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Confirming first impressions in the employment interview: A field study of interviewer behavior.

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Abstract

This research examined behavioral styles used by interviewers to confirm their first impressions of job applicants. Three interviewers in a corporate setting formed first impressions based on application blank and test score information. They then conducted autiotaped interviews. Coders independently coded 79 interviews and found that first impressions were related to confirmatory behavior. Interviews followed up positive first impressions, for example, by showing positive regard toward applicants, ''selling'' the company and giving job information, and gathering less information. Applicants' communication style and rapport with interviewers also differed. Significant differences in confirmatory behaviors also occurred among the three interviewers. A number of interviewer behaviors, especially positive regard, were related to applicant behavior in interviews. Although previous studies of expectancy confirmation have produced mixed results, our results suggest that interviewers in natural settings do use confirmatory strategies, underscoring the importance of additional research on ''self-fulfilling prophecies.''
... Diese Erwartung beeinflusst die weitere Meinungsbildung oftmals erheblich. Dieses Phänomen wird auch first impression error genannt (Dougherty, Turban & Callender, 1994). Ist der erste Eindruck einmal gebildet, ist dieser schwierig revidierbar. ...
... Jasmin Derksen wäre hingegen für den Probanden eine Person, welche sich gut in ein Team integrieren würde. Wenngleich es sich hier nicht um den theoretisch hergeleiteten Zusammenhang zwischen wahrgenommener Attraktivität und zugeschriebener Kompetenz handelt, so wurden von dem Probanden dennoch aufgrund der äußerlichen Erscheinung Rückschlüsse auf weitere Eigenschaften gebildet (Dougherty, Turban & Callender, 1994). ...
... People typically gather more information about a person over time (e.g., from additional interview questions or longer conversations in a social setting) that may change their perception. However, studies have shown that the first impression in both social and professional settings may already diminish interest in a person, and people may not be willing to spend more time gathering additional information [37][38][39]. This is an indication that people were subjected to some stigma even with mild-to-moderate TD movements, which they may not even be aware of. ...
Article
Objective: Antipsychotic medications may cause tardive dyskinesia (TD), an often-irreversible movement disorder characterized by involuntary movements that are typically stereotypic, choreiform, or dystonic and may impair quality of life. This study evaluated others' perceptions of abnormal TD movements in professional and social situations. Methods: This was an experimental, randomized, blinded, digital survey in a general population sample. Participants were randomized 1:1 into a test or control group to view a video of a professional actor simulating TD movements or no TD movements prior to completing surveys on employment, dating, and friendship domains. Assessments for mild-to-moderate and moderate-to-severe TD movements were conducted separately. Authenticity of abnormal movements and Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS) scores were evaluated by physician experts. Results: Surveys were completed by 2,400 participants each for mild-to-moderate and moderate-to-severe TD. In all domains, participants responded significantly less favorably to persons with TD movements (both mild-to-moderate and moderate-to-severe) than those without TD movements. Fewer participants in the test versus control group for mild-to-moderate and moderate-to-severe TD, respectively, considered the candidate as a potential employee (29.2% and 22.7% fewer), found him/her attractive (20.5% and 18.7% fewer), and were interested in becoming friends with him/her (12.3% and 16.5% fewer). Conclusion: Professional actors simulating TD movements were perceived more negatively than those without TD movements in employment, dating, and friendship domains. To our knowledge, this is the first randomized study to quantify professional and social stigma associated with TD movements that may reduce opportunities for gainful employment, marital status, and an effective support system.
... Willis & Todorov, 2006). Impressions have lasting effects since we subsequently alter our behaviors around others (Dougherty, Turban, & Callender, 1994; M. J. Harris & Garris, 2008). Although face masks occlude a large portion of the face, we speculate that the unobstructed area of the face continues to convey information such as first impressions for social communication. ...
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Faces convey a lot of information about a person. However, the usage of face masks occludes important parts of the face. There is already information that face masks alter the processing of variable characteristics such as emotional expressions and the identity of a person. To investigate whether masks influenced the processing of facial information, we compared ratings of full faces and those covered by face masks. 196 participants completed one of two parallel versions of the experiment. The data demonstrated varying effects of face masks on various characteristics. First, we showed that the perceived intensity of emotional expressions was reduced when the face was covered by face masks. This can be regarded as conceptual replication and extension of the impairing effects of face masks on the recognition of emotional expressions. Next, by analyzing valence and arousal ratings, the data illustrated that emotional expressions were regressed toward neutrality for masked faces relative to no-masked faces. This effect was grossly pronounced for happy facial expressions, less for neutral expressions, and absent for sad expressions. The sex of masked faces was also less accurately identified. Finally, masked faces looked older and less attractive. Post hoc correlational analyses revealed correlation coefficient differences between no-masked and masked faces. The differences occurred in some characteristic pairs (e.g., Age and Attractiveness, Age and Trustworthiness) but not in others. This suggested that the ratings for some characteristics could be influenced by the presence of face masks. Similarly, the ratings of some characteristics could also be influenced by other characteristics, irrespective of face masks. We speculate that the amount of information available on a face could drive our perception of others during social communication. Future directions for research were discussed.
... The rhetoric developed about the main problem of oral interviews (Breakwell, 1995;Riggio, 2003) focuses on specific elements, such as the effect of the first impression made by the members of the selection board, which is difficult to overturn (Dougherty et al., 1994), the impact of the halo effect, according to which some socially acceptable characteristics of the candidates influence their overall evaluation (Pollock, 2002), the influence of social stereotypes (Taliadorou, 2007in Kakkos et al., 2018 or discrimination, the candidates' guidance to give the answers desired (lead the candidate) (Breakwell, 1995) and issues related to providing equal opportunities to candidates (Deutsch, 1975). In addition, Palmer et al. (2016) refer to the term 'fit', in an attempt to state that the selection process can be affected, depending on whether there is convergence or divergence between candidate presentations and selectors prototypes. ...
The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the principle of fairness as equity, defined by Adams, is applied during the selection of school principals. Our focus was on a secondary education directorate drawing data in two ways. Firstly, a questionnaire was given to candidates who participated in the selection process, in order to investigate to which extent fairness as equity is included both in the process and the selection criteria. Secondly, we examined whether the selection board through the oral interview moved with the respective conditions of fairness as equity through the candidates’ scoring. It seemed that the majority of participants have formed their opinion on fairness as equity based on their ‘incoming capital’ depending on their score, while they consider that the selection board was rather biased in rating their fellow candidates. This is due to previous official or personal relationships with the members of the selection board and party involvement. For the Greek context, the selection of school principals can be characterised as a process that allows the influence of factors clearly non-relating to the principle of fairness as equity. Proposals at the level of educational policy are proposed.
... first impression in business communication situations. (Bozeman & Kacmar, 1997;Gilmore & Ferris, 1989;Kacmar, Delery, & Ferris, 1992;Leary & Kowalski, 1990;Rosenfeld, Giacalone, & Riordan, 1995;Schenkler, 1980;Stevens & Kristof, 1995) .We cite evidence that impressions formed during the first fiveminutes of the interview are seldom changed during the next 30 to 60 minutes (Wyche, 2002;Dougherty et al., 1994). For example, as in dating, how carefully applicants groom, dress (e.g., wearing a nice outfit), and how they project themselves non-verbally including their gestures and expressions send a message about the value of the encounter. ...
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This article describes an in-class exercise that has worked to elevate student awareness of the importance of planning verbal and nonverbal behavior as key to successful career communication. Small groups of students answer questions about dating and then apply their understanding from what it takes to make and sustain a positive impression in dating situations to career communication, including networking, coop , and job interviews.
... The bias appears to begin before interviewers meet prospective job candidates, through "preinterview impressions" (Dougherty, Turban, & Callender, 1994, p. 659). Dougherty et al. (1994) state, Behavioral biases…involve interviewers' behaving in a fashion that confirms their first impressions of applicants. Interviewers, for example, may display a sense of 'positive regard' or 'negative regard' toward applicants based on their initial evaluations. ...
Article
This paper explores why some demographics, who are relatively new to the ranks of white collar corporate America, may encounter difficulties while navigating the unwritten rules that create the foundation for success in contemporary corporate culture; and suffer unintended consequences to their employment and career advancement. Here we discuss evolving paradigms of diversity initiatives including diversity as demographics vs. diversity of ideas, and how organizational culture may impact the attainment of diversity goals, and by extension, attainment of promotional opportunities for corporate novices. Finally, this paper will examine the role of business organizations in valuing diversity, and the obligation of educational institutions in preparing diverse candidates with knowledge of business etiquette and valuing business culture.
... However, since a large number of videos have been evaluated and the AMT workers represent a cross-section of American society (Paolacci et al. 2010), and several experiments showed that AMT is an excellent opportunity to gain a representative sample of participants, e.g., Thomas and Clifford (2017), the results still can be considered as meaningful. Additionally, every person has a first impression of another person, even an experienced recruiter (Dougherty et al. 1994). This study is primarily concerned with how fair the algorithms reproduce the training data set. ...
Article
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This study aims to identify whether algorithmic decision making leads to unfair (i.e., unequal) treatment of certain protected groups in the recruitment context. Firms increasingly implement algorithmic decision making to save costs and increase efficiency. Moreover, algorithmic decision making is considered to be fairer than human decisions due to social prejudices. Recent publications, however, imply that the fairness of algorithmic decision making is not necessarily given. Therefore, to investigate this further, highly accurate algorithms were used to analyze a pre-existing data set of 10,000 video clips of individuals in self-presentation settings. The analysis shows that the under-representation concerning gender and ethnicity in the training data set leads to an unpredictable overestimation and/or underestimation of the likelihood of inviting representatives of these groups to a job interview. Furthermore, algorithm replicate the existing inequalities in the data set. Firms have to be careful when implementing algorithmic video analysis during recruitment as biases occur if the underlying training data set is unbalanced.
... Each actor received $10 after completing the interview. The average time of each video was 1 minute 30 seconds, which is a sufficient length for employers to develop initial impressions (Ambady & Rosenthal, 1993;Dougherty, Turban, & Callender, 1994;Willis & Todorov, 2006). Mock resumes were also designed to control for potential confounding factors, such as name, education level, professional experience, and generic job skills. ...
Article
The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between employers’ personal dispositions associated with implicit biases (race and gender) and their perceptions of applicants to entry-level sport management positions. Two sections were formulated in relation to the overall conceptual framework. Based on implicit bias, social role theory and intersectionality, section 1 focused on the tendency to prefer higher social status groups (i.e., white men). Section 2 focused on subjective uncertainty reduction theory and social identity theory which posit that employers tend to prefer candidates in the same gender and racial groups. Simulated employment procedures were applied in the present study. In particular, white male, black male, white female, and black female candidates’ interview videos and resumes were examined as the vignette. In section 1, social dominance orientation was included as a predictor of employers’ implicit gender and racial bias favoring higher social status groups. Emotional intelligence and attributional complexity were included as moderators of the effect of social dominance orientation. Results indicated that social dominance orientation was a significant predictor of employers’ preference for higher social status groups. However, the value of emotional intelligence and attributional complexity on mitigating employers’ implicit gender and racial bias was not supported. In section 2, collective self-esteem was included as a predictor of implicit gender and racial bias associated with in-group favoritism. Emotional intelligence was included as a moderator on the effect of collective self-esteem. Results revealed white employers with higher collective self-esteem show a stronger tendency to racial in-group favoritism as they are more likely to prefer white candidates. The moderating effect of emotional intelligence was not found to be significant. Implications and limitations were discussed.
... As a result, interviews or personality tests have been common approaches used by employers to understand the applicant's personality, although the validity for the use of interviews to predict job performance is between 0.3 and 0.6. In addition, sometimes subjective bias issues such as interviewer's expectancy confirmation behavior may raise in interviews and therefore affect the fairness of the selection (Dougherty et al., 1994). To ensure the fairness of the selection, employers may prefer to use a systematic approach-personality test-to understand applicant's personality traits. ...
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