ArticleLiterature Review

ASYMMETRICAL EFFECTS OF POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE EVENTS - THE MOBILIZATION MINIMIZATION HYPOTHESIS

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Abstract

Negative (adverse or threatening) events evoke strong and rapid physiological, cognitive, emotional, and social responses. This mobilization of the organism is followed by physiological, cognitive, and behavioral responses that damp down, minimize, and even erase the impact of that event. This pattern of mobilization-minimization appears to be greater for negative events than for neutral or positive events. Theoretical accounts of this response pattern are reviewed. It is concluded that no single theoretical mechanism can explain the mobilization-minimization pattern, but that a family of integrated process models, encompassing different classes of responses, may account for this pattern of parallel but disparately caused effects.

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... In this regard, we consider a single breached obligation as a negative event and a single overfulfilled obligation as either a positive or negative event depending on its embedd- edness in a sequence of events. In psychology, a positive and negative event is considered one that has the potential or actual ability to create advantageous or adverse outcomes for the individual, respectively (Taylor, 1991). Because breach of an obligation implies that employees are denied what they feel they are entitled to receive, PC breaches have both the potential and the actual ability to create negative outcomes for the individual. ...
... As such, outcomes such as job satisfaction and citizenship behaviour intentions will be lower compared to fulfilled obligations ( Lambert et al., 2003), because obliga- tions are still breached. However, compared to breached obligations, overfulfilled obligations may have less potential or actual ability to create adverse outcomes for the indivi- dual (Taylor, 1991). For example, receiving more training than promised is a deficiency of the initial promise, but it does not hurt an employee's career perspectives. ...
... As such, a history of over- fulfilled obligations does not appear to associate with more tolerant processing of breached obligations. This supports the suggestion that negative events such as breached obligations carry more weight in predicting outcomes in comparison to positive events (Taylor, 1991). In accordance with asymmetry effects theory and non-associative learning, the breached obligation triggers a movement of information processing resources away from the positive event, making these resources available for making sense of the negative event. ...
Article
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To date, the study of psychological contracts has primarily centred on the question how retrospective evaluations of the psychological contract impact employee attitudes and behaviours, and/or focus on individual coping processes in explaining responses to breached or overfulfilled obligations. In this study, we aim to assess the extent to which sequences of breached and overfulfilled obligations impact job satisfaction and citizenship behaviour intentions. By integrating psychological contract research and theories on cognitive information processing, we formulate competing hypotheses on how sequences of breached and/or overfulfilled obligations lead to patterns of job satisfaction and citizenship behaviour intentions. These competing hypotheses were tested using a vignette study and an experiment. A Bayesian approach was used to test these pattern hypotheses directly against each other. The results show that breached obligations have an immediate negative impact on our outcome variables. Moreover, sequentially breached obligations lead to a continuous decline of job satisfaction and citizenship behaviour intentions. Overfulfilled obligations do little to compensate this negative impact. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.
... High-PA individuals are energetic and successfully adapt to stress (e.g., Gloria, Faulk, & Steinhardt, 2013), whereas those high on NA tend to report more exposure to stressors (Oliver, Mansell, & Jose, 2010;Spector, Fox, & Van Katwyk, 1999) and experience more strain ( Thoresen et al., 2003). As this study focuses on how trait PA and NA drive individuals' perceptions of, and change in, supervisor support and organizational commitment, two theoretical perspectives draw our attention-the broaden-and-build theory (Fredrickson, 1998(Fredrickson, , 2001) and the positive-negative asymmetry per- spective (e.g., Baumeister, Bratslavsky, Finkenauer, & Vohs, 2001;Taylor, 1991)-which we describe in the next sections. ...
... Indeed, research on the positive-negative asymmetry bias ( Baumeister et al., 2001) has shown that negative emotions are stronger and more salient than positive emotions. For example, negative emotions have a stronger influence on cognitive processing (Labianca & Brass, 2006), exerting an impact on the production of stereotypes (Esses & Zanna, 1995), impression formation (Fiske & Taylor, 1984), and social judgment (Taylor, 1991). ...
... Indeed, NA should negatively bias the appraisal of the environment and exert its utility as a driver of quick reactions to threatening situations (Fredrickson, 2001). Applying this logic to the context of this study, we expect NA to negatively influence newcomers' initial perceptions of supervisor support, owing to its role as a driver of impression for- mation (Fiske & Taylor, 1984;Ikegami, 1993) and social judgment (Taylor, 1991). The prominence of this negativity bias is also likely accentuated during the entry period where uncertainty may prime a threatening perception of the environment (Jones, 1986;Louis, 1980). ...
Article
Building on the broaden‐and‐build theory and research on the negativity bias, this study examines how trait affectivity, as a stable predisposition predicting the pattern of emotional responding, shapes newcomers' perceptions of supervisor support and experience of organizational commitment. Using latent growth modeling and data collected at four points in time from newcomers (N = 158), we found the initial level of perceived supervisor support to mediate a negative relationship between negative affectivity and the level of commitment. Moreover, although newcomers experienced a general decrease in perceived supervisor support and a related decrease in commitment, those with high positive affectivity experienced a weaker decrease in perceived supervisor support, which led to a weaker decrease in commitment. Incidentally, positive affectivity was also positively related to the initial level of commitment. Two post hoc studies indicated that positive and negative affectivity exerted their effects controlling for state affect and replicated the relationship between change in perceived support and commitment. We discuss how these findings inform our understanding of trait affectivity's influence on newcomers' work attitudes.
... Indeed, the frequency of negative emotional events is lower than the frequency of positive emotional events (Baumeister et al., 2001). It has been observed that people react more strongly, using more cognitive, emotional and physiological resources, in response to negative events (Taylor, 1991). People think more about them and make more effort to explain and deal with them than they do for positive events, even though they might involve the same need for readjustment. ...
... However, as Taylor (1991) proposes, negatively loaded events have a strong short-term impact, but are minimized in the long term. Even traumatic events did not have an homogenous 4 negative impact in basic assumptions or belifes. ...
... First, positive information is better analyzed and maintained for longer, due not only to the fact that it is less threatening and reinforces wellbeing, but also because positive information is simpler and easier to understand (Unkelbach et al., 2008). Second, there is a tendency for people to recall a greater proportion of positive events than negative events in the long term, and to reinterpret negative events so that they become less negative, to become neutral or even positive (Taylor, 1991). An example of this is when people recall positive events (related to pride) better than negative ones (related to shame). ...
Article
Perceived changes in basic beliefs and growth related to life events were examined in three studies. A representative sample (N = 885), a sample of students and their families (N = 291) and a sample of students (N = 245) responded with a list of positive and negative life events, a scale of changes in basic beliefs and a post-traumatic growth scale. Positive events were strongly associated with changes in basic beliefs, while only weak associations were found for negative events. In addition, negative changes in basic beliefs were associated with growth only in negative life events and positive changes in basic beliefs were generally associated with growth. Los cambios percibidos en creencias básicas y crecimiento relacionados con los eventos vitales se examinaron en tres estudios. Una muestra representativa (N = 885), una muestra de estudiantes y sus familiares (N = 291) y una de estudiantes (N = 245) respondieron una lista de eventos vitales positivos y negativos, una escala de cambios en creencias básicas y una escala de crecimiento postraumático. Los eventos positivos se asociaron fuertemente con cambios en las creencias básicas, mientras que sólo se encontraron asociaciones débiles para los eventos negativos. Además, cambios negativos en las creencias básicas se asociaron con el crecimiento sólo en eventos negativos de la vida y los cambios positivos en las creencias básicas se asociaron en general con el crecimiento.
... Indeed, the frequency of negative emotional events is lower than the frequency of positive emotional events (Baumeister et al., 2001). It has been observed that people react more strongly, using more cognitive, emotional and physiological resources, in response to negative events (Taylor, 1991). People think more about them and make more effort to explain and deal with them than they do for positive events, even though they might involve the same need for readjustment. ...
... However, as Taylor (1991) proposes, negatively loaded events have a strong short-term impact, but are minimized in the long term. Even traumatic events did not have an homogenous negative impact in basic assumptions or belifes. ...
... First, positive information is better analyzed and maintained for longer, due not only to the fact that it is less threatening and reinforces wellbeing, but also because positive information is simpler and easier to understand (Unkelbach et al., 2008). Second, there is a tendency for people to recall a greater proportion of positive events than negative events in the long term, and to reinterpret negative events so that they become less negative, to become neutral or even positive (Taylor, 1991). An example of this is when people recall positive events (related to pride) better than negative ones (related to shame). ...
Article
Perceived changes in basic beliefs and growth related to life events were examined in three studies. A representative sample (N = 885), a sample of students and their families (N = 291) and a sample of students (N = 245) responded with a list of positive and negative life events, a scale of changes in basic beliefs and a post-traumatic growth scale. Positive events were strongly associated with changes in basic beliefs, while only weak associations were found for negative events. In addition, negative changes in basic beliefs were associated with growth only in negative life events and positive changes in basic beliefs were generally associated with growth.
... Individuals tend to downplay or reinterpret negative events (particularly those events that are only mildly negative) to be neutral or positive, as it fits the general positive perception schema most people employ. There is generally less negative information attended to and processed that can be associated with negative events, making negative information less likely to adhere in memory (Taylor, 1991). Thus, positive information provides greater ease of cognitive processing, fits general expectations of individuals, and is often therefore easier to encode and recall, while negative information is rare, more cognitively complex, and disadvantaged. ...
... Whereas the Pollyanna principle suggests that positive events and relationships are easier to encode and recall, the negative asymmetry hypothesis suggests that negative events and relationships are more motivating for cognitive processing. Negative events elicit more intense reactions, such as fear, anger, and anxiety, than positive events; thus, negative events mobilize the individual's physiological, cognitive, emotional response to a greater degree than positive (or neutral) events (Taylor, 1991). ...
... The Pollyanna principle and the negative asymmetry effect differ dramatically in terms of the extent to which they rely on ego being involved for them to operate on cognition. The negative asymmetry effect is hypothesized to operate within the individual's direct experienceas the individual engages in negative interactions, events, and relationships with particular alters, the perceived threat to ego from an incoming negative tie makes it more likely that a negative asymmetry effect should dominate their cognitive operation (Taylor, 1991). Negative asymmetry relies on a mixture of "hot" emotional and cognitive responses to interpersonal stimuli (e.g., Zajonc, 1968). ...
Article
We examine the affective content of ties and explore whether negative affective tie content is systematically advantaged or disadvantaged when recalling the social network as compared to positive affective tie content. We test this in three workgroups from two organizations and analyze differences in perceptual accuracy comparing negative and positive affective tie perception. We theorize that ego will be more accurate for others' positive than negative ties due to generalized positivity bias, or the Pollyanna principle. We also theorize that ego will be more accurate for their own negative ties due to negative asymmetry perspective, as ego will attend more to those ties that pose a personal threat. Findings suggest that observers were more accurate overall about their own and others' positive compared to negative affective ties. We conclude that the Pollyanna principle is an important factor in explaining perceptions in naturalistic cognitive networks. Supplementary analysis showed that negative ties were more likely to be missed and imagined and having a valenced tie toward another person influences perceptions of that persons' network ties. Finally, we find that balanced and imbalanced triads were also important factors of relative accuracy. The study's contribution, limitations, and future research are also discussed.
... And, overall, observers were more accurate about alters' positive than negative affective ties. I theorize that these results were driven by negative-positive asymmetry, mobilization-minimization (Taylor, 1991) and the unique attributes of valenced affective relationships in organizations. Supplementary analysis showed the influence of having a valenced tie toward another person influences perceptions of that persons' network ties. ...
... This view emphasizes the potency of negative relationships or events due to being the target of those negative behaviors or intentions (Labianca and Brass, 2006). Because this study is focused on perceptions of others' negative ties, I supplement negative asymmetry with a mobilization-minimization perspective (Taylor, 1991)--which accounts for the degree to which individuals downplay, or minimize negative events (Walker and Skowronski, 2009). And finally, I interpret these asymmetries within the affective model of relationships to differentiate why some ties are more likely to be misperceived than others (Lopez-Kidwell et al., 2018). ...
... Negative asymmetry effects have found support in the psychological literature (for a review see Taylor, 1991), while empirical evidence specifically testing negative asymmetry within the social network literature has as shorter, but insightful track record (for a discussion, see Labianca, 2014). For example, Marineau and colleagues (2016) showed that centrality in the negative tie network was more predictive of performance at work than positive centrality. ...
Preprint
There has been growing interest in the study of negative tie networks, but little systematic analysis has been forthcoming related to the perceptions of negative ties. The majority of research on network perceptions has focused on positive tie networks, leaving unanswered questions about differences between positive and negative tie cognitive social structure perceptions. This study uses multiple samples from two organizations to analyze differences in perceptual errors and accuracy between negative and positive ties to help fill this gap. Findings show that observers were more likely to miss and imagine negative compared to positive affective ties. And, overall, observers were more accurate about alters’ positive than negative affective ties. I theorize that these results were driven by negative-positive asymmetry effects and the unique attributes of valenced affective relationships in organizations. Supplementary analysis showed the influence of having a valenced tie toward another person influences perceptions of that persons’ network ties. The study’s contribution, limitations, and future research are also discussed.
... Compared to positive events, negative events tend to evoke stronger physiological, cognitive, and emotional responses (Baumeister, Bratslavsky, Finkenauer, & Vohs, 2001;Fiske, 1980;Kaspar, Gamei, & Konig, 2015;Taylor, 1991). Because avoiding a negative or risky event is much more important for survival than approaching a positive situation, people tend to pay more attention to negative stimuli than to positive or neutral stimuli. ...
... Negative or threatening events tend to trigger more emotional responses than positive and neutral events (Baumeister et al., 2001;Taylor, 1991). Because a loss-framed narrative (vs. a gain frame) presents more negative and threatening events, it would trigger stronger emotional responses than a gain-framed narrative would. ...
... Focusing on the narrative context, we instead explained based on the different level of attention that audience members pay to gain-loss framed narratives. Because people tend to pay more attention to negative stimuli than positive ones (Baumeister et al., 2001;Fiske, 1980;Taylor, 1991), a narrative describing negative consequences of not being vaccinated against HPV may be more transporting and conducive of emotional responses than the one describing positive outcomes. Our findings demonstrate that the valence or framing of narrative content can change the extent to which audience members engage in the narrative and thus provide practical insights for the development of narrative messages designed to promote health. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined whether regulatory focus changes the effects of gain- and loss-framed narratives on promoting Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination among young females in Singapore. We conducted a quasi-experiment in which participants reported their regulatory focus and then read either a gain- or loss-framed narrative about HPV vaccination. The results showed an overall advantage of a loss frame over a gain frame in producing transportation and self-referent emotions, which in turn led to increased vaccination intentions. This pattern was more pronounced among those high in prevention or promotion focus, with self-referent emotions being the primary mediator transferring the interactive effects onto vaccination intentions. This study contributes to the extant literature on narrative persuasion by addressing the specific mechanisms of the effect of framing employed in narratives.
... This could be attributed to the negativity bias, which is the bias of placing more emphasis on negative events [58], words and memories [59]. This emphasis has been found in several studies in which negative events tend to have a stronger physiological and emotional responses than positive or neutral events [60]. This is further substantiated in impression studies of personality in which negative attributes have more impact than positive traits [61,62]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding how music can evoke emotions and in turn affect language use has significant implications not only in clinical settings but also in the emotional development of children. The relationship between music and emotion is an intricate one that has been closely studied. However, how the use of emotion words can be influenced by auditory priming is a question which is still not known. The main interest in this study was to examine how manipulation of mode and tempo in music affects the emotions induced and the subsequent effects on the use of emotion words. Fifty university students in Singapore were asked to select emotion words after exposure to various music excerpts. The results showed that major modes and faster tempos elicited greater responses for positive words and high arousal words respectively, while minor modes elicited more high arousal words and original tempos resulted in more positive words being selected. In the Major-Fast, Major-Slow and Minor-Slow conditions, positive correlations were found between the number of high arousal words and their rated intensities. Upon further analysis, categorization of emotion words differed from the circumplex model. Taken together, the findings highlight the prominence of affective auditory priming and allow us to better understand our emotive responses to music.
... An additional LME examined the VAS ratings, with group as the between-subject variable and Location as the within-subject variable. Finally, withingroup Pearson's product-moment correlations examined the relationship between intensity rating, and pleasantness and unpleasantness ratings as unpleasant experiences, which may be reported as feeling more intense 66 . ...
Article
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Interoception, or the sensing and integration of bodily state signals, has been implicated in anorexia nervosa (AN), given that the hallmark symptoms involve food restriction and body image disturbance. Here we focus on brain response to the anticipation and experience of affective interoceptive stimuli. Women remitted from AN (RAN; N = 18) and healthy comparison women (CW; N = 26) underwent a pleasant affective touch paradigm consisting of gentle strokes with a soft brush administered to the forearm or palm during functional neuroimaging. RAN had a lower brain response relative to CW during anticipation of touch, but a greater response when experiencing touch in the right ventral mid-insula. In RAN, this reduced anticipatory response was associated with higher levels of harm avoidance. Exploratory analyses in RAN also suggested that lower response during touch anticipation was associated with greater body dissatisfaction and higher perceived touch intensity ratings. This reduced responsivity to the anticipation of pleasant affective interoceptive stimuli in association with higher harm avoidance, along with an elevated response to the experience of touch, suggests an impaired ability in AN to predict and interpret incoming physiological stimuli. Impaired interoception may thus impact one’s sense of self, thereby supporting observations of disturbed body image and avoidance of affective and social stimuli. Therapeutic approaches that help AN to better anticipate and interpret salient affective stimuli or improve tolerance of interoceptive experiences may be an important addition to current interventions.
... Die Negativitätstendenz kann ebenso auf physiologischer Ebene auftreten und führt u.a. zu einer höheren körperlichen Erregung in negativen als in positiven Situationen (Taylor, S., 1991 Zustand. Aufgrund der generellen Neuartigkeit und Auffälligkeit von Negativem wird es als aussagekräftiger und informativer angesehen (Fiske, 1980). ...
Thesis
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Wie gelingt polizeilichen Jugendsachbearbeitern/-innen die Einschätzung zukünftigen Verhaltens junger Straftäter? Mit dieser Frage befasst sich die Untersuchung zur „Expertise in der Prognose von Kriminalität“. In insgesamt drei Studien, die quantitative sowie qualitative Erhebungen umfassten, wurde der Frage nachgegangen, ob sich mit zunehmender Erfahrung in der Bearbeitung von Jugendsachen Expertise in der Einschätzung des Kriminalitätsrisikos herausbildet. Verglichen wurden Experten mit langjähriger Erfahrung im Bereich der Jugendsachbearbeitung und Novizen, die erst kurze Zeit mit dieser Tätigkeit betraut waren. Die zu überprüfenden Maße bezogen sich auf die Effizienz des Vorgehens bei der Einschätzung sowie der Strategie der Suche und Integration von Fallinformationen. Außerdem sollte überprüft werden, inwiefern die Anfälligkeit für kognitive Urteilstendenzen mit der Erfahrung zusammenhängt. Die Stichprobe wurde in vier Bundesländern erhoben (BW, SH, Hessen und Berlin). Im Rahmen einer Online-Studie wurden n1 = 85 bzw. n2 = 63 Personen befragt, von denen sich n3 = 31 für ein nachfolgendes Interview zur Verfügung stellten. Die Ergebnisse lieferten Hinweise darauf, dass das Vorgehen bei der Einschätzung des Kriminalitätsrisikos mit steigender Erfahrung effizienter wird. Zwar blieb die Validität der Einschätzungen gleich, jedoch fand sich eine Reduzierung der hierfür benötigten Zeit. Der mit der Erfahrung einsetzende zeitliche Vorteil konnte auf die geringere Anzahl der als relevant erachteten Informationen zurückgeführt werden. Je weniger Informationen kognitiv verarbeitet werden müssen, desto schneller lässt sich zu einer Einschätzung gelangen. Weiter waren Experten wie auch Novizen gleichermaßen kognitiven Urteilstendenzen unterlegen. Neben einer Bestätigungstendenz wurden ebenso Hinweise auf eine Negativtendenz gefunden. Diese führt dazu, dass negative Informationen relevanter erscheinen als positive. Überlegt werde sollte, ob „Checklisten“ dabei helfen könnten, Standardinformationen eines Falls abzuklären, um ein ausgewogenes Bild des Jugendlichen zu erfassen. Ebenfalls könnte die Formulierung einer „Positivprognose“ (neben einer „Negativprognose“) dazu beitragen, mögliche Ressourcen und Anknüpfungspunkte im Leben des Jugendlichen zu identifizieren, um mit geeigneten Maßnahmen einer sich entwickelnden kriminellen Karriere entgegenzuwirken.
... 이러한 위험 태도 경향은 위험, 확률적 모호성, 결과 모호성 등의 다양한 수준의 불확실성(Carmerer and Weber, 1992)이 각각 존재하는 상황에서 모두 유사하게 나타난다(Di Mauro and Maffioletti, 2004;Ho, Keller and Ketyka, 2002;Hogarth and Einhorn, 1990;Kahneman and Tversky, 1979;Kocher, Lahno and Trautmann, 2018;Viscucci and Chesson, 1999 (Tversky and Kahneman, 1992;Viscucci and Chesson, 1999 (Tversky and Kahneman, 1992;Viscucci and Chesson, 1999 (Harinck et al., 2012;Tversky and Kahneman, 1992;Viscucci and Chesson, 1999), 일부 연구들은 불확실한 손실이 이미 발생한 손실을 상쇄할 가능성이 있을 때는 그 확률이 낮더라도 의사결정자가 위험 추구 태도를 취하는 경향을 발견하였다 (Thaler and Johnson, 1990 (Mckenzie, Liersch and Yaniv, 2008;Önkal et al., 2003;Yaniv and Foster, 1997) (Anderson and Claxton, 1982;Camilleri and Larrick, 2014;Shen and Saijo 2009), 다른 연구들은 반대의 결과를 발견하거나 (Heinzle, 2012) 두 방법 사이의 유의한 차이를 발견하지 못하기도 하였다 (Anderson and Claxton, 1982). 이러한 일관적이지 않은 결과들에 관해 일부 연구자들은 두 방법의 상대적 효과성이 친환경 제품과 일반 제품의 가격 차이의 크기에 달라질 가능성을 제시하기도 하였는데 (Anderson and Claxton, 1982;Diekmann and Preisendörfer, 2003;Ferreira, Avila and de Faria, 2010) (Arkes et al., 2008;Atlas and Bartels, 2018;Chatterjee et al., 2000;Chu and Liao, 2010;Heath, Chatterjee and France, 1995;Lee and Yi, 2019;Lehenkari, 2009;Lim, 2006 (Saqib, Frohlich and Bruning, 2010;Taylor, 1991 ...
... For example, the relationship between extraversion and positive (but not negative) affect and between neuroticism and negative (but not positive) affect is well documented (McNiel & Fleeson, 2006). Research on negative work events (such as low ethical supervisory behaviors) also suggests a greater role for negative over positive events in evoking emotional reactions (Taylor, 1991), which are likely to be labeled negatively and experienced far more intensely than positive emotions. Thus, the degree of arousal, which signals that action needs to be taken, seems to be higher for negative emotions than for positive emotions (Schwarz, 1990). ...
Article
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Due to ethical lapses of leaders, interest in ethical leadership has grown, raising important questions about the responsibility of leaders in ensuring moral and ethical conduct. However, research on ethical leadership has failed to examine the active role that followers’ attributes play in enhancing or minimizing the influence of ethical leadership in organizational outcomes. We applied the substitutes for leadership approach (Kerr & Jermier, 1978) to ethical leadership and predicted that proactive personality acts as substitute in the relationship between ethical leadership, workplace emotions and organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs). Data from two distinct samples offered strong support for the hypotheses. Specifically, we found that ethical leadership was significantly and negatively related to negative workplace emotions when subordinate proactive personality was low, but not when it was high, with consequences for OCBs. These findings suggest that proactive personality constitutes an important moderator on the impact of low ethical leadership on workplace emotions, with consequences for OCBs.
... Yet hardly anybody would claim today that there is no covariance between reactions of the nervous system and particular features of emotions at all. Even Lisa Feldman- Barrett (2006), who assumes that there are no emotion kinds with a unique and invariant autonomic signature, suggests that patterns of physiological responses can be divided into more general dimensions of threat and challenge, and positive and negative valence (see also Taylor 1991, Cacioppo et al. 2000. If we look at emotion patterns rather than individual variables of autonomic reactions, no current position would deny differences among coarse-grained emotional dimensions Robinson 2009, Harrison et al. 2013). ...
Book
In this book, Rebekka Hufendiek explores emotions as embodied, action-oriented representations, providing a non-cognitivist theory of emotions that accounts for their normative dimensions. Embodied Emotions focuses not only on the bodily reactions involved in emotions, but also on the environment within which emotions are embedded and on the social character of this environment, its ontological constitution, and the way it scaffolds both the development of particular emotion types and the unfolding of individual emotional episodes. In addition, it provides a critical review and appraisal of current empirical studies, mainly in psychophysiology and developmental psychology, which are relevant to discussions about whether emotions are embodied as well as socially embedded. The theory that Hufendiek puts forward denies the distinction between basic and higher cognitive emotions: all emotions are embodied, action-oriented representations. This approach can account for the complex normative structure of emotions, and shares the advantages of cognitivist accounts of emotions without sharing their problems. Embodied Emotions makes an original contribution to ongoing debates on the normative aspects of emotions and will be of interest to philosophers working on emotions, embodied cognition and situated cognition, as well as neuroscientists or psychologists who study emotions and are interested in placing their own work within a broader theoretical framework.
... Moreover, the emotion of happiness has a unique affective value compared to other emotional expressions which are relatively ambiguous and could thus; compete for attentional resources [48]. Another explanation is the negativity bias which describes the overriding allocation of attentional resources to negative cues [51]. This phenomenon has an unequivocal adaptive value and although the processing of impending life-threatening cues is rather automatic [52], efficient fear (and anger, albeit to a lesser extent) recognition occurs at the expense of processing accuracy and speed on concurrent tasks resulting from cognitive interference [18,[53][54][55][56][57][58]. ...
Article
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Current research on the role of cognitive resources on emotional face recognition provides inconclusive support for the automaticity model. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of working memory load and attentional control on emotion recognition. Participants (N=60) were shown photographs of fearful, angry, happy and neutral faces for 200 ms, 700 ms or 1400 ms while engaging in concurrent working memory load task. A restricted response time was employed. Data analysis revealed that presentation time did not affect the reaction time across emotions. Furthermore, reactions times were marginally affected by graded load. Reaction times to fear and anger were significantly greater compared to other emotions across load conditions. These findings are relatively congruent with the automaticity theory and negativity bias, suggesting that efficient emotion recognition can occur even in the expenditure of working memory processes, whereas longer reaction time for negative stimuli indicates the partial involvement of higher cognitive processes that are necessary for evaluating potential threats. It is suggested that although processing negative emotional faces can be carried out automatically, at the same time it requires sufficient attention in order to be executed.
... On the other hand, for a user who had difficulty in falling asleep, this user would care more about how fast he/she fell asleep. This makes sense because psychologically people tend to pay more attention to negative events [29]. Based on our previous study, we infer that users are less concerned about the sleep metrics that always meet scientific standard and thus these variable do not need to appear on RHS of rules, e.g., if a user's sleep efficiency was always above 95% then this user would be less interested in the rules related to sleep efficiency. ...
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With the development of wearable and mobile computing technology, more and more people start using sleep-tracking tools to collect personal sleep data on a daily basis aiming at understanding and improving their sleep. While sleep quality is influenced by many factors in a person’s lifestyle context, such as exercise, diet and steps walked, existing tools simply visualize sleep data per se on a dashboard rather than analyse those data in combination with contextual factors. Hence many people find it difficult to make sense of their sleep data. In this paper, we present a cloud-based intelligent computing system named SleepExplorer that incorporates sleep domain knowledge and association rule mining for automated analysis on personal sleep data in light of contextual factors. Experiments show that the same contextual factors can play a distinct role in sleep of different people, and SleepExplorer could help users discover factors that are most relevant to their personal sleep.
... People remember a higher proportion of positive events than negative events in the long-term and tend to reinterpret negative events to be at least neutral or even positive (Taylor, 1991). Genghis Khan is rated as neutral by a worldwide sample of young people, compared to very negative rating for the younger Bush (Hanke et al., in press). ...
Chapter
Research on social representations (SR) of history within the field of social psychology may provide guidelines that can strengthen meta-cognitive competences in history teaching. This chapter reviews existing empirical research on SR of history in order to enrich the discussion on history education and the formation of political culture, first explaining how collective memory may be a result of history education. Then, theoretical and empirical evidence that may serve as guidelines for strengthening meta-cognitive competences in history education is reviewed, presenting biases that may exist in determining what is historically significant and explaining the importance of understanding historical continuity and change when learning history. Lastly, tools are presented that may enhance learning to identify multiple causes and consequences in history through perspective-taking. Some major implications and conclusions are considered.
... There is a large body of psychological research that illustrates how a person's mood, whether natural or induced, can influence an individual's state of mind, thereby affecting an individual's decision-making process and economic outcomes (Mischel, Ebbesen & Zeiss, 1976;Isen, Shalker, Clark & Karp, 1978;Alloy, Abramson & Viscusi, 1981;Isen & Patrick, 1983;Johnson & Tversky, 1983;Arkes, Herren & Isen, 1988;Crocker, Alloy & Kayne, 1988;Taylor, 1991;Dickhaut, McCabe, Nagode, Rustichini, Smith & Pardo, 2003). For instance, individuals tend to make judgements that are compatible with their current mood, even when the subject matter may be unrelated to the cause of the mood (Johnson & Tversky, 1983). ...
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This study explores whether South African national sporting performance can influence investors in such a way that it has the ability to impact on market returns. Using standard event study methodology, this study determines the constant mean return using the daily All-Share price index on the JSE for the period of 1 January 1990 to 31 December 2010. This study focuses on three of South Africa’s most popular sports, namely soccer, cricket and rugby, and examines if these three sports have the ability to influence market returns. Although there is some evidence of a relationship between stock returns and sporting performance in the descriptive analysis, the regression results indicate that sporting performance in South Africa does not significantly explain abnormal market returns on the JSE. The study provides a number of possible reasons for this finding and concludes by suggesting areas for future research.
... Studies have identified negative outcomes of social undermining (Duffy et al., 2002;Taylor, 1991). They suggest negative affective, cognitive and behavioral outcomes of the phenomenon of social undermining (Castille et al., 2017). ...
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Purpose The purpose of the paper is to explore the meanings and effects of social undermining as described by the faculty members of public and private universities of Pakistan. Design/methodology/approach The study utilizes the qualitative approach using in-depth interviews of the faculty members to explore different meanings assigned to social undermining and the impact of these experiences on them. Findings The faculty members describe social undermining in terms of defamation and limiting of space for them at workplace. The impact of social undermining is directly felt on the emotional and overall well-being. It also affects the work performance of the faculty leading to behaviors like withdrawal and abstaining from voluntary activities. Research limitations/implications The research is conducted in only two universities in the capital city. The experiences and views of faculty members in other universities particularly in small cities might be different. Practical implications The study may be of help in terms of finding out the impacts of social undermining on faculty members in order to avoid such situations, hence, improving the motivation level of faculty. This will help managers to understand the phenomenon and find out appropriate strategies for a more harmonious and trustable work environment between people. Originality/value The study contributes to the literature by utilizing the qualitative approach that is not used much in this subject area. It is also one of the very first attempts of exploring the phenomenon in Pakistan, as per the best of authors’ knowledge.
... Optimism bias can be 406 described simply as the tendency for humans to underestimate resources (time/cost) necessary to achieve 407 a goal, even if that goal had proven itself to be more costly in the past. This is especially evident when 408 recalling the personal experience, as people tend to block out or diminish negative memories and favor 409 those where success was achieved, regardless of the circumstance (Taylor, 1991). Expectation bias refers 410 to the propensity for a scheduler to choose or accept estimates that most closely resemble their goal. ...
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Due to the cyclical nature of commodity prices, the profitability of mining projects relies on proper timing. To ensure optimal profits, mines should be brought online at the time, which maximizes the potential value of the asset. In this paper, a coking coal mine construction case is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of scheduling large-scale construction projects with uncertain durations under price cyclicality. Project parameters are obtained stochastically via Monte Carlo sampling, allowing for the influence of uncertainty to be quantified. The critical path method and linear programming are employed to analyze the results and to optimize the construction process, ensuring the maximum value of the mining project. The parameters are repeatedly sampled to obtain distributions of possible project outcomes, allowing for risk and sensitivity quantification. The optimal schedule for construction was determined to be 247 weeks, with a most likely value of $813 million.
... Many studies suggest a stronger context effect associated with negative PPI compared to positive PPI (Bravo and Kravitz 1996;Maurer et al. 1993;Nieminen et al. 2013;Palmer and Feldman 2005;Reilly et al. 1998;Taylor 1991). In the case of indirect PPI, Nieminen et al. (2013) reported assimilation with effect sizes (Cohen's d) of − 0.69 (medium effect) for the negative PPI and+0.3(small ...
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Understanding which factors can impact rater judgments in assessments is important to ensure quality ratings. One such factor is whether prior performance information (PPI) about learners influences subsequent decision making. The information can be acquired directly, when the rater sees the same learner, or different learners over multiple performances, or indirectly, when the rater is provided with external information about the same learner prior to rating a performance (i.e., learner handover). The purpose of this narrative review was to summarize and highlight key concepts from multiple disciplines regarding the influence of PPI on subsequent ratings, discuss implications for assessment and provide a common conceptualization to inform research. Key findings include (a) assimilation (rater judgments are biased towards the PPI) occurs with indirect PPI and contrast (rater judgments are biased away from the PPI) with direct PPI; (b) negative PPI appears to have a greater effect than positive PPI; (c) when viewing multiple performances, context effects of indirect PPI appear to diminish over time; and (d) context effects may occur with any level of target performance. Furthermore, some raters are not susceptible to context effects, but it is unclear what factors are predictive. Rater expertise and training do not consistently reduce effects. Making raters more accountable, providing specific standards and reducing rater cognitive load may reduce context effects. Theoretical explanations for these findings will be discussed.
... Negative events tend to evoke more attributional thinking than positive events (Holtzworth-Munroe & Jacobson, 1985;Peeters & Czapinski, 1990) and people seek causal explanations for negative events more than for positive or neutral events (Wong & Weiner, 1981). Research has also shown that negative events elicit more physiological, cognitive, emotional and behavioral outcomes than positive events, which can make people better remember negative events such as corporate crises and enable them to recall those negative events longer in their memory (Taylor, 1991). This negativity bias has been well documented in psychology (e.g., Eagly, Wood, & Chaiken, 1978;Fiske, 1980) and consumer behavior (Ahluwalia et al., 2000;Ahluwalia, 2002;Lee, 2016). ...
Article
This research reports on the buffering effects of two proactive crisis communication strategies: pre-crisis engagement and stealing thunder. Pre-crisis engagement is an organization’s strategy to engage with stakeholders’ petitions before a negative event escalates into a crisis while stealing thunder is an organization’s voluntary revelation of a crisis before it is revealed by a third party such as new media. The results showed that the effectiveness of pre-crisis engagement with stakeholder petitions was moderated by stealing thunder such that the effects of pre-crisis engagement were stronger when the organization stole the thunder. A moderated mediation model explored the underlying mechanism in which crisis responsibility mediated the interaction effects between pre-crisis engagement and stealing thunder.
... Ou seja, para qualquer dimensão de práticas ou de comportamento confiável, um desempenho negativo versus um desempenho positivo pode ter um impacto diferente sobre a confiança. Este trabalho é baseado em pressupostos presentes na literatura (HERZBERG, 1966) e na interpretação dos diagnósticos em decisões sociais (OLIVER, 1999;SKOWRONSKI;CARLSTON, 1987;TAYLOR, 1991) para, então, analisar os efeitos assimétricos "contingentes", onde os efeitos negativos ou positivos possam ser observados. De acordo com a teoria clássica de necessidade de satisfação, a Teoria dos Dois Fatores de Herzberg (1966), distingue dois tipos de fatores: de "higiene" (fatores que quando presentes evitam a insatisfação) e "motivadores" (fatores que quando presentes produzem satisfação). ...
Conference Paper
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O objetivo geral deste estudo é testar, a partir do modelo teórico proposto por Sirdeshmukh, Singh e Sabol (2002), a relação de interdependência entre os construtos: Competência Operacional, Benevolência Operacional e Orientação para Solução de Problemas como dimensões formadoras da Confiança nas Políticas e Práticas Gerenciais (PPGs) e da Confiança no Pessoal de Linha de Frente (PLF), Confiança nas PPGs, Confiança no PLF, Valor (percebido) e Lealdade. Como objetivos específicos, foram estabelecidos: analisar os efeitos das práticas e dos comportamentos confiáveis de Competência Operacional, Benevolência Operacional e Orientação para Solução de Problemas do PLF sobre a Confiança do PFL; analisar os efeitos das práticas e dos comportamentos confiáveis de Competência Operacional, Benevolência Operacional e Orientação para Solução de Problemas das PPGs sobre a Confiança das PPGs; verificar os efeitos de reciprocidade entre as facetas de Confiança no PLF e da Confiança nas PPGs; analisar o comportamento e o impacto das facetas de Confiança no PLF e nas PPGs como antecedentes da Lealdade do consumidor; e verificar o impacto do Valor sobre a Confiança nas PPGs e na Confiança no PLF do consumidor na formação da Lealdade do consumidor. Cabe salientar que o trabalho aborda a estratégia de retenção de clientes por meio da prática relacional no contexto do varejo e serviços de uma concessionária de automóveis localizada na Serra Gaúcha, mais especificamente, nas cidades de Bento Gonçalves e Caxias do Sul (RS). O modelo teórico proposto por Sirdeshmukh, Singh e Sabol (2002), e suas respectivas hipóteses, é utilizado para verificar o entendimento das práticas e dos comportamentos confiáveis percebidos por consumidores em relação a prestadores de serviços, e que constroem a confiança do consumidor e os mecanismos para converter tal confiança em termos de valor e de lealdade em trocas relacionais. Para tanto, utilizou-se de uma amostra estratificada da população de pesquisa, que totalizou 235 respondentes, sendo que os dados foram coletados por meio de três formas de pesquisas: (i) entrevista por telefone assistida por computador; (ii) survey por correspondência; e (iii) survey eletrônica. O modelo utilizado apresenta uma conceituação multidimensional para a construção de confiança, incorpora duas facetas distintas de confiança do consumidor, ou seja, a Confiança no PLF e a Confiança nas PPGs e especifica o Valor como um construto mediador entre a Confiança e a Lealdade dos consumidores. Os dados foram avaliados a partir da análise multivariada de dados, utilizando-se a técnica de modelagem de equações estruturais. Os resultados apóiam uma visão tridimensional das avaliações da Confiança ao longo da Competência Operacional, da Benevolência Operacional e da Orientação para Solução de Problemas. A faceta da Confiança no PLF teve um papel crítico em relação à faceta da Confiança nas PPGs e na Lealdade do consumidor, evidenciando a Confiança como antecedente significativo da Lealdade. Em acréscimo, também são analisados os efeitos assimétricos no que tange às dimensões formadoras da confiança.
... Thus, they may use sentiment-loaded language in order to mirror or shape their stakeholders' affective perspectives. In doing so, agencies have to consider the cognitive and communicative dominance of "negativity bias" that implies that negative language has signi cantly more effect on audiences than positive language (Duval et al. 2019;Jing-Schmidt 2007;Maor 2016;Soroka 2014;Taylor 1991). This cognitive and communicative bias, in combination with the general focus of accountability processes on negative events and underperformance, can lead to an overall negativity bias in accountability relations between agencies and stakeholders (cf. ...
Article
This contribution theorizes on the emergence of affective styles in the accountability reporting of public agencies. Under conditions of multiple accountability towards heterogeneous stakeholders, public agencies are expected to make increased use of sentiment in their reporting. Agencies’ differentiated modulation of positive and negative sentiment results in four ideal-typical affective styles: technocratic; political; alarming; and self-praising. The plausibility of this framework is demonstrated for the case of a major international public agency, the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA), which serves several million Palestine refugees. We conduct a dictionary-based sentiment analysis of UNRWA annual reports published between 1951 and 2020, a corpus of 1.47 million words. Additional evidence from interviews with UNRWA officials and diplomats is also considered. Over time, the agency’s use of sentiment has increased in response to diversifying stakeholders and its affective style of reporting has changed repeatedly. Contrary to established theoretical expectations, multiple accountability not only increases positive reporting and self-praise. Rather, with increasing levels of negativity, the alarming and political styles of communication have played a much stronger role. These findings demonstrate that agencies’ chief goal in accountability reporting is not simply to elicit positive assessments from their respective accountability forums through self-praising language. Agencies may also aim to achieve ‘negativity congruence’ with accountability forums by increasing negative sentiment, thus compelling stakeholders to acknowledge the operational challenges agencies face.
... En consecuencia, los resultados de los psicólogos clínicos con posgrado en relación a su bienestar psicológico general, concuerdan con lo postulado por Taylor (1991) quien sostiene que el bienestar psicológico es parte de la salud en su sentido más general y se manifiesta en todas las esferas de la actividad humana, puesto que cuando un individuo se siente bien, es más productivo, sociable y creativo, posee proyección positiva de futuro, infunde felicidad y la felicidad implica capacidad de amar, trabajar, relacionarse socialmente y controlar el medio. ...
Article
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El objetivo del presente estudio comparativo fue determinar si existen diferencias en el bienestar psicológico entre psicólogos clínicos con y sin estudios de posgrado. La muestra estuvo conformada por 60 psicólogos clínicos estudiantes de posgrado en una universidad nacional y 60 psicólogos clínicos sin estudios de posgrado. Se usó la Escala de Bienestar psicológico de Sánchez Cánovas (EBP). Los resultados indican que los psicólogos clínicos con estudios de posgrado tienen puntuaciones significativamente más altas que los psicólogos clínicos sin estos estudios en todas las áreas evaluadas de bienestar psicológico. Se discuten las implicancias teóricas y prácticas de estos hallazgos.
... In addition to the type of emotion, the strength of the emotion is also significant. The degree to act or to prepare to act is associated to the level of emotion for the event or change (Taylor, 1991). Since the desire to act is linked to emotional intensity, understanding the intensity of employee emotions is essential to managing an organizational transition. ...
Thesis
Organization transitions are a complex and difficult change process. This complexity has led to a significant percentage of transitional failures. While academic process models exist, few references are made to concrete tools to navigate the journey. The design thinking process is a proven tool when designing new products, but has limited academic exposure in practical business applications. This study explores the impact of integrating the use of design thinking, as a potential change tool, into an organizational transition. Case study methodology was applied to a business unit within a single organization, currently managing an organizational transition. An intact team was recruited to form the design team, which was tasked with creating an innovative experience for their colleagues navigating the transition. Data was collected from existing employee interviews, through observations of the design process and follow-up participant interviews. Results align with existing literature, asserting that a lack of communication and uncertainty, during an organizational transition, leads to employee stress and impacts their willingness to support the change effort. Additionally, the design team have developed the ability to ideate and prototype, identifying two offerings for the organization – an orientation session and video logs (Vlogs). One offering has positive feedback from the overall organization. Participant feedback also highlighted the value placed upon the empathetic interviews and the potential use for those skills in myriad business settings. Study contributions include the confirmation that design thinking is an effective tool to resolve practical business challenges. This study also demonstrated that design thinking has significant value beyond product design. Using empathetic interviews and engaging employees as design-thinking participants result in increased employee engagement and feelings of inclusion.
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Links between affective states and risk-taking are often characterised using summary statistics from serial decision-making tasks. However, our understanding of these links, and the utility of decision-making as a marker of affect, needs to accommodate the fact that ongoing (e.g., within-task) experience of rewarding and punishing decision outcomes may alter future decisions and affective states. To date, the interplay between affect, ongoing reward and punisher experience, and decision-making has received little detailed investigation. Here, we examined the relationships between reward and loss experience, affect, and decision-making in humans using a novel judgement bias task analysed with a novel computational model. We demonstrated the influence of within-task favourability on decision-making, with more risk-averse/‘pessimistic’ decisions following more positive previous outcomes and a greater current average earning rate. Additionally, individuals reporting more negative affect tended to exhibit greater risk-seeking decision-making, and, based on our model, estimated time more poorly. We also found that individuals reported more positive affective valence during periods of the task when prediction errors and offered decision outcomes were more positive. Our results thus provide new evidence that (short-term) within-task rewarding and punishing experiences determine both future decision-making and subjectively experienced affective states.
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The process of emotional stimuli has important implications in the regulation of our behaviour. According to the negativity bias theory (Taylor, 1991), negative valence stimuli are processed slower than neutral and positive ones. However Larsen, Mercer, and Balota (2006) claim that once lexical characteristics are held constant, the negativity bias effect disappears. On the other hand, the motivational account theory (Kousta, Vinson & Vigliocco, 2009), propose that valenced stimuli, regardless of polarity, enjoy preferential access to processing. However it has been proposed that this effect may be task dependent (Estes & Verges, 2008; Argyiou, 2009). The aim of this study is to investigate the valence effect in two different tasks, a lexical decision and a valence judgement task, controlling for lexical characteristics. We found support for the motivational account theory in the lexical decision task. We did not find a preferential processing of negative stimuli in the valence judgement task, as expected when attention is explicitly directed towards the valence of the stimuli (Nasrallah, Carmel & Lavie, 2009)
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Bimatrix games are reconsidered under assumption that players are loss averse and payoffs are fuzzy, where reference points are given exogenously. The impact of loss aversion on bimatrix game is investigated by applying credibility theory. Three solution concepts of credibilistic loss aversion Nash equilibria (i.e., expected loss aversion Nash equilibrium, optimistic loss aversion Nash equilibrium and pessimistic loss aversion Nash equilibrium) and their existence theorems are proposed. The sufficient and necessary conditions are presented to find three equilibria. It is found that three credibilistic loss aversion Nash equilibria are equivalent if confidence level is equal to 0.5. Furthermore, an analysis on credibilistic loss aversion equilibria with respect to loss aversion is performed in a 2 × 2 bimatrix game with triangular fuzzy payoffs. It is found that with a higher probability a more loss-averse player receives a preferred payoff in the mixed strategy Nash equilibrium in some situations, but receives the second highest payoff in other situations. Finally, a case study is shown to illustrate the validity of the bimatrix game with triangular fuzzy payoffs developed in this paper.
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It is widely assumed that the frequency adverb always combined with the progressive aspect is typically used in negative evaluations expressing irritation, i.e., complaints. Adopting a cognitive-functional approach, I test this claim across six genres of Present Day English. Always progressives were coded according to their functions: Describe (neutral), Complain (negative), Lament (negative), or Praise (positive). Neutral, rather than negative, functions predominated in all genres, although negative functions outnumbered positive functions. I relate the former finding to the propensity of always progressives to act similarly to the simple aspect and the latter to a cognitive phenomenon called the negativity bias.
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A critical component of brand equity is consumer perceived ethicality (CPE) of the brand. Yet, little is known about how to create positive brand CPE. We offer that the starting point for creating brand CPE is with the brand-naming decision. Drawing on sound symbolism theory, we propose that certain brand name characteristics better convey ethicality. Two studies are conducted. Study 1 finds that higher frequency sounds in brand names better convey ethicality than lower frequency sounds. Study 2 finds that brand names can positively impact brand CPE in the presence of additional information, in particular, information that reflects negatively on the brand’s ethical behavior. These results suggest that marketers be more involved at the onset of creating an ethical brand image.
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Jays hide food caches, steal them from conspecifics and use tactics to minimize cache theft. Jays are sensitive to the content of their own caches, retrieving items depending on their preferences and the perishability of the cached item. Whether jays impose the same content sensitivity when they steal caches is less clear. We adapted the 'cups-and-balls' magic routine, creating a cognitive illusion to test whether jays are sensitive to the (i) content of hidden items and (ii) type of displacement. Subjects were presented with two conditions in which hidden food was consistent with their expectations; and two conditions in which food was manipulated to violate their expectations by switching their second preferred food for their preferred food (up-value) or vice versa (de-value). Subjects readily accepted food when it was consistent with their expectations but were more likely to re-inspect the baited cup and alternative cup when their expectations were violated. In the devalue condition, jays exhibited longer latencies to consume the food and often rejected it. Dominant subjects were more likely to reject the food, suggesting that social factors influence their responses to cognitive illusions. Using cognitive illusions offers innovative avenues for investigating the psychological constraints in diverse animal minds.
Chapter
Das folgende Kapitel widmet sich der Operationalisierung des Begriffes Glück im Kulturvergleich. Dieses Kapitel hat das Ziel die generelle Operationalisierbarkeit, sowie Schwierigkeiten und auftretende Unterschiede bei einer kulturvergleichenden Perspektive strukturiert darzustellen. Dafür wird im ersten Teil auf die Entwicklung des Forschungskonstrukts Wohlbefinden an sich eingegangen und darauf folgend auf die Ergebnisse bisheriger Forschung zur Entstehung von Wohlbefinden. Im Anschluss wird aufgezeigt, warum eine kulturvergleichende Perspektive für das Verständnis des Konstruktes notwendig ist und was subjektive Lebenszufriedenheit ist. Dadurch soll ein grundlegendes Verständnis über die Wechselwirkungen Glück, Lebenszufriedenheit, subjektives Wohlbefinden und Kulturellen Dimensionen geschaffen werden.
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A hallmark feature of episodic memory is that of “mental time travel,” whereby an individual feels they have returned to a prior moment in time. Cognitive and behavioral neuroscience methods have revealed a neurobiological counterpart: Successful retrieval often is associated with reactivation of a prior brain state. We review the emerging literature on memory reactivation and recapitulation, and we describe evidence for the effects of emotion on these processes. Based on this review, we propose a new model: Negative Emotional Valence Enhances Recapitulation (NEVER). This model diverges from existing models of emotional memory in three key ways. First, it underscores the effects of emotion during retrieval. Second, it stresses the importance of sensory processing to emotional memory. Third, it emphasizes how emotional valence – whether an event is negative or positive – affects the way that information is remembered. The model specifically proposes that, as compared to positive events, negative events both trigger increased encoding of sensory detail and elicit a closer resemblance between the sensory encoding signature and the sensory retrieval signature. The model also proposes that negative valence enhances the reactivation and storage of sensory details over offline periods, leading to a greater divergence between the sensory recapitulation of negative and positive memories over time. Importantly, the model proposes that these valence-based differences occur even when events are equated for arousal, thus rendering an exclusively arousal-based theory of emotional memory insufficient. We conclude by discussing implications of the model and suggesting directions for future research to test the tenets of the model.
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Mental simulation of future scenarios is hypothesized to affect future behavior, but a large and inconsistent literature means it is unclear whether, and under what conditions, mental simulation can change people’s behavior. A meta-analysis was conducted to synthesize the effects of mental simulation on behavior and examine under what conditions mental simulation works best. An inclusive systematic database search identified 123 (N = 5685) experiments comparing mental simulation to a control group. After applying a multilevel random effects model, a statistically-reliable positive effect of Hedges’ g=0.49 [95% CI 0.37; 0.62], which was significantly different than zero. Using a taxonomy to identify different subtypes of mental simulation (along two dimensions, class [process, performance, outcome] and purpose [whether an inferior, standard, superior version of that behavior is simulated]), it was found that superior simulations garnered more reliable beneficial effects than inferior simulations. These findings have implications for integrating theories of how mental simulations change behavior, how mental simulations are classified, and may help guide professionals seeking evidence-based and cost-effective methods of changing behavior.
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Considering the wealth of recent studies on affective touch, to date, little research addressed the role of the other sensory modalities in the modulation of hedonic tactile perception. Here, we investigated the behavioral and electrodermal signature of the interaction between simultaneously presented visual and tactile stimuli. In three experiments, participants were presented with emotional pictures (international affective picture system; IAPS), while their forearm was gently stroked by means of different tactile textures (i.e., sandpaper, satin, tinfoil, abrasive sponge, and skin-to-skin contact). In Experiment 1, the participants evaluated the pleasantness of the tactile stimulation received, while in Experiment 2 they evaluated the pictures emotional valence. In Experiment 3 the participants rated the pleasantness, the smoothness and the softness of the textures; skin conductance responses (SCRs) were also measured. In sum, the results revealed that while the visual valence ratings were not modulated by the tactile stimulation, the hedonic and sensory tactile ratings were modulated by the visual presentation of both positively and negatively valenced pictures, as well as by neutral pictures. The modulatory effects occurring during visuo-tactile interactions might thus be not necessarily reciprocal. Moreover, the SCRs were not differently affected by the visuo-tactile or tactile conditions of stimulus presentation, suggesting a dissociation between behavioral and electrodermal effects in multisensory interactions.
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Nowadays, social networks sites (SNs) are widely used in a variety of applications such as viral marketing. Given a huge number of users on SNs, the process of selecting appropriate users as the target set is key decision for enterprises to conduct cost-effective targeted marketing and reputation management. Several methods have been presented to find influential users for viral marketing in social networks. One of the weaknesses of previous methods is the selection of target sets who activate similar users and have high spreading ability in the whole network. In this paper, an optimization model is proposed to identify the most influential users of social networks in another view by splitting a big network into small parts as communities and considering both positive and negative interactions between users to create the influence graph. Our model takes the usefulness and similarity of the users into account and tries to select the most profitable users with the lowest possible similarity in which the number of target users is automatically determined. Assessments on real and synthetic networks indicate that the proposed method is capable to select a target set with high profit and gives better performance than other methods.
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En el marco del programa de investigación y de la red internacional CEVI, este estudio indaga en la relación entre los hechos personales de cambio y la memoria autobiográfica y el bienestar. Se aplicó el instrumento CEVI en dos muestras de contextos diferentes, estratificadas en cinco cohortes de edad: 1) País Vasco (N = 267, rango 20-88 años, edad M = 38.57, DT = 20.96; 59.9% mujeres) y 2) Gaza (N = 676, rango 19- 103 años, edad M = 52.79, DT = 21.02; 47.8% mujeres). Se correlacionaron los hechos de cambio individuales con el bienestar subjetivo (escala PHI) y sus dimensiones hedónica y eudaimónica. En ambas muestras hubo mayor cantidad de recuerdos autobiográficos positivos. Respecto a la incidencia de los hechos de cambio en el bienestar, son los sucedidos el último año los que impactan en mayor medida en una sociedad de mayor nivel de vida y más individualista como el País Vasco. En una sociedad más colectivista y en condiciones de vida más difíciles como Gaza, son los grandes puntos de inflexión los que se asocian más fuertemente al bienestar, probablemente por los grandes cambios en roles sociales y calidad de vida que éstos implican. Los hechos positivos globales se relacionaron tanto con el bienestar global, como con sus facetas hedónica y eudaimónica, más fuertemente que los hechos globales negativos. Se discuten los resultados a la luz de las evidencias de los estudios internacionales del proyecto CEVI.
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This paper pursues three goals: (1) determining the relative importance of built environment barriers limiting walkability, (2) analyzing the existence of an asymmetry in the way people evaluate positive and negative built environment characteristics, and (3) identifying solutions to tackle the main barriers and quantify their impact in walkability. A best–worst scaling survey was developed to compare the importance of eight different attributes of the built environment regarding walkability. Model results show an asymmetry negative–positive in the judgment and choice of built environment characteristics that promote and impede walkability. The most important barriers, obtained from worst responses, are connectivity, topography, sidewalk surface and absence of policemen. Walkability scores were computed for different neighbourhoods and different policy scenarios were forecasted. Simulation results from the worst responses indicate that improvements in sidewalk quality, along with an increase in the number of police officers, lead to an 85% increase in the walkability score for the lower income neighbourhoods.
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Inspired by Shalev’s model of loss aversion, we investigate the effect of loss aversion on a bimatrix game where the payoffs in the bimatrix game are characterized by triangular fuzzy variables. First, we define three solution concepts of credibilistic loss aversion Nash equilibria, and their existence theorems are presented. Then, three sufficient and necessary conditions are given to find the credibilistic loss aversion Nash equilibria. Moreover, the relationship among the three credibilistic loss aversion Nash equilibria is discussed in detail. Finally, for 2×2 bimatix game with triangular fuzzy payoffs, we investigate the effect of loss aversion coefficients and confidence levels on the three credibilistic loss aversion Nash equilibria. It is found that an increase of loss aversion levels of a player leads to a decrease of his/her own payoff. We also find that the equilibrium utilities of players are decreasing (increasing) as their own confidence levels when players employ the optimistic (pessimistic) value criterion.
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In this paper, we investigate whether the current references to probability in standard setters' conceptual definitions of assets and liabilities cause individuals to believe that the probability of a future transfer of economic benefits must be above some meaningful threshold for an asset or a liability to exist—a belief that is contrary to standard setters' intent. Results of multiple experiments indicate that the majority of individuals do use a high probability threshold to determine asset existence whereas, for liabilities, the majority use a very low threshold. Thus, even under ceteris paribus conditions, liabilities are more frequently judged to exist than assets—a phenomenon analogous to accounting conservatism as has been discussed in terms of the performance statement. These findings are robust to variation in formal training and in type of liability, and cannot be explained by alternative approaches to judging existence. Consistent with standard setters' intentions, results also suggest that their proposed changes to the definitions of assets and liabilities—changes that attempt to clarify the intended role of probability—do cause a greater proportion of participants to indicate that the relevant financial statement element (asset or liability) exists, relative to participants with no definition. Our study provides important insights for standard setters as they continue work on their missions to update their Conceptual Frameworks and for researchers regarding the role of conservatism on the balance sheet. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Inspired by Shalev’s model of loss aversion, we propose a bimatrix game with loss aversion, where the elements in payoff matrices are characterized as symmetric triangular fuzzy numbers, and investigate the effect of loss aversion on equilibrium strategies. Firstly, we define a solution concept of (α, β)-loss aversion Nash equilibrium and prove that it exists in any bimatrix game with loss aversion and symmetric triangular fuzzy payoffs. Furthermore, a sufficient and necessary condition is proposed to find the (α, β)-loss aversion Nash equilibrium. Finally, for a 2 × 2 bimatrix game with symmetric triangular fuzzy payoffs, the relation between the (α, β)-loss aversion Nash equilibrium and loss aversion coefficients is discussed when players are loss averse and it is analyzed when a player can benefit from his opponent’s misperceiving belief about his loss aversion level.
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