whereas personality traits were not related to the discrepancy, couple-related self-efficacy two weeks before return to work predicted a smaller discrepancy one month after re-entry. Part II investigates whether emotional, instrumental, informational, and companionship support from the partner predict women’s positive and negative affect. It analyzes questionnaires filled out by 292 women two weeks before their return to work and one and two months afterwards. Findings show that received support is positively related to positive affect and negatively related to negative affect and that emotional support has the strongest impact. Influences depend on the timing in the transition, and support decreases after return to work. Fulfilled support expectations have an additional impact on well-being. Part III examines how social support in the workplace and at home is related to work-family conflicts. Using cross-sectional questionnaire data from 107 working mothers and mini-longitudinal diary data from a subsample (n = 69), it tests two models against each other: The antecedence model, which assumes that the influence of support on work-family conflicts is mediated by strain, and the moderating model, whereby support weakens the relationship between stress and strain. Results partially confirm the antecedence model, depending on the level of analysis, i.e. whether questionnaire or diary data are examined. An Overall Discussion integrates the findings and provides ideas for further research.
... е. умствените, познавателни процеси) в брака са обясненията или атрибуциите, с които се описва и анализира поведението на партньора и брачните обстоятелства. Те се активират в най-висока степен, когато постъпките на партньора се разминават с очакваните стандарти или се случват негативни събития [2]. ...
... Лонгитюдни данни показват, че атрибуциите могат да оказват директно и индиректно влияние върху удовлетвореността от брака. Например, възприемайки негативното поведение на партньора като себелюбиво мотивирано, преднамерено и виновно е вероятно да се активират директни негативни оценки за него, които да доведат до временна редукция в удовлетвореността от брака [2]. ...
Conference Paper
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The report highlights key findings that have been established in the field of interpersonal processes in marriage (cognition, affect, physiology, behavioral patterns) and have been proven as factors determining marital satisfaction. Research on interpersonal processes in marriage retains a strong focus on behaviors exchanged during marital conflict and problem-solving discussions. This basic framework has been guided by the premise that positive behaviors enhance global evaluations of the marriage while negative behaviors do harm.
... In the general population, researchers have found a trifecta of challenges that leads to marital discord: poor communication [18][19][20][21], emotional dysregulation [22,23] and maladaptive attributions or what partners believe about the intentions of each other [24][25][26][27]. In a population with BI, similar types of challenges have been linked to relationship distress. ...
... DBT also utilizes strategies to improve interpersonal lives and maintain healthy, stable relationships within several realms of functioning (work, home, school, friends). It is strongly focused on teaching interpersonal skills, effective communication styles [22,23] and ways of managing intense emotional reactions, factors thought to affect marital satisfaction after BI [18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27]. ...
Article
Objective: This study aimed to (1) examine the efficacy of a treatment to enhance a couple's relationship after brain injury (BI) particularly in relationship satisfaction and communication; and (2) determine couples' satisfaction with this type of intervention. Design: Randomized Wait-list Controlled (WC) Trial. Setting: Midwestern outpatient BI rehabilitation center. Intervention: The Couples CARE intervention is a 16 week, 2-hour, manualized small group treatment utilizing psychoeducation, affect recognition and empathy training, cognitive and dialectical behavioral treatments (CBT, DBT), communication skills training, and Gottman's theoretical framework for couples. Participants: Forty-four participants (22 persons with BI and their intimate partner) were randomized by couples to the intervention or WC group, with 11 couples in each group. Main outcome measures: Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS); Quality of Marriage Index (QMI); 4 Horsemen of the Apocalypse communication questionnaire. Measures were completed by the person with BI and their partner at 3 time points: baseline, immediate post-intervention, 3-month follow-up. Results: The experimental group showed significant improvement at post-test and follow-up on the DAS and the Horsemen questionnaire compared to baseline and to the WC group which showed no significant changes on these measures. No significant effects were observed on the QMI for either group. Satisfaction scores were largely favorable. Conclusion: suggest this intervention can improve couples' dyadic adjustment and communication after BI. High satisfaction ratings suggest this small group intervention is feasible with couples following BI. Future directions for this intervention are discussed.
... Fincham y Bradbury (1992) indicaron que las atribuciones causales se diferencian en tres dimensiones: locus de control (interno/externo), estabilidad (estable/inestable) y globalidad (global/específico). Los resultados de las investigaciones sobre la importancia de las atribuciones en las relaciones íntimas encuentran diferencias entre el patrón atribucional utilizado, la satisfacción en la relación de pareja (Bradbury y Fincham, 1990) y el estrés marital a largo plazo (Karney y Bradbury, 2000). Así, las parejas felices tienden a percibir la conducta positiva de la pareja como causada por características internas, globales y estables, mientras que la conducta negativa es juzgada como más situacional, inestable y específica. ...
Thesis
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The research focuses on the adult couple relationship from the theoretical framework of attachment theory. Our objective has been, firstly, to study the influence of attachment style, loving attitudes and interaction dynamics, on the quality and satisfaction of the couple relationship. Secondly, we wanted to deepen the effect that the characteristic mental model of each attachment style has on the type of cognitive, emotional and behavioral response that a person displays in their intimate interactions, and consequently, in their quality. Thus, we combine the world of the clinic (specifically, cognitive-behavioral therapy) with the attachment theory, in an integrating model that enriches both theories and we consider that represents an advance in the practical application of affective bonds.
... Individuals' attachment-related behaviors can have an influence on their partners' behaviors, and likewise, individuals' attributions can also affect their partners'. One review has found that the attribution made by actor for partner's behavior has effects on actor's subsequent behavior in romantic relationship (Bradbury & Fincham, 1990). These findings suggest that the dyadic effects in the association between attachment and NAB is an interesting direction for future studies and has obvious theoretical and practical significance. ...
Article
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This is the first meta-analysis to synthesize the literature on insecure attachment and negative attribution bias (NAB) from both developmental and social/personality attachment traditions. This meta-analysis is important because extant studies report inconsistent associations, making it difficult to draw conclusions about the nature of these associations. Based on 41 samples (N = 8,727) from 32 articles, we specify and compare the effect sizes of these associations across studies. Results confirmed positive associations between NAB and anxious and avoidant attachment dimensions and an insecure composite, with a medium effect size. Correlations were moderated by age group, type of attachment measurement and cultural background. Our findings advance knowledge and build on attachment and attribution theories, reconcile mixed findings, and inform the development of NAB interventions. Important gaps in the literature are revealed that will inspire future research.
... When a person causes a negative act/outcome, yet they could and should have done otherwise, anger and feeling punitive result from this sense of the behavior having been controllable. However, explanations that invoke lack of control for negative behavior (such as a lack of ability to do otherwise, or an oppressive historical or cultural milieu that shapes one's patterns of behaving) can mitigate anger and blame reactions, and instead promote forgiveness (see Bradbury & Fincham, 1990;Fincham, 2000). Thus, controllability is also key to the attribution process. ...
... This bias surfaces as a proclivity to favour retaliation as a more rational behaviour than reconciliation (cf. Bradbury & Fincham, 1990;Dodge, 1986;Laursen & Collins, 1994). For example, aggression is seen as justifiable if it is intended to restore respect or to exact restitution for a perceived wrong. ...
... The results further showed that educational intervention improved the general family function of couples. The point to be made in explaining these results is that there is a mutual relationship between training and family function (35). Education is associated with marital satisfaction and family function change through making individual changes and affect each other simultaneously. ...
Article
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Objective: Family function is one of the main effective factors on stability of the family. Family therapy can promote family function and performances. This study aimed to assess the effects of family therapy on family function among couples in Yazd province (Iran) based on the McMaster model. Method: The research population was selected from volunteer couples in Yazd in 2017 who were invited by publicity announcement to participate in this research. Finally, 40 couples were selected and randomly divided into 2 intervention and control groups. Participants responded to the demographic and Family Assessment Device (FAD) questionnaires. The obtained information was investigated using inferential and descriptive statistics and SPSS 21 software. Results: The results showed significant differences between the intervention and control groups in problem-solving (p = 0.01), communication (p < 0.0001), emotional responsiveness (p = 0.01), emotional involvement (p < 0.0001), and general function (p = 0.04). The roles and behavior control domains were improved after the intervention in 2 groups, but the differences were not significant. Conclusion: Family therapy based on McMaster model can promote the skills of problem- solving, family communication, emotional responsiveness, emotional involvement, and general function in couples. Healthy family functioning is an important domain of interest for mental health professionals who provide family interventions. Our findings add substantially to family professionals’ knowledge about patterns of family function in Iranian families.
... For example, self-denial, negative self-verbalization, withdrawal, drug abuse and violence were also found in some couples. The application of such strategies set negative pattern as a result partners start to deal each other in a rigid, harsh and hostile manner (Bodenmann & Cina, 2006;Bradbury & Fincham, 1990). ...
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This study was carried out to underscore the impact of coping mechanisms on the marital quality of dual career couples in Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa of Pakistan. Coping mechanism was selected as independent variable and marital quality was selected as dependent variable of our study. Further, coping mechanism was explored through three constituent variables including problem-based coping, emotion-based coping and negotiation-based coping while the constituent variables of marital quality were marital satisfaction, communication, togetherness and marital disagreement. Data was collected through three-point Liker type scale from 388 purposively selected respondents in the six selected universities and three hospitals in Peshawar city of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The collected data was analyzed through means and standard deviation to ascertain the level and degree of marital quality and the adopted coping mechanisms of dual career couples. Regression and correlational analysis were conducted to explore relationships between the selected variables. It was found that problem focused, emotion focused, and negotiation-based coping were positively and significantly related with marital satisfaction, marital communication and marital togetherness while negatively related with marital disagreement. It was concluded from this study that quality problem solving skills, positive emotional responses, and friendly communication enhances marital satisfaction, marital interaction and overall marital quality of dual career couples in Pakistan.
... En effet, la majorité de ces recherches explique les vertus à exprimer ses émotions tant au niveau intrapersonnel (au niveau de la santé notamment (Gross, 2014), qu'au niveau interpersonnel et social, dans la mesure où ceci favorise la construction des liens affectifs (Collins et Miller, 1994) et renforce la cohésion sociale (Rimé, 2009) par exemple. Néanmoins, les recherches soulignent également que si l'expression est inadaptée, le partage du vécu émotionnel peut avoir des conséquences délétères (Bradbury et Fincham, 1990 ;Gottman, 1993 ;Kotsou, 2014 (Rimé, 1999 ;Kotsou, 2014) expliquent que cette compétence n'est pas aisée, particulièrement lorsqu'il est question de s'intéresser aux émotions négatives. En effet, accueillir les émotions négatives d'autrui peut renvoyer l'individu à sa propre vulnérabilité et ne pas le faire serait effectivement un mode de protection (Kotsou, 2016). ...
... According to the Attribution Theory described by Bradbury and Fincham (1990), spouses use two different attribution styles in their interactions and solving problems. While causality attributions are attributions to explain and discover why a problem has occurred, responsibility/accusation attributions are attributions to responsibility, accusation and accountability. ...
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The aim of this research is to analyze marital adjustment within the scope of Schema Theory and early maladaptive schema domains. The study group consisted of 77 married Turkish couples. In the data collection process which was conducted as online survey, the volunary spouses were asked to use a pseudonym and they used the same pseudonym in their scales. Thus, they could be included in the analysis as husband and wife. Marital adjustment was measured by Perceived Adjustment Scale in Close Relationships and early maladaptive schema domains of the participants was measured by Young Schema Questionnaire Short Form-3. In the data analysis, firstly, the descriptive statistics of schema domains were conducted. Then, the correlations between schema domains and marital adjustment were analyzed. Afterwards, the participants were divided into two groups as the ones showing high levels and low levels of related schema domain and each group's marital adjustment mean scores were examined. Lastly, the spouses were divided into two groups as high levels and low levels of marital adjustment mean scores, and the dyadic schema domain distributions of the spouses in each group were examined. Findings revealed that impaired autonomy, disconnection, and other-directedness schema domains had negative correlation with marital adjustment and participants having low level of schema domains had more marital adjustment scores. Dyadic schema domain distribution of spouses showed that there were repetitive schema domain matches among spouses in both high-adjusted group and low-adjusted group which can be interpreted that schema chemistry can have an effect on dyadic marital adjustment.
... The behaviors can also be seen as evidence of care and commitment. However, these moments are ripe with opportunity for frustration and misattributions about what the behavior of each partner means, and attributions tell an important part of the story of how relationships fare in life (Bradbury & Fincham, 1990;Fincham, 2001). It's not just what actually happens that is important, but also what is seen or believed about it. ...
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The pandemic caused by the SARS‐CoV‐2 virus (Corona virus) and the associated illness, COVID‐19, has caused a level of world‐wide upheaval unlike any most people now living have seen in their lifetimes. This crisis affects people in their most important, committed, and intimate relationships. Although this crisis has damaged the health and wellbeing of individuals, crushed economies, and led to an extensive period of uncertainty about the future, there may also be positive outcomes in the motivation people have to protect their relationships. In this paper, we focus on strategies that therapists and relationship educators can use to help couples preserve and protect their relationships during such a time. We describe four foundations of safety that allow relationships to thrive: physical, emotional, commitment, and community. We then highlight three keys from our body of work that can help guide individuals and couples in protecting their relationships on a day‐to‐day, moment‐to‐moment basis: 1) Decide, don’t slide. 2) Make it safe to connect. 3) Do your part.
... Other research has explored threats posed by partner transgressions (e.g., inconsiderate behavior or minor betrayals), which also can destabilize and undercut relationships (Holmes & Rempel, 1989). Individuals in happy, wellfunctioning, and committed relationships, for instance, frequently fail to notice minor partner transgressions (Fletcher & Fincham, 1991), do not make negative "responsibility attributions" for their partner's transgressions (Bradbury & Fincham, 1990), are more likely to accommodate when their partners transgress (Rusbult, Verette, Whitney, Slovik, & Lipkus, 1991), or tend to forgive their partners for most transgressions over time (Karremans & Van Lange, 2008). These effects are often driven by the benevolent attributions that individuals in stable, committed relationships usually make in the aftermath of minorand sometimes more severepartner transgressions. ...
... The first is a distortion of perceptions of consent such that rape is neither considered a forcible act nor acknowledged as a violent crime. The second is a skewing of attributions of blame, by shifting personal responsibility away from the perpetrator and toward the victim (Bradbury and Fincham 1990). ...
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One of the core tasks of a well-functioning state is providing fair and adequate criminal justice. Recent events have raised concerns that the US exhibits a “culture of rape,” wherein victims are often disbelieved and blamed. Scholars have not yet examined how the public understands rape and how it should be punished, despite the important role that public pressure has played in the #MeToo era. We present an empirical conceptualization of rape culture to generate predictions for how various attributes of rape incidents affect the likelihood that they are perceived as punishable crimes. In a series of conjoint experiments, we demonstrate that details relating to the victim’s consent and credibility significantly decrease participants’ propensities to support reporting to police or to recommend a severe punishment for the perpetrator. The results show that emphasizing certain legally irrelevant features of rape strongly affect whether the public views an incident as severe or worthy of punishment.
... Szczęśliwe pary reagują w sposób odwrotny -trudności interpretują jako chwilowe i niezależne od partnera, źródeł pozytywnych zachowań poszukują zaś w partnerze, oczekując, że się powtórzą, także w innych sferach związku (T.N. Bradbury, F.D. Fincham 1990, za: D. Dwyer, 2005. Także odczuwając niezadowolenie partnerzy mogą różnie reagować. ...
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Książka powstała na bazie rozprawy doktorskiej poświęconej sensom i znaczeniom nadawanym przez adolescentki ich doświadczeniom bycia w związkach uczuciowych. W jej ramach zaplanowano i przeprowadzono badania teoretyczne eksploracyjne wykonane w schemacie badań jakościowych. Ich celem był opis i interpretacja sensów i znaczeń, co uzasadniało przyjęte podejście – Interpretacyjna Analiza Fenomenologiczna (IPA). W wyniku przeprowadzonych analiz wyodrębniono następujące nadrzędne ujawniające się tematy, wspólne dla całej grupy: edukacyjny, społeczny, uczuciowy i relacyjny aspekt bycia w związku, poczucie własnej wartości i asertywność oraz zakończenie trwania związku. Po zakończonej pracy analitycznej podjęto refleksję na tym, jakie rozwojowe znaczenie mają nabyte przez respondentki doświadczenia. Natomiast do wyjaśnienia, z czego wynikały przyjmowane przez respondentki sposoby interpretacji stanów emocjonalnych, myśli, zachowań własnych i partnera oraz przebiegu trwania ich związków, posłużyła koncepcja „spostrzegania relacyjnego” W. Furmana i E. A. Wehner (1994), teoria miłości jako opowieści R. J. Sternberga (2001) i powiązane z nimi kategorie pojęciowe. Przeprowadzone analizy umiejscowiono także w szerszym kontekście rzeczywistości społecznej, zauważono, że w narracjach respondentek można odnaleźć elementy funkcjonujących w kulturze dyskursów o miłości.
... The distinction between "blame" (i.e., guilt) versus "responsibility" was investigated conceptually in the 1980s (e.g., Brewin and Antaki 1987;Hamilton 1980;Shaver and Drown 1986) and remains significant for assessments by observers for sexual assault cases. Bradbury and Fincham (1990) concluded that blame/guilt distinctly implies liability for a person's actions and could be assessed by intentionality, motivation, voluntariness, knowledge of consequences, understanding the wrongfulness, and ability to have done otherwise. In contrast, a judgment of responsibility determines whether an individual had a role or was accountable in some way for an event's occurrence. ...
Article
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Despite growing attention to adjudication of campus sexual assault cases, little is known how students perceive “justice” for such cases. The present study examined whether victim, perpetrator, and assault characteristics influenced students’ perceptions of: whether a sanctionable violation occurred; the type of sanction to be applied; perceived severity of the sanction; proportion of guilt attributable to the victim and perpetrator; and level of responsibility of the victim and perpetrator. Fourteen factors pertaining to potential negative evaluation of rape victims were derived; thus, a non-factorial vignette survey design focusing only on each main effect was employed. 846 college students responded to one of four versions of a randomly distributed survey each containing eight vignettes that varied to represent all levels of the 14 factors. Students were not consistent in their application of sanctions or assignment of guilt or responsibility for the sexual assault vignettes, but rather were influenced in their ratings for 10 of the 14 factors. Students responded differentially to levels of the following factors: psychological impact on the victim, victim’s medical consequences, reason for the victim’s incapacitation leading to assault, consistency of victim’s and perpetrator’s accounts of the assault, sexual orientation of the victim, type of forced sex, number of perpetrators involved, fraternity membership of the perpetrator, gender of the perpetrator, and victim’s initial display of sexual interest in the perpetrator. Cases consistent with rape myths appear to influence students’ perceptions of justice. Findings are discussed in terms of implications for research and prevention programming.
... Grateful spouses are therefore likely predisposed to noticing goodness in their partners and to attribute partner behavior to benevolent intentions. It is well documented that such benign attributions are relationship enhancing (Bradbury & Fincham, 1990). This finding for general gratitude may, however, be open to question. ...
Article
Although gratitude research has begun to examine how gratitude to God or a divine being relates to human behavior research on gratitude in romantic relationships has not yet addressed this type of gratitude. Because gratitude to God is typically expressed through prayer, this study examined whether generalized gratitude and prayers of gratitude were independently related to relationship satisfaction in 95 married couples. Data analysis using the Actor Partner Interdependence Model showed intrapersonal associations (actor effects) between both forms of gratitude and marital satisfaction. Wives’ prayers of gratitude also predicted husbands’ marital satisfaction but not vice versa. This gender difference is explained in terms of gender differences in religious involvement, in gratitude, and in awareness and expression of emotion. The need for including a theistic component in future marital research is emphasized and the implications for work in applied settings are outlined.
... High quality leader-follower relationships are characterized by high levels of dependence, commitment and relationship satisfaction and thus leaders and followers in such relationships will be more inclined to make benevolent attributions of the event and to show pro-relationship transformation motivation and reach forgiveness (e.g., Radulovic et al., 2019). Committed and satisfied partners tend to attribute negative experiences to transient and external sources and even in the face of declining relationship quality they maintain optimism (e.g., Bradbury & Fincham, 1990;McCullough et al., 1998). Thus, in leader-follower relationships of high quality, transgression victims will generally tend to make benevolent attributions and attribute the transgressor's behavior to more uncontrollable, transient, external sources, view transgressions as more incidental, and the transgressor as less responsible for the transgression. ...
Article
A growing body of literature has focused on transgressions in the workplace and more recently, with respect to leader-follower relationships. Despite the important implications of leader and follower transgressions and relationship repair for work outcomes, there has not been a systematic review that examines the broad spectrum of leader and follower transgressions and most importantly adopts a dynamic relational process perspective. We view transgressions as key events in leader-follower relationships that trigger re-evaluation of the relationship, relationship repair processes and influence work outcomes. The purpose of this review is threefold. First, to provide a state-of-the-science review of the growing literature. Second, to offer a critical analysis of leader and follower transgressions in terms of conceptualization, methodological issues and theoretical underpinnings. Third, to outline a research agenda addressing leader-follower transgressions, relationship repair processes and outcomes based on relationship science.
... Other research has explored threats posed by partner transgressions (e.g., inconsiderate behavior or minor betrayals), which also can destabilize and undercut relationships (Holmes & Rempel, 1989). Individuals in happy, wellfunctioning, and committed relationships, for instance, frequently fail to notice minor partner transgressions (Fletcher & Fincham, 1991), do not make negative "responsibility attributions" for their partner's transgressions (Bradbury & Fincham, 1990), are more likely to accommodate when their partners transgress (Rusbult, Verette, Whitney, Slovik, & Lipkus, 1991), or tend to forgive their partners for most transgressions over time (Karremans & Van Lange, 2008). These effects are often driven by the benevolent attributions that individuals in stable, committed relationships usually make in the aftermath of minorand sometimes more severepartner transgressions. ...
... This bias surfaces as a proclivity to favour retaliation as a more rational behaviour than reconciliation (cf. Bradbury & Fincham, 1990;Dodge, 1986;Laursen & Collins, 1994). For example, aggression is seen as justifiable if it is intended to restore respect or to exact restitution for a perceived wrong. ...
Article
Although previous research has demonstrated the value of integrating explicit and implicit measures of aggression for predicting workplace outcomes, such investigations only examined linear and interactive effects. Here we examine nonlinear (i.e., curvilinear) effects of explicit and implicit aggression, which revealed subtleties in the manifestation of aggression. We found significant curvilinear effects of explicit aggression on peer-reported deviance (property deviance, production deviance, and personal aggression). In each case, deviance was lowest when explicit aggression was low, and increased as explicit aggression increased. However, production and property deviance decreased at elevated levels of explicit aggression. In contrast, for disciplinary actions, explicit and implicit aggression interacted, but there was also a curvilinear effect of implicit aggression. This pattern led to discipline being highest when explicit and implicit aggression were very incongruent, but being quite low when they were congruent. The results show that examining nonlinear effects with respect to explicit and implicit aggression can reveal unexpected relationships when predicting peer-reported criteria or organizational personnel data. Propositions for future research on the relationship of personality to workplace outcomes are presented deriving from the trait activation model, and implications for workplace interventions are discussed.
... Second, people can form and revise propositional evaluations by deliberately processing their experiences, including their activated automatic evaluations, against their other beliefs, and logically inferring a subjective truth. For example, in the context of problem-resolution discussions, although targets might automatically associate negative affect resulting from actors' oppositional behavior to the immediate source of that affect (i.e., the actor), they might conclude after deliberate reflection that the actors' behavior was the result of the themselves or the problem, leading to very different overall evaluations of these stimuli (see Bradbury & Fincham, 1990;McNulty & Karney, 2001). People's awareness of the source of their affect is critical to this process (see C. R. Jones et al., 2010). ...
Article
In this article, we synthesize existing literatures across numerous domains to introduce a novel model—the Relationship Problem Solving (RePS) model—for understanding the process through which romantic partners influence one another to resolve relationship problems. The first section briefly describes the key constructs and stages of the model. The second section details the interpersonal behaviors that influence various intrapersonal factors (e.g., affect, self-efficacy) that ultimately influence partners’ motivation and ability to progress through the stages of the model. The third section uses the model to generate novel predictions that suggest that the effectiveness of these interpersonal behaviors often depends on contextual factors. Finally, the fourth section discusses the implications of this model for understanding relationship problem solving, highlights the need to consider the role of context in the problem-solving process, and offers numerous specific predictions to be addressed by future research.
... Responsibility attributions are decisions that concern both causality and an individual's accountability in an adverse event (Bradbury & Fincham, 1990). These attributions are multidimensional; the responsibility may be attributed to the victim and the perpetrator (Whatley, 1996). ...
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This research aims to examine transprejudice in the Turkish cultural context and identify its socio-political and morality-based correlates. To that end, we report two studies. In Study 1, we manipulate the gender identity of a hypothetical victim in a violent criminal scenario. We find that people (N = 116) put greater social distance towards a transwoman compared to a ciswoman victim, yet do not distinguish between the two in terms of responsibility attributions. In Study 2 (N = 175), we explore the socio-political and moral underpinnings of transprejudice by focusing on the role of right-wing authoritarianism (RWA) and social dominance orientation (SDO) in different forms of transprejudice through the mediating functionof moral foundations. RWA predicts greater social distance and less positive affect towards transwomen through the purity foundation; while SDO predicts lower positive affect through the care foundation. The findings show that transprejudice does exist to some extent and that RWA seems to be a potent socio-political predictor of transprejudice in Turkey. The moral foundations, on the other hand, do not seem to play the mediator role that has been shown for other prejudice domains and different cultural contexts.
... Not for distribution (Bradbury & Fincham, 1990;Fincham & Bradbury, 1993;Holtzworth-Munroe & Jacobson, 1985), such as taking credit for success and denying blame for failure (e.g., Mezulis, Abramson, Hyde, & Hankin, 2004;Zuckerman, 1979). People in strong loving relationships make attributions in ways that make the partner look even better than the self. ...
... For example, given that automatic attitudes direct attention (Roskos-Ewoldsen & Fazio, 1992), it is possible that automatic partner evaluations may direct attention toward positive characteristics of the partner and away from positive characteristics of alternative partners . Further, given that automatic attitudes affect attribution processes (Fazio, Roskos-Ewoldsen, & Powell, 1994), automatic partner attitudes may lead to more benevolent attributions for partner-negative behaviors (Bradbury & Fincham, 1990). ...
Article
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A recent surge in research on automatic processes in close relationships has revealed new insights into how people form and update relationship evaluations as well as the implications of these evaluations for their relationship outcomes. We begin by summarizing this research within the framework of interdependence theory—the predominant theory of how people evaluate and make decisions about their close relationships. In doing so, we review evidence that implicitly assessed automatic partner attitudes reflect pleasant and unpleasant experiences involving the partner and predict subsequent relationship outcomes, sometimes better than more deliberative judgments. Next, we describe several dual-process perspectives that suggest how and when these attitudes shape such outcomes, and we conclude by highlighting the potential benefits of examining automatic partner attitudes for theories of relationship science and beyond.
... Recent studies emphasize the importance of investigating the multiple roles of attributions in close relationships, as attributions were shown to strongly predict relational satisfaction in romantic relationships ( (Bradbury & Fincham, 1990;Kearns & Fincham, 2005;Pearce & Halford, 2008;Vangelisti, 1992). In what regards responsibility attributions concerning extramarital affairs, research has shown that women are more emotionally and behaviorally reactive to their rivals (the mistresses) as compared to men (Paul, Foss, & Galloway, 1993). ...
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This study aims to explore the influence of women's body dissatisfaction on their romantic relationships by investigating how their body shape concerns influence the responsibility attributions they make when exposed to spousal infidelity. The current experimental research was conducted on a sample of 60 women who were divided into two groups according to their level of body shape concern. They were asked to identify with the wife in four sexual jealousy-inducing vignettes which varied according to the attractiveness of the mistress (upward versus downward comparison) and according to the nature of the extramarital affair (emotional versus sexual). All participants assigned responsibility for the extramarital affair to the three characters-wife, husband and mistress-for each of the four scenarios. Our results revealed that body shape concern significantly influenced the responsibility attributions made by our participants. The attractiveness of the mistress (the type of social comparison) and the nature of the affair also influenced the responsibility attributions of our participants, but not to the expected extent.
... Notably, the positively biased perceptions of partners that people form in valued relationships may reduce the experience of negative emotions during conflict situations. Consistent with this possibility, prior research on attributions in relationships suggests that making positive attributions for romantic partners' behaviors is associated with higher relationship quality and more positive emotions in relationships (Bradbury & Fincham, 1990;Fincham, Paleari, & Regalia, 2002). Similarly, past research has found that positively biased perceptions of behaviors enacted by valued romantic partners predict personal well-being, such as reduced negative affect and increased positive affect (Lemay & Clark, 2015;Lemay & Neal, 2013;Lemay & Neal, 2014). ...
Article
The present study examined both accuracy and bias in perceptions of romantic partners’ destructive behavior during relationship conflicts, as well as implications of accuracy and bias for emotional experience. Perceptions of partners’ destructive behavior during relationship conflicts were associated with indicators’ of partners’ behavior (i.e., target self-reports and objective coder ratings), suggesting that people were somewhat accurate in perceiving their partner’s destructive behavior. Independently of this accuracy effect, the more participants valued their relationship with their partner, the less destructive they interpreted their partner’s behavior to be during the conflict discussion, suggesting biases in perceptions of destructive behavior. These perceptions of destructive behavior, in turn, predicted emotional experience during the conflict. Results suggest that emotional experience during romantic relationship conflicts is dependent on both accurate and biased perceptions of partners’ behavior.
... For the individual, the ability to consider external factors when explaining (negative or ambiguous) behavior of others is beneficial in that the accuracy of judgments may be increased when factors that are otherwise overlooked or underestimated are taken into account (Sullivan, 2003). At the interpersonal level, positive effects include reduced tendencies toward retaliation and conflict (Weiner, 2006), increased cooperation and negotiation outcomes (Allred, Malozzi, Matsui, & Raia, 1997), and more satisfying interactions in relationships (Bradbury & Fincham, 1990). At the intergroup level, external attributions have been shown to promote improved intergroup attitudes (Vescio, Sechrist, & Paolucci, 2003) and decreased intergroup conflict (Betancourt, 1990). ...
Article
Given the importance of intercultural exposure in English language teaching (ELT), the current mixed methods classroom-based study investigated whether the implementation of intercultural TV advertisements could contribute to improving the intercultural sensitivity, and have a positive impact on classroom climate in the English as a foreign language (EFL) context of Iran. To address the mentioned issue, two intact classes were assigned to control and experimental group, each containing thirty seven students. This quasi experimental study was implemented on the pre-test-post-test equivalent-group design. Descriptive and inferential analyses of the collected data, over a six-month period, revealed that the experimental group significantly outperformed the control group on the scales of ICS skill which reflects that the use of intercultural TV ads appears to provide a brilliant opportunity for the students to notice, accept, and respect cultural diversities. A change was also observed in the climate of experimental group classroom. Ads positively affected the classroom climate and encouraged a more flexible environment since the students learned to understand and value differences, and work with and support the classmates who held different attitudes.
Chapter
We suggest that consumer and marketer intelligence is, in its essence, practical. It is derived from adapting to, selecting, and shaping external environments. We review research relating to marketers’ and consumers’ strategies for interacting, intelligently, with their environments. On adapting, illustratively we point to a trend toward more fine-tuned adaptations in marketing communication, enabled by the large amount of information consumers are leaving online. On selection, illustratively we report research relating to customer relationship management: “big data” has enabled more informed, consequently more intelligent, customer selection by marketers. On shaping, illustratively we describe research relating to online customer reviews and the sea change it has had on the retail environment. Taking perspective, we opine that while adapting, shaping, and selection intelligence enable important, immediate outcomes, wisdom is needed, in addition, to achieve longer-term outcomes. A quintessential longer-term outcome for marketers is brand equity and for consumers is psychological well-being.
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In this study, interpersonal emotion regulation strategies and intolerance of uncertainty levels of individuals were investigated. A descriptive study was conducted and the relational screening method was used. The study group of the research consists of 320 individuals. As data collection tools, "Personal Information and Questionnaire Form", to determine individuals' emotion regulation strategies "Interpersonal Emotion Regulation Scale (IERS)", to measure the intolerance of uncertainty levels "Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale (IUS-12)" were employed. In addition to the descriptive statistics (mean, standard deviation, frequencies), independent samples t-test, one-way ANOVA, Pearson's Product-Moment Correlation and multiple linear regression analyses were conducted since the assumptions of the parametric tests were met. As a result of the statistical analyses, while no statistically significant difference was yielded in all sub-dimensions of interpersonal emotion regulation based on the individuals' mean scores according to the gender variable, a significant difference was revealed regarding the sub-dimension of gaining a perspective in favour of the 41-50 age group in terms of the age variable, and in favour of married individuals with respect to the marital status variable. It was detected that there is a negative relationship between intolerance of uncertainty and the sub-dimensions of interpersonal emotion regulation. In addition, it was observed that as sub-dimensions of the intolerance of uncertainty, %10 of the variation in the concern for the future, and %3 of the variation in the inhibitory anxiety are predicted by interpersonal emotion regulation variable.
Article
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In this study, interpersonal emotion regulation strategies and intolerance of uncertainty levels of individuals were investigated. A descriptive study was conducted and the relational screening method was used. The study group of the research consists of 320 individuals. As data collection tools, "Personal Information and Questionnaire Form", to determine individuals’ emotion regulation strategies "Interpersonal Emotion Regulation Scale (IERS)", to measure the intolerance of uncertainty levels "Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale (IUS-12)" were employed. In addition to the descriptive statistics (mean, standard deviation, frequencies), independent samples t-test, one-way ANOVA, Pearson’s Product-Moment Correlation and multiple linear regression analyses were conducted since the assumptions of the parametric tests were met. As a result of the statistical analyses, while no statistically significant difference was yielded in all sub-dimensions of interpersonal emotion regulation based on the individuals’ mean scores according to the gender variable, a significant difference was revealed regarding the sub-dimension of gaining a perspective in favour of the 41-50 age group in terms of the age variable, and in favour of married individuals with respect to the marital status variable. It was detected that there is a negative relationship between intolerance of uncertainty and the sub-dimensions of interpersonal emotion regulation. In addition, it was observed that as sub-dimensions of the intolerance of uncertainty, %10 of the variation in the concern for the future, and %3 of the variation in the inhibitory anxiety are predicted by interpersonal emotion regulation variable
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Bu çalışmanın amacı, Türk kültürüne özgü geliştirilen Evlilik Öncesi Psiko-eğitim Programı’nın beliren yetişkinlerin evliliğe yönelik işlevsel olmayan inanç düzeyleri üzerindeki etkisini incelemektir. Ön-test son-test izleme testi kontrol gruplu yarı deneysel desen kullanılan araştırmanın çalışma grubunu bir vakıf üniversitesinde öğrenim gören 24 öğrenci oluşturmuştur. Çalışmada araştırmacı tarafından geliştirilen Evlilik İlişkisi İnançları Ölçeği (EİİÖ), Oturum Değerlendirme Formu ve Psiko-eğitim Değerlendirme Formu ile veri toplanmıştır. Kontrol grubuna herhangi bir müdahale uygulanmazken, izleme testi son-test uygulamasından iki ay sonra yapılmıştır. Araştırma sonucunda, deney grubundaki bireylerin EİİÖ’den aldıkları ön-test ve son-test puanları arasında anlamlı bir fark olduğu, deney ve kontrol gruplarının son test puanları arasında deney grubu lehine anlamlı bir fark olduğu ve deney grubundaki bireylerin son-test ve izleme testi ölçümleri arasında anlamlı bir fark olmadığı saptanmıştır. Araştırmada elde edilen nitel bulgular, deney grubundaki katılımcıların evliliğe yönelik duygu, düşünce ve davranışlarında olumlu yönde değişimler olduğunu göstermektedir. Bulgular ilgili alanyazın ışığında tartışılmış ve bazı önerilerde bulunulmuştur.------------- The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of the pre-marriage psycho-education program developed specifically for Turkish culture on the dysfunctional belief levels of emerging adults. Within the two-group quasi-experimental design, including pre, post and follow-up tests, the study group consists of 24 university students studying at a foundation university. In this study, data were collected with the Marital Relationship Beliefs Scale, Session Evaluation Form and Psycho-education Evaluation Form. There was no intervention for the control group. Follow-up was applied two months after the post-test. The findings indicated a significant difference between the pre- and post-test scores of the participants in the treatment group in the Marital Relationship Belief Scale. A significant difference, for the advantage of the treatment group, was identified between the post-test scores of the treatment and control groups. Moreover, post-test and follow-up test measures of the treatment group did not indicate a significant difference.
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Bu araştırmanın amacı evlilikteki çift uyumunun açıklanmasında, ilgili alan yazın çerçevesinde rol oynadıkları düşünülen erken dönem uyum bozucu şema alanlarının ve aile işlevlerinin yordayıcılığının belirlenmesidir. Bu amaç doğrultusunda, ilk aşamada, evlilikteki çift uyumunun ölçülebilmesi amacıyla, Türk kültürüne özgü Yakın İlişkilerde Algılanan Uyum Ölçeğinin geliştirilmesi, geçerlik ve güvenirliğinin sağlanması hedeflenmiştir. Araştırmanın ikinci aşamasında ise kuramsal bilgiler ve ilgili araştırmalar temel alınarak hazırlanan hipotez modelin yapısal eşitlik analizlerinden yapısal regresyon analizi ile test edilmesi hedeflenmiştir. Nicel araştırma olarak yürütülen bu araştırmada, nicel araştırma desenlerinden nedensel desen kullanılmıştır. Araştırmanın bağımlı değişkeni evlilikteki çift uyumu, bağımsız değişkenleri uyum bozucu şema alanları, aracı değişkeni aile işlevleri ve moderatör değişkenleri ise cinsiyet, çocuk sahibi olup olmama durumu ve evlilik süresidir. Araştırmanın çalışma grubu 201 evli bireyden oluşmaktadır. Bu 201 evli bireyden 154’ü karı-koca olarak (77 evli çift) araştırmaya katılmıştır. Geriye kalan 47 evli birey ise eşleri dâhil olmadan çalışmaya katılmışlardır. Katılımcıların demografik bilgilerinin ölçülmesinde araştırmacı tarafından oluşturulan Kişisel Bilgi Formu, evlilikteki çift uyumunun ölçülmesinde bu araştırma kapsamında araştırmacı tarafından geliştirilen Yakın İlişkilerde Algılanan Uyum Ölçeği, erken dönem uyum bozucu şemaların ölçülmesinde Young Şema Ölçeği Kısa Form-3 ve aile işlevlerinin ölçülmesinde Aile Değerlendirme Ölçeği kullanılmıştır. Test edilen yapısal modelin uyum indeksleri incelendiğinde dört indeksin iyi uyum gösterdiği, dört indeksin ise kabul edilebilir düzeyde uyum gösterdiği görülmüştür. Uyum bozucu şema alanlarından yüksek standartların ve kopukluğun evlilikteki çift uyumunu anlamlı düzeyde yordadığı belirlenmiştir. Aile işlevleri ise evlilikteki çift uyumunu olumsuz yönde ve anlamlı düzeyde yordamıştır. Aile işlevlerindeki artışın (sağlıksızlığın yükselmesi) evlilikteki çift uyumunu azalttığı ortaya konulmuştur. Aile işlevlerinin sadece kopukluk uyum bozucu şema alanının evlilikteki çift uyumuna olan yordayıcılığında kısmi aracılık rolü üstlendiği belirlenmiştir. Bu çalışmadan elde edilen bulgular evlilikteki çift uyumunun, erken dönem yaşantılar sonucunda edinilen uyum bozucu şemaların olumsuz etkilerinden korunmasında ve geliştirilmesinde aile işlevselliğinin önemini göstermiştir. Bu bağlamda aile ve çift terapisi/danışmanlığı yürüten psikolojik danışmanlar, terapi/psikolojik danışma süreçlerinde, problem çözebilme, etkili iletişim kurabilme, aile sistemindeki rol dağılımını sağlıklı bir şekilde yapabilme, duygu alış verişini yeterli düzeyde sağlayabilme ve aile normlarını-kurallarını belirleyebilme gibi sistemik-yapısal aile kuramlarına ilişkin işlevsel öğeleri çalışabilirler. Bunların çalışılmasının ve geliştirilmesinin, bireylerin köken ailelerinden kendi kurduklara aileye olumsuz aktarım yapmalarını engelleyebileceği ve uyum bozucu şemalarının tetiklenmelerini önleyebileceği ileri sürülebilir.
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Background The present study investigate the impact of the occupation and family structure on marital. Hypothesized the, better marital adjustment in nuclear family for working women and poor marital adjustment in joint family for working women. Better marital adjustment in joint family for non- working women and poor marital adjustment in joint family for non-working women. A better economic resource leads to better marital life and resultantly improves the quality of marital adjustment. Methods Sample of the study considered of 32 married women. The first sample of 16 working women was drawn which was further dived into, living in nuclear family system (n=8) and joint family system (n=8). The sample of 16 non-working women was drawn which was equally divided in nuclear family (n=8) and joint family system (n=8). Result Results shows the no significant difference between marital adjustment, occupation and family structure so the our hypothesis (better marital adjustment in nuclear family for working and poor marital adjustment in joint family for working women, better marital adjustment in joint family for non-working women and poor marital adjustment in joint family for non-working women and economic resources leads to better marital life and resultantly improves the quality of marital adjustment) reject. KEYWORDS: Marital Adjustment, Occupation, Family Structure
Article
Recent research has identified significant differences in how satisfaction in newlywed relationships progress, with the majority of spouses reporting relatively high marital satisfaction. However, most studies have focused on white, middle class, childless couples, and it is not clear whether these findings hold for socioeconomically disadvantaged couples (those with low educational attainment or income). Further, previous work has largely ignored differences between spouses within the same marriage and the circumstances under which interpersonal processes between spouses are influential to prospective marital satisfaction. Using dyadic growth-mixture modeling and three waves of data from 530 newlywed couples in the Supporting Healthy Marriages study, we simultaneously modeled husbands' and wives' marital satisfaction and identified two classes of couples, labeled the Relatively satisfied class and Husbands' moderate intercept, wives' low, and increasing satisfaction class. Husbands consistently reported better marital satisfaction than their wives regardless of class membership. Wives' perceptions of interpersonal processes during experiences of financial stress predicted class membership. Dissolution rates also differed between classes. We conclude by providing practical implications for working with socioeconomically disadvantaged families.
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z. Bu çalışma, öğretmenlerin sahip olunan toplumsal cinsiyet rolleri tutumları ile psikolojik iyi oluş düzeylerinin evlilikteki uyumlarını yordama gücünü belirlemek amacıyla yapılmıştır. Aynı zamanda cinsiyet, eğitim düzeyi, evlilik süresi, hizmet yılı, eş eğitim düzeyi ve sosyo-ekonomik gelir düzeyi değişkenleri ele alınarak açıklayıcı bilgiler sunulmaya çalışılmıştır. Araştırmanın katılımcıları İstanbul ilinde görev yapan 125 (%61) erkek ve 80 (%39) kadın olmak üzere toplam 205 evli öğretmenden oluşmaktadır. Araştırmada veri toplama aracı olarak Evlilik Uyum Ölçeği, Psikolojik İyi Oluş Ölçeği, Toplumsal Cinsiyet Rolleri Tutum Ölçeği ve Kişisel Bilgi Formu kullanılmıştır. Fark analizi sonuçlarından elde edilen bulgular doğrultusunda evlilik uyumu ile cinsiyet, eğitim düzeyi ve ailenin gelir düzeyi arasında anlamlı farklılıklar olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Çalışmanın bulguları, psikolojik iyi oluş ölçeğinin öz-kabul davranışı alt boyutunun ve toplumsal cinsiyet rolleri tutum ölçeğinin kadın cinsiyet rolü tutumu alt boyutunun evlilik uyumunu anlamlı yordadığını ortaya koymaktadır. Standardize edilmiş Beta katsayılarına göre ise psikolojik iyi oluş ve toplumsal cinsiyet rolleri alt boyut puanlarının birlikte evlilik uyumu puanlarının anlamlı bir yordayıcısı olmadığı tespit edilmiştir. Anahtar Kelimeler. Evlilik uyumu, Toplumsal cinsiyet rolleri, Psikolojik iyi oluş Abstract. This study is conducted to determine predictive power of gender roles and psychological well-being on marital adjustment. In addition, variables such as gender, education level, duration of marriage, period of service, partner's education level and socioeconomic status were studied to provide explanatory information. Participants of the research were composed of in total 205 married teachers including 125 male (61%) and 80 female (%39) working in Istanbul. In this research, Marital Adjustment Scale, Psychological Well-Being Scales, Scale of Gender Roles Attitude and Personal Information Form were used as a data collection tool. Significant differences were found between marital adjustment and gender, education level and level of family's income in the direction of findings from gap analysis results. The findings from this study imply that self-acceptance behavior as a subscale of Psychological Well-being Scale and attitude of female gender role as a subscale of Gender Roles Attitude Scale significantly predict individuals' marital adjustment. According to standardized coefficient (Beta), it was found that both of psychological well-being and attitudes of gender role subscales are not a predictor of marital adjustment scores.
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A lot of research in marriage psychology has been focused on marital conflicts, constructive versus destructive responses to dissatisfaction in marriage, and especially on how couples behave when discussing conflictual issues. Based on the literature review, we assume that partner support and bonding behaviours are positively related to dialogue as an active and constructive problem solving strategy during marital conflicts. We also put forward a hypothesis that there is a difference in predictors of dialogue between women and men in marital conflicts. In the present study, two main questions were posed: (1) do bonding behaviours (conciliatory behaviours, behaviours undertaken for the sake of the relationship and the partner, and physical closeness) and partner support constitute statistically significant predictors of engaging in dialogue as a constructive response to marital conflict? And (2) are there any differences between women and men as far as these predictors are concerned? A total of 180 young, married people participated in the study (102 wives and 79 husbands), all of whom had been married for 5 years or less. The mean age of the participants was 26 years (M = 26,26; SD = 3,04), while mean marriage duration was approximately 2 years. The obtained results indicate that significant predictors of engaging in marital dialogue amongst young couples are the bonding behaviours undertaken for the sake of the relationship and the partner, as well as the physical closeness and certain types of partner support. Moreover, essential differences between women and men have been revealed.
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This research administrated with the goal of studying the trend of changes in marital interactions, conflict resolution styles and marital quality based on the age of marriage and duration of marriage in men and women of Qazvin City. The method of research was descriptive and trend analysis. So, 302 married people (151 women & 151 men) from five regions of Qazvin City were selected using voluntary sampling. For collecting data, the Conflict Resolution Styles Inventory (CRSI), Revised Dyadic Adjustment Scale (RDAS) and Texas Tech Relationship Interaction Scale (TTRIS) were employed. Results showed that no significant linear trend between men and women in terms of the duration of marriage in interacting dimensions except ego-building comments in the group 5-1 years past their marriage, conflict resolution styles and marital quality were observed. The results also showed that significant linear trend between the group married between 19-12 years old, with other groups married 30-20 and 40-30 years old in conflicts involvement; marital satisfaction, marital cohesion, and nonlinear trend between dimensions of marital interactions include salutary recognition, ego-building comments, expanding shared memories and exciting activities was observed. The patterns of interactions and conflict resolution styles between couples as components of an effective predictor of marital quality are changed over time. Those who attempted to marry in different ages, not redundant from changes in the variables related to marital quality. Given such developments can be prepared to meet the new requirements provide couples. Consideration of these changes can prepare the couples to meet the new situations. Key words: marital interactions, conflict resolution, marital quality, trend analysis
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Objectives: Marital support is central to couples' relationships, yet support's health implications can vary widely. Guided by attribution bias and aging theories, the current study examined whether age and marital satisfaction moderate the links of perceived and received spousal support to aging-related biomarkers. Method: Couples (N=93, ages 22-77) rated marital satisfaction, overall perceived spousal support, and the quality of support received from their spouse in a lab-based discussion. Blood samples collected at baseline, immediately post-discussion, 3-hr post-discussion, and end-of-visit were assayed for proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6, as well as insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1. Results: Consistent with predictions, less satisfied older couples who received lower-quality spousal support during their discussion had greater increases in TNF-α than those who received higher-quality support; highly satisfied couples of all ages and less satisfied younger couples did not show these inflammatory changes. Highly satisfied older couples with greater perceived spousal support had lower TNF-α across the day and higher IGF-1. Discussion: Marital satisfaction and age may shape spousal support's significance for healthy aging. Rose-colored lenses worn only in the most satisfying marriages may protect couples from the possible health risks of low-quality received support and enhance potential benefits of perceived support. For better or worse, these health implications may grow with older age.
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This article presents an integrative approach to the special challenges of therapy with couples on the brink of dissolution or divorce—who often describe this therapy as their “last chance.” In some, one partner is considering ending the relationship, and in others, both partners are considering ending it. Often, these couples have had prior dissatisfying experiences in couple therapy. Four types of last chance couples are described: high‐conflict couples; couples in which partners have differing goals for their lives or different timelines for reaching shared goals; couples in which one or both partners have acted in a manner that violates the values, expectations, emotional comfort, or safety of the other; and couples in which there has been a gradual loss of intimacy. The Therapeutic Palette, a multiperspectival, theoretically eclectic integrative approach, is enlisted as a general framework for selecting and sequencing use of particular theories and their associated practices, based on the three “primary colors” of couple therapy: time frame/focus, level of directiveness, and change entry point. An additional complementary framework, the creative relational movement approach, is proposed to provide an integrative frame encompassing both language‐based and action‐based practices, suggesting that meaning is held and expressed as much through interaction or “relational motion” as it is through language. Principles of change are described. Due to the couple's level of crisis and desire for immediate evidence of possible improvement, priority is given to action‐based interventions in early stages of therapy, by engaging couples in “experiments in possibility.” Typical action approaches are described. An extended vignette follows.
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SummaryThe relationships among maritaladjustment, attachment styles,attributions and self-esteemThe purpose of this study was to investigate thedifference among married couples with secure,preoccupied, dismissed, and fearful attachment styleregarding their marital adjustment, self-esteem, andcausal and responsibility attribution scores.Participants (100 volunteer married couples; 100women and 100 men) were asked to complete MaritalAdjustment Test (MAT), The Relationship AttributionMeasure (RAM), Relationships Scales Questionnaire(RSQ), and Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale (RSS).Pearson correlation coefficients indicated that there was a significant correlation between secureattachment style and marital adjustment. A 4 (attachment styles) X 2 (gender) MANOVA wasconducted on MAT, RAM, and RSS scores asdependent variables. MANOVA revealed that themain effect of attachment style (F (3,192) = 3, p <.05)was significant in terms of marital adjustment scoresof participants. Further post-hoc analysis yielded thatparticipants with secure and preoccupied attachmentstyle were more likely to have higher maritaladjustment scores than those with fearful attachmentstyle. MANOVA analysis did not show significant maineffect of gender and interaction effect betweenattachment style and gender. The findings were discussed in the light of attachment styles and maritaladjustment literature. Key words: Marital adjustment, attachment styles,attributions, self-esteem
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As the eclectic nature of this volume testifies, compatibility in relationships has been approached from a variety of perspectives. However, integrative efforts are rare and it is difficult to keep track of authors who run in different academic circles. Consequently, there are many pockets of research that have developed independently, although they speak to similar issues.
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In this chapter a theory of motivation and emotion developed from an attributional perspective is presented. Before undertaking this central task, it might be beneficial to review the progression of the book. In Chapter 1 it was suggested that causal attributions have been prevalent throughout history and in disparate cultures. Studies reviewed in Chapter 2 revealed a large number of causal ascriptions within motivational domains, and different ascriptions in disparate domains. Yet some attributions, particularly ability and effort in the achievement area, dominate causal thinking. To compare and contrast causes such as ability and effort, their common denominators or shared properties were identified. Three causal dimensions, examined in Chapter 3, are locus, stability, and controllability, with intentionality and globality as other possible causal properties. As documented in Chapter 4, the perceived stability of a cause influences the subjective probability of success following a previous success or failure; causes perceived as enduring increase the certainty that the prior outcome will be repeated in the future. And all the causal dimensions, as well as the outcome of an activity and specific causes, influence the emotions experienced after attainment or nonattainment of a goal. The affects linked to causal dimensions include pride (with locus), hopelessness and resignation (with stability), and anger, gratitude, guilt, pity, and shame (with controllability).
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In this chapter, attribution of responsibility: From Man, to Scientist to Man as the Lawyer, is discussed. The expression “attribution of responsibility” has two major connotations. First, it suggests a clearly demarcated area of research concerned with the study of how responsibility is assigned. Second, the use of the term “attribution” in the expression implies that the assignment of responsibility is described as a process that is directly comparable to the perception of causality as studied in attribution research. Both these inferences are challenged in this chapter, for the recent popularity of attribution theory that has not been matched by an equally discriminating terminology. The chapter considers the attribution of responsibility from three different points of view, taken explicitly into account in social psychology. Recent theoretical developments in attribution are discussed in the chapter. Despite the voluminous and increasing literature purporting to deal with attribution of responsibility, empirical research on this topic appears deficient in several respects. Factors as language and social context are very likely to influence attributions of responsibility.
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Two studies addressed the following questions: (1) Do husbands and wives from happy and distressed marriages differ in how they perceive and make causal attributions about their own and their spouse's behaviors, and (2) does alteration of visual perspective through videotape alter biased perceptual and attributional evaluations? A total of 58 married couples discussed problems in their relationships. Discussions of distressed couples were videotaped from three vantage points. Some subjects saw no videotape. Others viewed videotapes of their discussions from their own, their spouses', or an observer's vantage point. Spouses made perceptual and attributional ratings concerning their own and their partners' behaviors before and after the videotape intervention. Results indicate that while there were few differences between happy spouses' perceptions and attributions about themselves and their partners, distressed spouses' ratings of both themselves and their partners were distorted in a self-serving manner. ...
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Our goal in this chapter is to develop a framework for viewing the attribution process itself from which we can derive an initial conceptualization of attributional styles and their attendant assessment and modification. An integration of work in social, personality , and cognitive psychology provides the point of departure for our view of the attribution process and attributional styles. Although cognitive­ behavioral therapists have emphasized the role of cognitive processes in psychopathology and psychotherapy, they have just begun to make progress in applying basic principles and findings of cognitive psychology to clinical phenomena (Arnkoff, in press). Insofar as attributional styles represent individual differences in cognition, it is important to develop a conception of attributional style that articulates with basic work in cognitive psychology.
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A shortcoming of previous attribution research has been the assumption that researchers can accurately translate causal attributions into causal dimensions. Attributional statements are often ambiguous and even when clearly stated may be perceived quite differently by the attributor and the researcher. The studies reported describe the development of the Causal Dimension Scale, a measure designed to assess how the attributor perceives the causes he or she has stated for an event. This scale assesses causal perceptions in terms of the locus of causality, stability, and controllability dimensions described by B. Weiner (1979). Two studies (288 undergraduates) tested the reliability and validity of the Causal Dimension Scale. All 3 subscales were found to be reliable and valid, and a 3-mode factor analysis confirmed the 3-dimensional structure of the scale. Results also indicate differences in the perception of causes of success and failure, with attributions for success being perceived as more internal, stable, and controllable than attributions for failure. The relationship between the Causal Dimension Scale and other attribution measures (such as locus of control or "attributional style" measures) is discussed. (16 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).
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Although most causal attribution research has focused on beliefs about simple, singular causes, I hypothesized that people may develop more complex causal accounts, which may be particularly important in understanding how people make sense of social interactions. Male and female undergraduates (N = 72) observed three videotapes of actors portraying an argument between husband and wife from the perspectives of the husband, the wife, and a counselor. Following each observation, participants completed free-response items concerning cause of an argument and Likert scales concerning responsibility for the argument and conditional expectancy for outcome. Results indicate that observers are likely to consider joint cause in describing social interaction. Explicit instructions to take the perspective of one of the participants reduced the levels of joint cause being reported and of shared responsibility perceived. Perspective also influenced expectancies for changes in the relationship given changes in behavior by either partner.
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Washington University School of Medicine This study examined the applicability of Weiner's model of causal attributions to lay explanations for the causes of loneliness. Weiner posits three dimensions (Internality, Stability, and Controllability) along which causes vary and links each dimension to distinct consequences for the actor. To test the salience of these dimensions in lay perceptions of causality, 180 college students made judgments about the causes of loneliness. As predicted, both exploratory and confirmatory multidimensional scaling analyses found that dimensions of Internality and Stability were perceived by respondents. Contrary to recent theorizing, Controllability was not independent of the other two dimensions; instead, controllable causes were both internal and unstable. Confirmation of Internality and Stability as dimensions underlying attributions for loneliness supported the extension of Weiner's model to the domain of affiliative behavior. Attribution theorists have emphasized that the perceived causes of events are central features in social perception (Kelley & Michela, 1980). Researchers have sought to identify the general properties or dimensions underlying specific causal attributions and the psychological consequences o f causal attributions. The model of causal attributions developed b y Weiner and his colleagues (Weiner, 1974, 1979; Weiner et al., 1972) identifies basic causal dimensions of Internality, Stability and, more tentatively, Controllability. In research primarily on achievement behavior, these dimensions have been linked to particular consequences involving expectancies, affect, evaluation, and behavior. Recently, Weiner (1979) suggested that this model applies beyond the achievement context and -that i t constitutes a general model of motivation. We gratefully acknowledge the contributions of Mar
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Various models of marital distress and marital therapy have been developed in recent years. Among them, techniques derived from social learning and behavioral principles have emerged in a treatment often referred to as behavioral marital therapy, or BMT. A large body of empirical data supports the efficacy of BMT (reviewed in Baucom and Hoffman, 1986; also see Jacobson, 1978, 1984a), making it the most thoroughly researched approach to marital problems. However, while such careful scrutiny has highlighted the strengths of BMT, it has also led to an awareness of the treatment’s limitations and weaknesses. For example, a majority of treated couples benefit from this therapeutic approach, but a recent reanalysis of several BMT outcome studies, utilizing very stringent criteria for improvement, demonstrated that 45% of couples do not improve to a clinically significant degree (Jacobson et al., 1984). Therefore, clinicians and researchers have begun developing new methods to increase the positive impact of BMT for a greater number of couples.
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In the present study, a new methodology was designed to examine the causal attributions that were spontaneously verbalized by spouses to their married partners. Marital problem resolution discussions were coded for the occurrence of attributional activity. The subjects were distressed couples, observed before and after marital therapy, and happily married spouses. More attributions were made by all subjects for negative behaviors than for positive behaviors, and self-initiated events elicited more attributional activity than partner or couple behaviors. Attributions for internal, unobservable events (e.g., feelings, beliefs) and for future events (e.g., why some future events will or won't occur) were also examined. The advantages and disadvantages of this new methodology were discussed.
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Foreword Arlene Vetere 1. Structural Family Therapy 2. A Family in Formation 3. A Family Model 4. A Kibbutz Family 5. Therapeutic Implications of a Structural Approach 6. The Family in Therapy 7. Forming the Therapeutic System 8. Restructuring the Family 9. A "Yes, But" Technique 10. A "Yes, And" Technique 11. The Initial Interview 12. A Longitudinal View Epilog
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Married women were interviewed in an investigation of attributions of control and blame for marital conflict and satisfaction with one's marriage. Each respondent was asked to discuss two standard conflict situations and two conflicts from her own marriage. Results supported the hypotheses that blaming one's spouse for marital problems is negatively associated with marital satisfaction, and perceived personal control over conflicts is positively associated with marital satisfaction. Using exploratory path analytic techniques, a model of marital satisfaction emerged in which the wife's satisfaction was found to be related to her perception of both husband's and wife's contributions. The husband's role was traced through husband blame to seriousness of the marital conflict, whereas the wife's own role was traced through the wife's control to the problem's resolvability. Thus the wife perceived her husband as the one who determined how negative marital problems were, while she perceived herself as the major force behind the more positive aspects of resolving and avoiding conflicts.
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Pointing to the lack of empirical evidence relating spouses' attributions about their marital problems to actual problem solving behavior, this study examined the relationship between spouses' attributional styles for marital problems and their negative social reinforcement in a laboratory interaction procedure. Results indicated that wives who attributed other couples' marital problems to undesirable personality traits or negative attitudes were more likely to verbally criticize their husbands in the problem-solving discussion. A self-report measure of angry response style also showed the same positive association with negative attributions. Results for husbands were not significant. The study was viewed as an attempt to bridge cognitive psychological theory and family studies.
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Research in the decade of the sixties relevant to marital happiness and stability is reviewed. Attention is centered on instrumental, affective, and temporal (especially family life cycle) variables as they account for the variance in marital happiness and stability. Data from the research reviewed confirm previously established findings with regard to these variables but add some new dimensions and perspectives. Certain pervasive methodological problems in research on these topics are outlined and some suggestions are made for future research.
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Two types of attributional bias (unrealistic optimism and responsibility) were examined in their relationship to conflict among married and divorced individuals. Individuals perceived themselves both as better than average and as more responsible than their partners for marital problems. Optimism bias was lower among divorced individuals and among those with a higher level of conflict. Responsibility bias was unrelated to the respondents' current marital status or level of marital conflict. Implications are seen for the study of biases in the attribution process and the understanding of marital conflict.
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This article examines a fundamental problem in research using self-report measures of marriage: attempts have been made to measure and explain variance in marital quality without adequate understanding and specification of the construct of "marital quality." A specific consequence of this shortcoming is that marital quality is not readily distinguished from other relevant constructs (e.g., communication). This, in turn, results in measures that have a great deal of overlap in item content, thus preventing clear interpretation of the empirical relationship between the constructs. The inability to establish unambiguous empirical relationships among relevant constructs severely limits theory development in this research domain. One means of avoiding these problems is to treat marital quality solely as the global evaluation of one's marriage. The implications of this strategy are examined in regard to three issues that have received insufficient attention in marital research: (a) the association between empirical and conceptual dependence; (b) the interpretation of responses to self-report inventories; and (c) the consideration of the purpose for which marital quality is measured. The advantages of adopting this approach, and the conditions under which it is most appropriate to do so, are also outlined.
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The present investigation studied couples' resolution of existing marital issues. Videotapes of distressed and nondistressed couples were coded by two groups of coders. One group categorized the content of messages, and the other group categorized the nonverbal delivery of messages by the speaker ("affect") and the nonverbal behaviors of the listener ("context"). An analysis of marital interaction was obtained from a study of content, affect, and context differences as well as from sequential analyses of the data. Findings show that this coding system made it possible to account for most of the variance in the classification of couples as distressed or nondistressed. Specific findings provided tests of many currently untested hypotheses about good communication in marriages that have been the basis of clinical interventions. The hypotheses which were studied in the present investigation involve the function of metacommunication, the expression of feelings, summarizing self versus other, feeling probes, nonverbal behavior during message delivery, context differences, and positive and negative reciprocity. Functions of messages were assessed by sequential analysis procedures.
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Four functions that attributions fulfill for the attributor are catalogued and described. Explanatory attributions promote an understanding of the social world throuhg implicit attribution theories; predictive attributions facilitate the development of expectations concerning the likelihood of future events; egocentric attributions meet self needs and reduce anxiety; and interpersonal attributions provide for the communication of social identity information to others. The importance of considering the functions of attributions is considered, and the implications of the functions approach for attributional asymmetries, the cause/reason distinction, and arguments regarding the accessibility of higher-order cognitive processes are noted.
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Methods currently used to investigate interaction during marital conflict limit the validity and generalizability of findings concerning the determinants and consequences of couples' interaction styles. The respective advantages and limitations of two research strategies—the questionnaire and simulation strategies—are critically evaluated. The assumptions made by each approach concerning the nature of interaction and the implications of such assumptions for studying how couples cope with conflict are discussed in detail. Several methodological guidelines for developing future research are suggested.
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Two studies were conducted to investigate (a) the association between marital satisfaction and an egocentric bias in spouses' perceived contributions to activities in marriage; (b) the robustness of this bias; and (c) the process that might underlie such a bias. In the first study 40 spouses estimated their own and their partners' contribution to relationship events. Spouses claimed to make greater contributions to negative relationship events than their partners were willing to attribute to them. This finding was replicated in a second study involving 50 spouses, and the opposite bias was also documented: for positive events greater contributions were assigned to the partner. In addition, Study 2 examined two hypotheses that may account for the egocentric bias, namely, the failure to take the perspective of the partner and the ease with which memories are recalled. No support was obtained for the perspective-taking hypothesis, and the data were equivocal regarding the ease-of-recall hypothesis. In both studies perceived contributions and marital satisfaction were strongly related. The findings are discussed in terms of the effect of a spouse's global sentiment toward the partner on his or her judgments of responsibility.
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Ordinary explanation has a number of separate functions, which include labeling or description, moral evaluation, causal attribution, and self-presentation. Research on attributions for physical and mental disorders is analyzed using this framework, and the relevance of each aspect of explanation to clinical psychology is outlined. It is argued that the failure to observe these distinctions has led to an unnecessarily narrow view of attribution research and therapy.
Article
Work on the role of attribution in close relationships is reviewed and evaluated. Evidence indicates that attributional activity is pervasive in close relationships, but particularly intensive at times of major problems or conflicts. People in close relationships appear to use attributions not only to search for causal understandings and to assign responsibility and blame, but also to communicate affect and to try to influence one another. Recent work on distressed couples and the role of attribution in such distress also is discussed. Finally, directions for future research on attribution in close relationships are suggested. These include use of multiple measures of thought and behavior over extended periods of time, increased attention to archival sources, and an emphasis upon content as well as process in relationship activity and on attributions that are interactive and complex in focus and meaning.
Article
With a reliable association between self-reported attributions and marital satisfaction now established, a next logical step is to investigate attributions as they occur spontaneously in marriage. An analysis of this task leads to several recommendations for future research. At the methodological level these include ruling out artifacts due to pseudounilaterality, the base rates of events for which attributions are made, the specific content of marital interactions in which attributions occur, and the general class of interactions that is sampled. Conceptual considerations involve distinguishing among types of attributions, including implicit versus explicit attributions and private versus public attributions, and examining different functions that attributions may serve. The implications of these issues for research on spontaneous attributions in marriage are discussed.
Article
Causal attributions made by distressed and nondistressed spouses for negative partner behavior were manipulated experimentally to examine their impact on spouse's subsequent cognitive and behavioral responses. Thirty-two spouses read a negative description of themselves written by their partners for which a plausible external cause (experimenter request) for the description was either present or absent. Spouses then listed the thoughts prompted by the description and engaged in a 5-minute discussion with their partners. For observational measures of behavior, an interaction was obtained between the attribution manipulation and marital distress: distressed spouses exhibited more negative and more positive behavior toward their partners when no external cause for the description was present. Marginally fewer thoughts were listed by both groups when an external cause was available, but no difference was found in the proportion of thoughts reflecting attributional activity. However, distressed spouses listed more blaming statements than did nondistressed spouses. After ruling out possible artifacts, the results are discussed in terms of existing research on the relationship between emotional arousal, overt behavior, and marital satisfaction.
Article
A study was conducted to determine whether marital stress was related to attributional preferences in explanations for one's own and one's spouse's interpersonal behavior. Married couples (n = 61) were surveyed regarding marital stress and their attributions for behavioral stimuli that represented positive or negative interactive behavior with either one's spouse or a stranger. The results indicated that marital stress was related to the degree of discrepancy between attributions made for one's own behavior and attributions made for one's spouse's behavior. Further, individuals in more stressed marriages were more likely to explain their spouses' positive behavior situationally and their spouses' negative behavior dispositionally than individuals in less stressed marriages. A similar but less extreme interaction was obtained with self-attributions. Two processes possibly causing the associations between marital stress and attributional preferences are described. The implications of these results for marri...
Article
This paper critically examines the operationalization of marital quality indices used as dependent variables. First, it looks at the functioning and construction of marital quality variables. In particular, Spanier's Dyadic Adjustment Scale is used to illustrate the arguments. Second, it presents both semantic and empirical criteria to judge the development of a marital quality index. Finally, it presents a Quality Marriage Index (QMI) based on the introduced criteria. This index was constructed using data from 430 people across four states. Several advantages of the QMI over more traditional measures are shown in terms of how covariates relate to the index.
Article
This paper is aimed at illuminating various implications of attribution‐making for a study of ongoing, intimate relationships. Explicit attributions are viewed as conscious, cognitive appraisals concerning why a communicative behavior has occurred. Implicit attributions are conceptualized more as tools of inference‐making intrinsic to the decoding process; as such, implicit attributions not only influence interpretation, explanation, and meaning‐assignment, but also mediate ongoing interpersonal message responses. It is argued that, while attribution concepts are quite relevant to various theories of interpersonal communication, the significance of attribution‐making within intimate dyadic interaction has been understated in communication research. Further analysis of attribution constructs employed by communicators—especially the interpersonal attribution category—might improve theory‐building in such areas as relational communication, communication conflict, metacommunication, and communication and affect. Attributions are viewed as one kind of “decoding variable” able to capture the reciprocal influences of intrapersonal and interpersonal levels of awareness within communicative exchange.
Article
This study investigated the causal inferences made by maritally distressed and nondistressed spouses regarding their partners' positive and negative behavior. The partners in 32 marital couples rated the most likely cause of hypothesized actions by their spouses on several dimensions, indicated the feeling evoked by each action, and stated what they would do in response to it. For positive acts, the nondistressed group rated inferred causes as more global and controllable, whereas distressed spouses considered the causes more global for negative behavior. Results from both regression and path analyses suggest that affective responses are more important than are causal attributions in predicting behavior. These results are discussed in relation to the emerging literature on cognitive marital therapy, and their therapeutic implications are outlined.
Article
Although relationship dissolution is a fruitful context for field studies of attribution processes, only a handful of studies have been conducted and these have often produced contradictory results. This study analysed the written accounts of ex-partners from recently terminated premarital relationships. Type of attribution (self, other, interpersonal, external) was related to items representing the severity of the impact of the dissolution. Among other findings, evidence indicated that females whose relationships had been terminated longer were more likely to use interpersonal attributions and less likely to use other attributions when accounting for the break-up. It is argued that attribution following relationship termination should be viewed as an on-going process rather than as a singular event.
Article
To build upon the well-established association between attributions and satisfaction in marriage, the present study investigates individual difference factors that may (a) affect the nature of attributions that occur in marriage and (b) mediate the impact of attributions on marital satisfaction. Forty-three married couples participated in the study. In addition to obtaining measures of causal attributions and marital satisfaction, four individual differences were assessed, namely perspective taking, dysfunctional relationship beliefs, attributional complexity and self-disclosure. As predicted, unrealistic relationship beliefs and attributional complexity predicted causal attributions. Causal attributions were related to the attributor's marital satisfaction, and wives' attributions were also related to husbands' satisfaction. Wives' self-disclosure was found to mediate the relationship between wives' causal attributions and husbands' satisfaction. However, self-disclosure did not mediate the relationship between causal attributions and one's own satisfaction. The importance of intrapersonal and interpersonal levels of analysis and of individual difference factors in understanding close relationships is emphasized.