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Noori, M., Jafari, M., Zakeri, M. 2015. Root and aerial parts flavonoids of 3 Iranian Carex L. (Cyperaceae) species, International Journal of Plant Research, 5 (3): 51-56.


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Root and aerial parts flavonoids of 3 Carex L. species: Cariceae Pax. Tribe Cyperaideae Kostel. subfamily and Cyperaceae family [C. divisa Huds., Carex melanostachya M. Bieb. ex Willd. (syn.: C. nutans Host) and C. stenophylla Wahlenb] from Iran were studied using two-dimentional paper chromatography (2-DPC) and thin layer chromatography (TLC). Carex plants are characterized by the production of stilbene derivatives and other bioactive polyphenols including lignans and flavonoids. By this reason they have attracted recent attention as potential food additives. Flavonoids are as one set of the polyphenolic compounds among secondary metabolites that are active principles of medicinal plants, exhibit pharmacological effects and contribute to human health. Collected plants were identified using available references and voucher samples were prepared as herbarium vouchers. Results showed all 3 studied species contain flavone C and C-/O-glycosides in their roots and aerial parts. Flavonoid sulphates were found in all of roots and aerial parts of the studied species with the exception of C. stenophylla root and aerial parts. Aglycones was not found in C. melanostachya aerial parts, where as other samples had. The studied taxa showed variety in their root and aerial parts flavonoids compounds. Rutin, Myricetin, Kaempferol, Loteulin, Narengenin, Apigenin, Morin, Rhamnetin and Chrysin were found in their root or aerial parts, while all of samples lacked Quercetin, Isorhamnetin, Tricin and Vitexin. Keywords Carex, Cariceae, Cyperaceae, Flavonoid compounds, Chromatography
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Root flavonoids of 5 Scirpus L. species: Cypereae Colla. Tribe, Cyperaideae Kostel. subfamily and Cyperaceae family (S. holoschenus L., S. lacustris L., S. littoralis Kuntze, S. maritimus L. and S. multicaule) from different parts of Markazi Province, Iran area were studied using 2-dimentional Paper Chromatography (2-DPC) and Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC). Flavonoids are as one set of the polyphenolic compounds among secondary metabolites in different organs of plants that are used in chemotaxonomy. Also many flavonoids are active principles of medicinal plants, exhibit pharmacological effects and contribute to human health. Voucher samples were prepared for reference as herbarium vouchers. Results showed all of studied taxa contain flavonoid sulphates, flavone C and C-/0-glycosides and aglycones in their roots while Rutin, Myricetin and Vitexin were just found in S. maritimus. Also presence of Morin, Tricin and Loteulin in all of the species roots with the exception of S. maritimus are more valuable tools for taxa separation. Kaempferol was found in S. lacustris and S. littoralis species, where as others lack.
A survey of 170 Australian species of Cyperaceae belonging to 35 genera has confirmed that this family has a highly characteristic flavonoid pattern in leaf and inflorescence. Aurone pigments, the most distinctive family constituents, were found in the leaves of 25% of the sample and in the inflorescences of 40%. Sulphuretin was found for the first time in the family, in Carex appressa. Flavones, such as tricin and luteolin, are very common; in addition, a variety of methyl ethers were detected. Luteolin 5-methyl ether was found in further genera, while luteolin 7-methyl ether, diosmetin and acacetin were detected for the first time in the Cyperaceae. Flavonols and their methyl ethers occurred in over one-third of the species, particularly in the leaves, being especially well represented in the genera Fuirena, Gahnia, Lepidosperma and Mesomelaena. Myricetin was found only twice, in two Baumea species. The 3-desoxyanthocyanidin carexidin was found in the inflorescences of eight species, i.e. in 5% of the sample. Taxonomically, the results are mainly of interest at the generic and specific level, where the patterns sometimes show useful correlations with morphology. At the tribal level, the Sclerieae are the most distinctive, with higher than average frequency of flavone C-glycosides, flavonols, proanthocyanidins and aurones, and lower than average frequency of flavones.
A total of 32 compounds were isolated from the leaves of 19 North American members of Carex section Laxiflorae. The flavonoid data indicate that these taxa comprise two distinct groups, one which produces flavonols, flavones and flavones and one which produces flavones and flavones only. The group that produces flavonols can be broken down into two subgroups on the basis of the presence or absence of luteolin .
As a follow-up to Dr Markham's highly successful publication, The Systematic Identification of Flavonoids (1970) co-authored with T.J. Mabry and M.B. Thomas, this book presents a more extensive, up-to-date and thorough guide to techniques used in flavonoid research. The techniques are discussed in the approximate order in which they are normally needed by the researcher and extensive cross-referencing is used throughout to guide the reader to the next recommended technique. Tech- niques covered include: chromatography, recrystallization, UV-visible spectroscopy, hydrolysis and product analysis, derivation degradation, 1 H-NMR, 13 C-NMR, and mass spectroscopy. The book, as a self-contained laboratory manual, contains extensive tabulations of reference data, discusses examples of a wide range of spectra, and features diagrams of flavonoid structures, reaction schemes and appara- tus. Of special interest and importance to the beginner are the tables of trivial names, the list of sources of flavonoid standards and a discussion of the means for proving a new flavonoid identical to a known standard.
The major categories of chemosystematic comparisons that were used successfully or are of potential use in Carex include flavonoid analysis, enzyme electrophoresis, and chloroplast DNA mapping and sequencing. The flavonoid work consists mostly of broad scale comparisons of aglycone distributions in a number of sedge genera to include some members of Carex. These comparisons proved to be of limited use in understanding phylogenetic relationships within the genus Carex. However, detailed flavonoid analyses of sections Laxiflorae and Acrocystis demonstrated the utility of flavonoid surveys in Carex at infrasectional levels and possibly at intersectional levels. Enzyme electrophoretic data were used to determine whether the morphological variability present in a species complex is the result of hybridization, phenotypic plasticity, or recent divergence. The C. crinita complex is an example in which intermediate forms are probably not the result of hybridization. Conversely, allozyme data for section Sylvaticae indicate that some of the taxa in this section are of hybrid origin. One of the most promising developments in systematic studies was the use of chloroplast DNA analysis. It was demonstrated in a number of plant groups that restriction endonuclease and sequence comparisons of chloroplast DNAs can be used to construct phylogenetic trees that have homoplasy levels much lower than those constructed from phenotypic characters.