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Gender Labeling, Gender Stereotyping, and Parenting Behaviors

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Are gender labeling and gender stereotyping in 24-, 30-, and 36-month-old children related to each other and to mothers' sex-role attitudes and responses to sex-typed behavior in a free-play situation with their children? The gender stereotyping measure indicated that gender schemata include information that is metaphorically rather than literally associated with each sex. Children who understood labels for boys and girls displayed more knowledge of gender stereotypes than children who did not. Mothers whose children had mastered labels for boys and girls endorsed more traditional attitudes toward women and toward sex roles within the family. The same mothers also initiated and reinforced more sex-typed toy play with their children.

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... Gender associations have been a long-standing topic in psychological and social sciences (Ellemers, 2018). It is believed that children at an early age can make certain gendered associations, such as that trucks are for boys and dolls are for girls (e.g., Fagot et al., 1992;Raag, 1999;Meyer and Gelman, 2016). Less understood is how gender associations might emerge through time-over the course of child development-and how these developmental patterns might shift over history as societal attitudes toward women and men change. ...
... A separate line of research has demonstrated that young children learn gender associations at an early age (Martin and Dinella, 2001), and they do so sometimes via implicit cues from their parents (Endendijk et al., 2014). Moreover, children younger than 3 years of age show some ability to make gendered associations and labels (Fagot et al., 1992). As early as the first grade, children already endorse the stereotypical belief that boys are more interested in computer science and engineering than girls (Master et al., 2021). ...
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Gender associations have been a long-standing research topic in psychological and social sciences. Although it is known that children learn aspects of gender association at a young age, it is not well understood how they might emerge through the course of development. We investigate whether gender associations, such as the association of dresses with women and bulldozers with men, are reflected in the linguistic communication of young children from ages 1 to 5. Drawing on recent methods from machine learning, we use word embeddings derived from large text corpora including news articles and web pages as a proxy for gender associations in society, and we compare those with the gender associations of words uttered by caretakers and children in children's linguistic environment. We quantify gender associations in childhood language through gender probability, which measures the extent to which word usage frequencies in speech to and by girls and boys are gender-skewed. By analyzing 4,875 natural conversations between children and their caretakers in North America, we find that frequency patterns in word usage of both caretakers and children correlate strongly with the gender associations captured in word embeddings through the course of development. We discover that these correlations diminish from the 1970s to the 1990s. Our work suggests that early linguistic communication and social changes may jointly contribute to the formation of gender associations in childhood.
... Usually, parents are the most influential figures during childhood and adolescence since they are perceived, especially in the early phase of children's life, as knowledgeable and reliable sources of information (Bar-Tal, Raviv, Raviv, & Brosh, 1991;Berndt, 1979;Raviv, Bar-Tal, Raviv, & Houminer, 1990;Wintre, Hicks, McVey, & Fox, 1988 Mosher and Scodel (1960) found that mothers' prejudices correlated highly with that of their children, independently of the authoritarian child-rearing practices used (similar results were found by Epstein & Komorita, 1966;Fagot, Leinbach, & O'Boyle, 1992). Recently, Fabian and Fleck (1999) found that in Hungary, parents' anti-Gypsy attitudes correlated highly with their children's attitudes, independently of children's personal authoritarianism. ...
... The relationship between parents' and children's attitudes was examined before and the findings are inconclusive, some reported low correlations (see a review by Aboud, 1988; and findings reported by Weigel, 1999 for Polish children). Others reported high correlations (Mosher & Scodel, 1960;Komorita, 1966;Fabian & Fleck, 1999;Fagot, Leinbach & O'boyle, 1992;). Based on our findings, we assume that since conflict creates opportunities for communication between parents and children about the "enemy", such communication produces similarity between the social perceptions and attitudes of parents and children. ...
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Representations of Arabs in Israeli Jewish society.
... There has been no positive evidence advanced for the possibility that the gender-atypical childhood behaviors of androphilic males are the result of socialization (see Bailey et al., 2016). Indeed, the significant social censure young (Western) males receive for displaying CGN militates against this possibility (e.g., Bailey, 2003; Fagot et al., 1992; Green, 1987). These data notwithstanding, there is evidence that social forces (such as facilitation of transition to desired gender in earlier childhood) can serve to maintain or even amplify CGN and identity, especially in natal males (Steensma, McGuire, et al., 2013). ...
... There has been no positive evidence advanced for the possibility that the gender-atypical childhood behaviors of androphilic males are the result of socialization (seeBailey et al., 2016). Indeed, the significant social censure young (Western) males receive for displaying CGN militates against this possibility (e.g.,Bailey, 2003;Fagot et al., 1992;Green, 1987). These data notwithstanding, there is evidence that social forces (such as facilitation of transition to desired gender in earlier childhood) can serve to maintain or even amplify CGN and identity, especially in natal males (Steensma, McGuire, et al., 2013). ...
Article
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Having a greater than average number of older biological brothers is a robust correlate of male androphilia (i.e., sexual attraction and arousal to adult males). Previous investigations have sought to understand whether this fraternal birth order (FBO) effect is also systematically related to recalled indicators of childhood gender nonconformity (CGN). However, these investigations have relied on data from low-fertility Western populations in which expressions of femininity in male children are routinely stigmatized and consequently, suppressed. The present study examined the FBO effect (among other sibship characteristics) and recalled indicators of CGN in Samoa, a high-fertility population, whose members are relatively tolerant of male femininity. Indeed, Samoans identify feminine androphilic males as belonging to an alternative gender category, known locally as fa’afafine. The present study compared the sibship characteristics of 231 fa’afafine and 231 opposite-sex attracted men from Samoa, as well as how these characteristics related to recalled CGN. Results replicated the well-established FBO effect for predicting male sexual orientation, with each older brother increasing the odds of being androphilic by 21%. However, no relationship was found between the number of older brothers(or other siblings) a participant had and their recalled CGN. Although fa’afafine reported significantly more CGN than Samoan men, CGN did not mediate the FBO effect, nor did the FBO effect and CGN interact to predict male sexual orientation. These findings are consistent with previous studies suggesting that the FBO effect is associated with male sexual orientation, but not childhood female-typical gender expression among androphilic males. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/dev.21498/abstract
... Interestingly, fathers' traditional gender role attitudes have been associated with children's early gender category knowledge (Fagot & Leinbach, 1989; Weinraub et al., 1984), whereas results with mothers have been mixed. One study found that, similar to fathers, mothers with more traditional gender role attitudes had children with earlier gender category knowledge (passed a gender labeling task) (Fagot et al., 1992). Other studies have found no relation between mothers' gender role attitudes and children's gender category knowledge (Fagot & Leinbach, 1989; Weinraub et al ., 1984), and one study f ound that mothers with more traditional gender role attitudes had children who were more likely to pass a gender labeling task (Fagot et al., 1992 ). ...
... One study found that, similar to fathers, mothers with more traditional gender role attitudes had children with earlier gender category knowledge (passed a gender labeling task) (Fagot et al., 1992). Other studies have found no relation between mothers' gender role attitudes and children's gender category knowledge (Fagot & Leinbach, 1989; Weinraub et al ., 1984), and one study f ound that mothers with more traditional gender role attitudes had children who were more likely to pass a gender labeling task (Fagot et al., 1992 ). The more consistent fi ndings involving fa thers might indicate that the relation between mothers' attitudes and children's gender labeling is, in fact, weaker and more diffi cult to detect. ...
... Despite the growing evidence for the formation of gender categories in preverbal infants, the correct use of gender labels to designate self and others is still considered the most significant milestone in the develop ment of early gender understanding, marking a change from implicit to explicit knowledge about gender categories Fagot, Leinbach, & O'Boyle, 1992). The results of studies using proce dures in which the child is asked to point or sort objects indicate that labels for men and women are not understood until the beginning of the third year (as late as 40 months for some children) and comprehension of gender labels for boys and girls can be observed a few months later (Etaugh, Grinnell, & Etaugh, 1989;Fagot & Leinbach, 1989;Weinraub et al., 1984). ...
... Research on the relation between the early mani festations of stereotyped behavior and acquisition of gender labels suggests that the ability to label adults is not related to any measure of adoption of stereotyped behavior. However, during the third year, there is a relationship between gender labeling (the ability to understand cate gorical labels such as boy and girl) and some measures of stereotyped behavior such as knowledge of stereotypes and preference for same-sex playmates (Fagot, Leinbach, & Hagan, 1986;Fagot et al., 1992). Longitu dinal data on the relation between gender labeling and stereotyped behavior have revealed that children who were labeling child pictures correctly by the age of 27 months played more with stereotyped toys at the same age, and subsequently scored higher on tests of knowledge about gender at age 4 (Fagot & Leinbach, 1989). ...
Article
Toddlers' intermodal and verbal knowledge about gender was examined in two experiments. In the first, 18-month-olds were presented with photos of adult male and female faces paired with a female or male voice, or with the labels lady and man. Children spent more time looking at the pictures matching the voices than at the same pictures paired with mismatching voices. However, only girls could match the gender labels to the appropriate faces. In Experiment 2, child pictures and labels (boy and girl) replaced the adult stimuli. Unexpectedly, 18-and 24-month-old children failed to match the faces and voices of children. However, boy was understood by the age of 18 months. These results suggest that toddlers' knowledge about gender labels has been underestimated.
... More specifically, parents with gender schemas consisting of strong stereotypical notions about gender roles might be more likely to socialize their girls and boys in a gender-role consistent way. To date, the empirical evidence for the link between parents' gender-related attitudes and actual gender socialization of their children is surprisingly weak, with most studies finding no associations (e.g., Fagot, Leinbach, & O'Boyle, 1992; Tenenbaum & Leaper, 2002). The lack of evidence for a gender attitude-behavior link may be partly because parents' gender attitudes are often assessed explicitly, whereas for controversial subjects like gender, implicit stereotypes may be better predictors of behavior than explicit self-reported stereotypes (Nosek, Benaji, & Greenwald, 2002). ...
... It has been shown that frequent use of gender labels by adults in combination with other gender emphasizers (i.e., gendered organization and physical separation in classrooms) makes gender salient, leading to stronger gender stereotypes in children (Hilliard & Liben, 2010). In addition, there is empirical evidence that children who can use gender labels accurately generally display more knowledge of gender stereotypes, play more with sex-typed toys, and show more gender-role consistent behavior (e.g., Fagot et al., 1992; Zosuls et al., 2009). Furthermore, social categories such as gender are not grounded on biological or objectively visible facts (i.e., clothing, appearance) but are instead culturally constructed (i.e., due to socialization), providing evidence for the power of the use of category labels in creating awareness of social categories in children (Diesendruck & Deblinger-Tangi, 2014). ...
Article
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Objective. This study examines mothers’ and fathers’ gender talk with their daughters and sons and investigates the association between parental gender talk and parental implicit gender stereotypes. Design. Mothers’ and fathers’ gender talk was examined in 304 families with two children aged 2 and 4 years old, using the newly developed Gender Stereotypes Picture Book.Parental implicit gender stereotypes were assessed with the action inference paradigm. Results.The picture book elicited different forms of gender talk, including use of gender labels, evaluative comments related to gender, and comments about gender stereotypes. Mothers used positive evaluative comments more than fathers to convey messages about gender, but fathers made more comments confirming gender stereotypes than mothers. Fathers with two boys were more inclined to emphasize appropriate male behavior in their gender talk than fathers in other family types. Implicit gender stereotypes were associated with gender talk to the children only for mothers. Conclusion. The assessment of gender talk with the Gender Stereotypes Picture Book can provide insights into the roles of mothers and fathers in child gender socialization.
... More specifically, parents with gender schemas consisting of strong stereotypical notions about gender roles might be more likely to socialize their girls and boys in a gender-role consistent way. To date, the empirical evidence for the link between parents' gender-related attitudes and actual gender socialization of their children is surprisingly weak, with most studies finding no associations (e.g., Fagot, Leinbach, & O'Boyle, 1992; Tenenbaum & Leaper, 2002). The lack of evidence for a gender attitude-behavior link may be partly because parents' gender attitudes are often assessed explicitly, whereas for controversial subjects like gender, implicit stereotypes may be better predictors of behavior than explicit self-reported stereotypes (Nosek, Benaji, & Greenwald, 2002). ...
... It has been shown that frequent use of gender labels by adults in combination with other gender emphasizers (i.e., gendered organization and physical separation in classrooms) makes gender salient, leading to stronger gender stereotypes in children (Hilliard & Liben, 2010). In addition, there is empirical evidence that children who can use gender labels accurately generally display more knowledge of gender stereotypes, play more with sex-typed toys, and show more gender-role consistent behavior (e.g., Fagot et al., 1992; Zosuls et al., 2009). Furthermore, social categories such as gender are not grounded on biological or objectively visible facts (i.e., clothing, appearance) but are instead culturally constructed (i.e., due to socialization), providing evidence for the power of the use of category labels in creating awareness of social categories in children (Diesendruck & Deblinger-Tangi, 2014). ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective. This study examines mothers’ and fathers’ gender talk with their daughters and sons and investigates the association between parental gender talk and parental implicit gender stereotypes. Design. Mothers’ and fathers’ gender talk was examined in 304 families with two children aged 2 and 4 years old, using the newly developed Gender Stereotypes Picture Book. Parental implicit gender stereotypes were assessed with the Action Inference Paradigm. Results. The picture book elicited different forms of gender talk, including use of gender labels, evaluative comments related to gender, and comments about gender stereotypes. Mothers used positive evaluative comments more than fathers to convey messages about gender, but fathers made more comments confirming gender stereotypes than mothers. Fathers with two boys were more inclined to emphasize appropriate male behavior in their gender talk than fathers in other family types. Implicit gender stereotypes were associated with gender talk to the children only for mothers. Conclusion. The assessment of gender talk with the Gender Stereotypes Picture Book can provide insights into the roles of mothers and fathers in child gender socialization.
... Sources of information on gender role expectations in society include parents and other family members (Fagot, 1982;Fagot, Leinbach & O'Boyle, 1992;Huston, 1983;Katz, 1987;Lamb, 1986), peers (Fishbein & Imai, 1993Maccoby & Jacklin, 1987;Maccoby, 1989), the media (Durkin, 1985;Santrock, 1993), and educational settings including personnel and instructional materials (Lloyd & Duveen, 1992, Sadker & Sadker, 1994Scott & Schau, 1985;Turner, Gervai & Hinde, 1993). These sources present direct and indirect messages about gender roles through language, behavior, and visual representations and are the major components for the formation of perceptions relating to gender. ...
... This effort is evident in parents' reactions to children's toy choices. Parents respond positively when children choose gender-stereotyped toys and negatively to non-stereotypical toy choices (Fagot et al., 1992). Parents' need to ensure gender-appropriate behavior in their children is further illustrated by their selection of toys for their children. ...
Article
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Examines responses to the children's book "William's Doll" by two groups of fourth-grade students, one responding in 1975 and the other group responding in 1997. Finds that many responses to the idea of a boy wanting a doll for a toy still arose from heavily stereotyped attitudes toward gender. Notes implications for the classroom. (SR)
... They next develop the ability to self-label and can exhibit a nonverbal gender identity. However, the notion that gender itself is stable and sex constant as children grow to adulthood does not usually take root until a child is 5 or 6 years old (Fagot, 1995;Fagot & Leinbach, 1989, 1993Fagot, Leinbach, & Hagan, 1986;Fagot, Leinbach, & O'Boyle, 1992). Zosuls et al. (2009) studied the development in toddlers of the ability to utter basic gender labels (girl, boy, man, lady). ...
... While Beauvoir argues that the notion of Other is fundamental, she questions whether this should render women as secondary to men. Continuing her argument that femininity is inessential, Beauvoir notes that, "women in general are today inferior to men; that is, their situation provides them with fewer possibilities: the question is whether this state of affairs must be perpetuated (Ibid, [12][13]." ...
Conference Paper
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Highlights the construction of gender roles in Spongebob Squarepants as a challenge to stereotypical gender constructs. Normative argument for greater focus on non-stereotypical gender role construction in children's animated programming to combat historical gender portrayal in animated cartoons.
... Thus, well into the 21st century, parents and teachers are still forming different expectations for boys' and girls' intellectual abilities. These expectations then "spill out" in adults' behavior toward children, clueing them into the broader gender stereotypes of their culture (e.g., Chang, Sandhofer, & Brown, 2011;Crowley, Callanan, Tenenbaum, & Allen, 2001;Fagot, Leinbach, & O'Boyle, 1992). ...
Article
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Despite having the raw ability to pursue careers in science and engineering, gifted girls often shy away from such careers. Here, we explore two explanations for this puzzling phenomenon. Specifically, we argue that exposure to (1) negative stereotypes about women’s intellectual abilities and (2) stereotypes about scientists as “nerdy,” eccentric loners may undermine gifted girls’ confidence in their ability to succeed in science and engineering, their sense of belonging in these fields, and—ultimately—their interest. We also suggest evidence-based strategies for inoculating girls against these stereotypes and boosting their interest in science and engineering.
... Indeed, within the first years of life, children develop increasingly rigid beliefs about the behaviors, preferences, and traits associated with particular genders (see [2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16]). The internalization of these stereotypes can profoundly shape an individual's goals and actions [17]. ...
Article
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While there is substantial evidence that adults who violate gender stereotypes often face backlash (i.e. social and economic penalties), less is known about the nature of gender stereotypes for young children, and the penalties that children may face for violating them. We conducted three experiments, with over 2000 adults from the US, to better understand the content and consequences of adults’ gender stereotypes for young children. In Experiment 1, we tested which characteristics adults (N = 635) believed to be descriptive (i.e. typical), prescriptive (i.e. required), and proscriptive (i.e. forbidden) for preschool-aged boys and girls. Using the characteristics that were rated in Experiment 1, we then constructed vignettes that were either ‘masculine’ or ‘feminine’, and manipulated whether the vignettes were said to describe a boy or a girl. Experiment 2 (N = 697) revealed that adults rated stereotype-violating children as less likeable than their stereotype-conforming peers, and that this difference was more robust for boys than girls. Experiment 3 (N = 731) was a direct replication of Experiment 2, and revealed converging evidence of backlash against stereotype-violating children. In sum, our results suggest that even young children encounter backlash from adults for stereotype violations, and that these effects may be strongest for boys.
... In fact, research shows that by the age of three, children tend to choose and play with toys that are stereotyped in their culture as gender appropriate, known as sex-stereotyped toys (O'Brien & Huston, 1985). Fagot, Leinbach, and O'Boyle (1992) examined gender stereotypes in two and three year old children by having the participants complete a gender labeling test (identifying if a person is a boy or girl) and a gender-stereotyping test. This test consisted of some of the most sexstereotyped items in American society including conventional figurative sex-typed items based on gender stereotypical occupations (fire hat verses apron) and metaphorical sex-typed items (angry-faced bear verses butterfly). ...
Article
The relationship between gender identity and psychological adjustment has long been investigated, but it is only in the 21st century that gender identity has been examined as a multi-faceted construct. According to Egan and Perry (2001), there are five dimensions comprising a person’s gender identity and they have demonstrated a significant relationship between these dimensions and youth’s psychological adjustment. Three of their gender identity constructs are pertinent to this study: gender typicality, gender contentedness, and felt pressure. While subsequent studies have had similar significant results (Carver, Yunger, & Perry, 2003; Yunger, Carver, & Perry, 2004), one study found that felt pressure was not negatively correlated with adjustment in minority youth, including Latinos, as it was with majority White samples from the previous studies (Corby, Hodges, & Perry, 2007). Minority youth face more pressure to conform to gender stereotypes (Corby et al., 2007) and Latinos in particular face more rigid gender stereotypes than European American cultures (Corona, Gonzalez, Cohen, Edwards, & Edmonds, 2009). While having a strong ethnic identity has been significantly correlated with self-esteem in Latinos (Umaña-Taylor, 2004), the relationship between ethnic identity, gender identity, and self-esteem in Latino youth have been underrepresented in the literature (Mora, 2012). Since Latino male youth in particular are at-risk for low-self esteem (Twenge & Crocker, 2000) and self-esteem is a protective factor in adolescents (Hosogi, Okada, Fujii, Noguchi, & Watanabe, 2012), it is important to pinpoint variables that are related to high self-esteem. The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between ethnic identity, gender identity, and self-esteem in an understudied population in the literature. The sample consisted of 55 males, aged 10-14, who are members of a school-based intervention program for boys at-risk of gang membership. The majority of boys were of Latino heritage. It was hypothesized that gender typicality and gender contentedness would be significantly correlated with self-esteem, and that ethnic identity would mediate the relationship between felt pressure and self-esteem. Statistical analysis yielded partial support for the hypothesis. Implications and future directions are discussed.
... One other conceivable explanation might be parental variations in attention paid to signs and symptoms of CF, reflecting trends in American culture that have led to socially constructed gender biases regarding child-rearing practices (38)(39)(40). For example, traditional parental practices related to gender typing encourage boys to be more physically active than girls. ...
... Self-socialization theorists specifically interested in the emergence of gender-stereotyped behaviors in infants and toddlers view the attainment of a basic gender identity (i.e., the identification of oneself as a girl or a boy) as a central developmental milestone that changes the way that children orient themselves toward their social world and shapes the way that they behave (e.g., Fagot & Leinbach, 1993;Fagot, Leinbach, & O'Boyle, 1992). Thus, once children have developed a basic gender identity, they should become increasingly interested in identity-relevant information and change their behaviors to align with this new knowledge about their place in the social world. ...
Article
This article advances a self-socialization perspective demonstrating that children's understanding of both gender categories represents an intergroup cognition that is foundational to the development of gender-stereotyped play. Children's (N = 212) gender category knowledge was assessed at 24 months and play was observed at 24 and 36 months. Higher levels of gender category knowledge and, more specifically, passing multiple measures of knowledge of both gender categories at 24 months was related to increases in play over time with gender-stereotyped toys (doll, truck), but not gender-stereotyped forms of play (nurturing, motion). In contrast to the long-standing focus on self-labeling, findings indicate the importance of intergroup cognitions in self-socialization processes and demonstrate the generalizability of these processes to a diverse sample.
... According to another Canadian study explicit knowledge about gender roles emerges between the ages of 2 and 3 years (Poulin-Dubois et al. 2002). Several U.S. studies found that by the age of 4 years stereotypes are well developed (Fagot et al. 1992), but it takes until about 8 years of age for gender stereotypes to become more complex, flexible and similar to adult stereotypes (Martin et al. 1990; Trautner et al. 2005). Determining gender stereotypes in children is a challenging task. ...
Article
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Gender stereotypes of children and their parents were examined. Participants included 355 three-year-old children, their one-year-old siblings, and their mothers and fathers. Families were selected from the Western region of the Netherlands. Implicit gender stereotypes were assessed with computerized versions of the Action Inference Paradigm (AIP; both child and parents) and the Implicit Association Test (parent only). Parental explicit gender stereotypes were measured with the Child Rearing Sex-Role Attitude Scale. Findings revealed that mothers had stronger implicit gender stereotypes than fathers, whereas fathers had stronger explicit stereotypes than mothers. Fathers with same-gender children had stronger implicit gender stereotypes about adults than parents with mixed-gender children. For the children, girls’ implicit gender stereotypes were significantly predicted by their mother’s implicit gender stereotypes about children. This association could only be observed when the AIP was used to assess the stereotypes of both parent and child. A family systems model is applicable to the study of gender stereotypes.
... 70 Research also showed that children are not able to ignore gender information. 71 Given these findings, Redwine 72 explored children's positive and negative choices of male versus female adults as their doctors, dentists, and teachers and especially whether the depicted persons' and their own gender mattered. She collected data from 184 pediatric dental patients between 4 and 8 years of age (mean 5 6.05 years) before a regularly scheduled dental appointment. ...
Article
Research findings concerning the role of gender in patient-physician interactions can inform considerations about the role of gender in patient-dental care provider interactions. Medical research showed that gender differences in verbal and nonverbal communication in medical settings exist and that they affect the outcomes of these interactions. The process of communication is shaped by gender identities, gender stereotypes, and attitudes. Future research needs to consider the cultural complexity and diversity in which gender issues are embedded and the degree to which ongoing value change will shape gender roles and in turn interactions between dental patients and their providers.
... Gender differences are evident from an early age. Gender-specific roles, as defined by societal norms, are exhibited in the behaviors and activities of young children (Fagot, Leinbach, & Boyle, 1994; Kirmani & Davis, 2000; McNair, KirovaPetrova, & Bhargava, 2001; Pitcher & Schultz, 1983; Weinraub et al., 1984). Differences in adult attitudes toward males and females give cues to children about gender-specific roles and stereotypes. ...
Article
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Computers have become an important part of young children's lives, both as a source of entertainment and education. The National Association for the Education of Young Children's (NAEYC) position statement on Technology and Young Children (2006) supports the need for equal access to technology for all children with attention to eliminating gender stereotypes. Some educators have observed that computers may have created gender inequities in access to and use of technology. Studies indicate that gender differences in young children's access and use of computers may be the outcome of environmental factors. To successfully avoid the apparent gender-related digital divide, it is important to address gender inequities with computer use beginning in early childhood. This article looks at two major environmental influences--children's social orientation and the role of media and instructional materials--that contribute to these gender differences. It also analyses two outcomes of these environmental influences: differences in use of computers for work and play and in social interactions in and around computers. The article concludes by presenting some strategies that can help reduce gender bias through appropriate attention to learning styles, role modeling, selection of software and online activities, and gender-conscious classroom practices. (Contains 1 figure.)
... First, parents tend to be stricter enforcers of gender conformity in sons than daughters (seeLeaper, 2002). Second, parents with traditional gender attitudes may be more likely than parents with egalitarian attitudes to encourage gender-typed play in their young children (Fagot, Leinbach, & O'Boyle, 1992). Finally, fathers are more likely than mothers to have tradi568 TARGETS OF SOCIALIZATION tional gender attitudes and are also more likely to encourage gender-typed play (seeLeaper, 2002;Lytton & Romney, 1991). ...
Article
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Reviews theory and research on gender development from infancy into adolescence. In the first part of the chapter, social-structural, social-interactive, cognitive-motivational, and biological influences on gender development are explained. These processes are subsequently used to explain gender-related variations in the following areas: (1) gender self-concepts, stereotypes, and attitudes; (2) gender-typed play; (3) sports; (4) social interaction and social norms; (5) academic motivation and achievement; and (6) household labor. The socialization of gender-related variations in these areas both reflects and perpetuates gender divisions and inequalities in the larger society. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
... Men's concerns about appearing gay, feminine, or both can contribute to their stricter adherence to gender roles, whether the men are gay (Bergling 2001; Clarkson 2006; Loftin 2007; Sánchez et al. 2009; Skidmore et al. 2006) or heterosexual (Baker and Fishbein 1998; Bosson et al. 2005; Glick et al. 2007; Roese et al. 1992). Note, however, that socialization to gender roles occurs for both sexes, and begins early (Fagot et al. 1992). Consequently, men and women apply the same stereotype to a hypothetical gay man or to (generalized) ''gay men'' (Blashill and Powlishta 2009a; LaMar and Kite 1998). ...
Article
In this study, we examine whether an actual (rather than hypothetical) man being labeled “gay” either by himself or by another influences American (US) undergraduates’ attributions of the man’s masculinity, femininity, and likeability, replicating (with refinements) a similar study from the 1970s. One hundred ninety-two male and 591 female undergraduates, almost exclusively white, in Kentucky observed two gender-typical white men (one very masculine and the other of average masculinity, both low in femininity, both gay) play a word game on videotape; prior to playing, each man labeled either himself or the other man as either gay or adopted. Male participants rated the men as less masculine and more feminine than female participants, but the label used did not differentially influence male and female participants. Both male and female participants rated each man less masculine and more feminine when labeled gay than when the other man was labeled gay, and rated the more masculine man less masculine and more feminine when labeled gay than when labeled adopted. Whether either man was labeled by himself or by the other man, or whether either man was a labeler or in the presence of a self-labeler, had no effect on participants’ ratings of the men’s masculinity or femininity. Both men were rated as likeable across all conditions. While the stereotype of gay men as more feminine and less masculine than other men appears robust since the 1970 study, the dislike of gay men appears to have abated. KeywordsStereotyping–Gay men–Gender-related attributions–Masculinity–Femininity–Likeability–Sex differences–Labeling–Self-labeling
... Recent research however, has focused on deconstructing infant behavior into its various socioemotional , psychobiological, and cognitive components. Research on the socioemotional aspect of the development of infant eye contact behavior continues to focus on environmental and social learning theories (e.g., Cherry, 1992; Fagot, Leinbach, & O'Boyle, 1992; Pomerleau, Bolduc, Malcuit, & Cossette, 1990 ; for review see: Ruble & Martin, 1998) with peers, rather than adults, as the impetus for shaping gendered behavior as the child develops (Maccoby, 1990; Martin, 1999; Martin & Fabes, 2001). Conversely, psychobiological research focuses on the internal, biological determinants responsible for sexually dimorphic patterns of behavior. ...
Article
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The purpose of this study was to examine the origins of gender differences in mutual gaze between infants and unfamiliar adults, using a prospective longitudinal design. Infant gaze behavior was measured twice: 13–112-hr and 13–18-weeks postpartum. Gender differences were found at Visit 2 due to an increase in girls' gaze behavior. Girls also made more eye contact in female–female dyads and in the second interaction over the first. Boys' behavior remained unchanged over time. The data provide evidence for gender differences in mutual gaze in a younger sample and wider context than previously demonstrated. Results are discussed in the context of social learning (i.e., Martin & Fabes, 2001, theory of singular polarization) and psychobiological theories of gender development.
... However, the earliest age at which a significant proportion of infants display metaphorical knowledge is unknown. The studies by Leinbach et al. (1997) and Picariello et al. (1990) did not include children below the age of 3. Furthermore , although the Fagot et al. (1992) study included children at 24, 30, and 36 months of age and no significant age effects were found, the extent to which gender stereotyping was present at each age level was not reported. Another feature of the studies performed to date is that the children were required to demonstrate their gender knowledge by sorting pictures, pointing or responding verbally, all of which may be difficult tasks for such young children. ...
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Infants’ knowledge of conventional and metaphorical gender stereotypes was examined using a “violation of expectancy” task. Eighteen- and twenty-four-month-old infants were shown identical pictures of masculine or feminine items (e.g., hammer, bear; dress, cat) on two computer screens, with an accompanying gender-neutral prompt saying, “This is the one I like. Can you look at me?” Immediately following the pictures, two adult faces, one male and one female, appeared. Half of the items were conventionally associated with each gender, the other half were metaphorically related to each gender. Results indicated that masculine conventional and metaphorical gender knowledge have been acquired by the middle of the second year, with infants relating such items as fire hats, hammers, fir trees, and bears with males. It is suggested that metaphorical gender stereotypes may play a significant role in the rapid expansion of children’s gender schemas which follows the toddler period.
... They next develop the ability to self-label and can exhibit a nonverbal gender identity. However, the notion that gender itself is stable and sex constant as children grow to adulthood does not usually take root until a child is 5 or 6 years old (Fagot, 1995; Fagot & Leinbach, 1989, 1993 Fagot, Leinbach, & Hagan, 1986; Fagot, Leinbach, & O'Boyle, 1992). GENDER METAPHORS AND WORDS Zosuls et al. (2009) studied the development in toddlers of the ability to utter basic gender labels (girl, boy, man, lady). ...
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We diagram and discuss theories of gender identity development espoused by the clinical groups represented in this special issue. We contend that theories of origin relate importantly to clinical practice, and argue that the existing clinical theories are under-developed. Therefore, we develop a dynamic systems framework for gender identity development. Specifically, we suggest that critical aspects of presymbolic gender embodiment occur during infancy as part of the synchronous interplay of caregiver-infant dyads. By 18 months, a transition to symbolic representation and the beginning of an internalization of a sense of gender can be detected and consolidation is quite evident by 3 years of age. We conclude by suggesting empirical studies that could expand and test this framework. With the belief that better, more explicit developmental theory can improve clinical practice, we urge that clinicians take a dynamic developmental view of gender identity formation into account.
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This study examined level of engagement with Disney Princess media/products as it relates to gender-stereotypical behavior, body esteem (i.e. body image), and prosocial behavior during early childhood. Participants consisted of 198 children (Mage = 58 months), who were tested at two time points (approximately 1 year apart). Data consisted of parent and teacher reports, and child observations in a toy preference task. Longitudinal results revealed that Disney Princess engagement was associated with more female gender-stereotypical behavior 1 year later, even after controlling for initial levels of gender-stereotypical behavior. Parental mediation strengthened associations between princess engagement and adherence to female gender-stereotypical behavior for both girls and boys, and for body esteem and prosocial behavior for boys only.
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Previous research has found that sex differences in occupational preferences are both substantial and cross-culturally universal. Androphilic males tend to display “gender-shifted” occupational preferences, with relatively female-typical interests. Past research has overwhelmingly relied on Western samples; this article offers new insights from a non-Western setting. Known locally as fa’afafine, androphilic males in Samoa occupy a third-gender category. Data were collected in Samoa from 103 men, 103 women, and 103 fa’afafine regarding occupational preferences and recalled childhood gender nonconformity (CGN). A substantial sex difference was observed in the occupational preferences of men and women (d = 2.04). Interestingly, women and fa’afafine did not differ in their preferences (p = 0.89), indicating a complete gender inversion of occupational preferences in the latter. Although there was no correlation between women’s CGN and masculine occupational preferences, there was a significant correlation (r = −0.62) between these variables in both men and fa’afafine. Among males (both men and fa’afafine), increased CGN was associated with preference for feminine occupations. The present research corroborates past findings and furnishes support for the conclusion that female-typical occupational preferences are a cross-culturally invariant aspect of male androphilia. Keywords Sex differences Male sexual-orientation differences Occupational preferences Cross-cultural research http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs12110-016-9258-7
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Sex/Gender presents a relatively new way to think about how biological difference can be produced over time in response to different environmental and social experiences.
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In this article I explore how the father-son relationship impacts both the nature and extent of homophobia in men, specifically the difference in homophobic feelings a father has for his gay son compared to the homophobic feelings a son has for his gay father. The effect of masculinity, specifically hegemonic masculinity, on homophobia in men is well-documented and my goal is to continue this further given the role that fathers play in socializing/constructing masculinity for their sons and the role that sons play in constructing/validating masculinity for their fathers. Through surveys and interviews, measures of masculinity and homophobia were investigated among 100 men, ultimately providing insight into masculinity, homophobia, and the relationship between the two.
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Two experiments investigated 3- to 5-year-olds' inductive generalizations about social categories. In Experiment 1, participants were shown pictures of children contrasting in appearance and either gender or classmate status, and were asked to generalize either biological properties or behaviors. Contrary to expectations, performance did not differ for chance for gender, but children generalized on the basis of appearance more than classmate status. Experiment 2 further examined children's use of gender for inductive inferences. Children were asked to generalize either stereotyped behaviors (stereotype condition) or novel behaviors (neutral condition) and novel biological properties (both conditions). In the stereotype condition, children generalized both behaviors and biological properties on the basis of gender more than appearance, but, in the neutral condition, children's performance usually did not differ from chance. The implications of these results for essentialism, similarity-based induction, and cognitive variability are discussed.
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Few studies exist regarding the factors and career paths that might be of value to African American females seeking an executive leadership position in a postsecondary institution. The essence of becoming a leader in postsecondary institutions was captured through face-to-face, semistructured interviews of 10 African American women at the executive leadership level within Georgia postsecondary institutions. The identification of life experiences, career development, and accession factors for African American females might provide leaders with information needed for leadership development, mentoring programs, and accession strategies that might add new knowledge to the literature.
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Toys and games have a crucial role in determining the development of gender identity. Our contribution will present a review of the studies that have addressed gender differences in play activities and in choosing toys. The reasons underlying preference for toys among different age children and the ways in which the social context affects gender-typed play activities will be examined. The consequences of gender-typed play activities on the development of cognitive, motor, and social abilities will also be studied. Some implications of the debate on the biological vs. environmental origin of gender differences in play preferences and activities as well as implications related to the development of stereotyped gender identities will be explored.
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Il presente contributo si propone di analizzare la trasmissione degli stereotipi di genere all'interno dell'ambito familiare, considerando la relazione tra gli stereotipi impliciti (misurati con uno IAT) di entrambi i genitori e gli stereotipi di genere dei loro figli, rilevati sia a livello implicito che esplicito. Allo studio hanno partecipato 66 bambini (età compresa tra i 45 e i 104 mesi) e per ciascun bambino ha partecipato anche almeno un genitore. I risultati hanno sostanzialmente evidenziato una relazione significativa tra gli stereotipi impliciti del padre e gli stereotipi impliciti di genere dei figli maschi. Inoltre, è emersa una relazione tra gli stereotipi impliciti dei padri e gli stereotipi espliciti sia dei figli maschi che femmine. I dati relativi alle madri, al contrario, non hanno mostrato alcuna relazione significativa con le risposte dei figli. Nell'insieme, i risultati sono quindi in linea con l'ipotesi che le due figure genitoriali abbiano un ruolo differenzia-le nell'influenzare gli stereotipi sociali dei figli e che i padri possano giocare un ruolo maggiore nella trasmissione degli stereotipi di genere.
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Often certain types of toys are considered more appropriate either for boys or for girls to play with. Therapists often use toys to engage children in intervention activities to promote skill development. This study investigated the gender stereotype perspectives of children’s toys held by adults who were and were not parents. Fifty-two participants were recruited through convenience sampling and grouped based on parental status. Participants completed a self-report survey. Data were analyzed using t-tests for independent samples. Parents and non-parents characterized gender-neutral toys significantly different (p < 0.05), but did not stereotype masculine and feminine toys as being distinct. Parents and non-parents reported significantly different views towards gender-neutral toys. Therapists who work with children and families can apply this knowledge during goal setting and intervention planning in early intervention and school settings.
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Minimal research has examined children's functional use of attractiveness to classify and label others, an important step in the development of children's biases. This study compared 3- to 11-year-olds' classification, sorting, and labeling of others and themselves based on attractiveness, gender, and race and also investigated whether these abilities and other characteristics predicted children's bias and flexibility. Relative to gender and race, children rarely used attractiveness to spontaneously classify people and were less accurate at sorting and labeling others and themselves by attractiveness, suggesting that they have a less explicit concept of attractiveness. Predictors of bias differed depending on domain and assessment method (forced choice or non-forced choice), showing that children's bias is affected by both individual differences and task characteristics. Predictors of flexibility differed based on whether children were assigning positive or negative traits to target children, demonstrating that the valence of attributes is an important consideration when conceptualizing children's flexibility.
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Inconsistencies that have been reported in past research on developmental changes in gender schemata actually may be a consequence of differences in the way these schemata have been conceptualized and measured. Meta-analysis was used to evaluate this interpretation of past work. On forced choice measures, in which children must select one sex or the other for each item (e.g., "Who is the strong one?"), "correct" matches to societal stereotypes increased with age. Increases were not, however, related to the type of question used (e.g., "Who is ...?" versus "Who can ...?"). Girls made more stereotype matches than boys, although the magnitude of the effect was small. In contrast, on nonforced choice measures, type of question did affect results. Children showed increases in nonstereotyped responses with age, but especially when asked "Who should . . ." or "Who can . . ." , and when elementary-school-aged (as well as preschool-aged) children were included. Girls gave significantly more nonstereotyped responses than boys, especially among older samples and when the domain was traits. Both the age and the sex effects in nonstereotyped responses were larger in more recent studies. IQ and television viewing were significantly related to forced choice scores, whereas television viewing, maternal employment, and memory for gender-stereotyped material were all significantly related to non-forced choice scores. Implications for the distinction between knowledge of stereotypes and attitudes toward stereotypes are discussed.
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For young children, a primary component of social competence is establishing effective interactions with peers during play. To inform the development of practices that promote this competency starting in early childhood, quality assessment measures are needed. These instruments must have the capacity to establish linkages between the home and school as well as utilizing multiple informants. A promising early childhood assessment measure is the Penn Interactive Peer Play Scale (PIPPS), which is a rating scale created with parent and teacher versions. Previous research has established its validity for preschoolers from among various populations. The purpose of this study was to examine the validity of the PIPPS system in a population of preschool children, by investigating: (1) the concurrent validity of parent and teacher versions of the PIPPS and a standardized assessment measure of social competence (PKBS-2 Social Skills Scale); (2) the relationship between teacher/parent ratings and child gender; (3) the relationships between the teacher and parent versions of vi the PIPPS; and (4) the predictive validity of teacher and parent ratings on the PIPPS and PKBS-2 with level of communication between the two parties. To meet inclusion criteria, teachers and parents had to have contact with preschool students ages 3-5 years enrolled in a preschool classroom for at least 4 months, and who were proficient in either English and/or Spanish. In total, across the three participating preschool centers, 50 students were found eligible to participate in this study and 32 students returned with completed packets parent rating scales (64%). Results indicated some relationship between the parent and teacher versions of the PIPPS and PKBS-2 Social Skills rating systems as well as the influence of communication level. However, there were no statistically significant findings for the influence of gender on these ratings. There were several limitations to the external validity of the results of this study. Limitations included sample bias and the use of self-report questionnaires. Implications and future directions for research are discussed.
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This paper reports on two studies of parents'observations of their preschool children's interactions with infants. In Study 1 parents observed 69 3- and 5-year-old white children with three nonsibling infants whom the children encountered during their daily lives. In Study 2 parents observed 46 3- to 6-year-old primarily white children with three nonsibling infants and completed measures of their own gender-related child-rearing attitudes.Consistent with findings from previous laboratory research, this research in naturalistic settings found girls to show more interest in, more nurturance toward,and more interaction with babies than did boys. In Study 2, children whose parents had traditional gender-stereotyped attitudes were more likely to show this gender difference than children whose parents had more egalitarian child-rearing attitudes.
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We measured 120 third and fourth gradechildren's willingness to participate in severalbehavioral tasks after assessing their verbalpreferences for gender-typed and cross-gender activities(children were primarily Caucasian). Before beginning eachtask, children were either encouraged to or discouragedfrom engaging in cross-gender activities, or they wereencouraged to choose whatever activities they preferred. Relative to the control condition,experimenters were able to reduce but not increase theproportion of cross-gender activities children engagedin. Children who gave high ratings to cross-gender items during the preference test were more willingthan other children to take cross-gender selectionshome.
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Play with toys provides children with theopportunity to practice behaviors that have relevance togender role development. By 18 months, toddlersconsistently choose to play with sex-appropriate toys. This study was designed to investigate parents'and toddlers' initiation of play with baby dolls and astuffed clown to determine whether boys are providedwith the same opportunity for feminine play as girls are when playing with the same type oftoys. 42 parent toddler dyads from Caucasianmiddle-class families were observed playing with twobaby dolls and a soft stuffed clown for four minutes.Parent toddler play was coded for doll appropriate andinanimate object-type play. The baby dolls and the clownelicited different play behaviors from both the parentsand the toddlers. Same-sex dyads engaged in different types of play than opposite-sexparent toddler dyads. Findings of this study lendevidence that not all dolls are alike. Consequently,parents who provide their toddlers with baby dolls are providing different experiences from parentswho provide soft stuffed toys. Implications for genderrole development are discussed.
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Adults perceive an illusory correlation between negative social behaviors and membership in the smaller of two groups — the minority group (Hamilton & Gifford, 1976). Two experiments investigated the development of this illusory correlation. We created pictorial stimuli showing children performing good or bad behaviors. In Experiment 1 we told participants (children in grades 1, 3, 5, and 7 and adults) that each picture depicted a child from one of two groups. Group membership and behavior were uncorrelated, but, like adults, children perceived a correlation between the smaller group and negative behaviors. Children’s attributions of good and bad behaviors to the two groups showed a weak but significant bias. Their estimations of the number of children in each group who behaved badly showed a stronger bias. Children also rated the smaller group more negatively on many dimensions. Experiment 2 showed that the illusory correlation is not dependent on social stimuli. Children performed essentially the same tasks, but good and bad behaviors were replaced by the colors red and green, and the group members were represented as squares and triangles. The results were strikingly similar to those obtained with social stimuli. In both experiments, the strength of the illusory correlation did not vary significantly with age. The results are discussed from the perspective of theories that have been proposed to account for adult behavior and the implications of no developmental trend.
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There have been few studies of representations of gender in parenting discourses in Indonesia. In this article the authors investigate contemporary modalities of Indonesian parenting, questioning to what extent ideas of the roles of mothers and fathers represented in the middle class Indonesian parenting magazine (Ayahbunda) from 2000–2008 represent a break with conventional gendered parenting ideologies. The discourse analysis of both text and illustrations in Ayahbunda suggests that it promotes idealized, yet expanded gender roles for both women and men of middle-class Indonesian families. As a result the magazine jointly promotes ideas of a “super-mum” and a “super-dad”, which has resonance with patterns in the West. Yet motherhood remains the prescribed core identity of women and the role of protector remains the core identity of fathers.
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A longitudinal study examined the relationship between contact with successful ingroup members and women’s stereotypes about their own leadership abilities, career goals, and assertive behavior in class. Upon entry into college and toward the end of their sophomore year we measured (1) participants’ quantity and quality of contact with successful ingroup members (female professors), (2) implicit and explicit leadership self-concept, (3) career goals, and (4) classroom behavior. Frequent contact with ingroup members predicted stronger implicit self-conceptions of leadership and more career ambitions, but only when contact experiences were of high quality rather than superficial. Quality and quantity of contact independently predicted assertive behavior. The findings suggest that changing implicit self-beliefs requires both high quality and frequent exposure to counterstereotypic individuals. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Abstrak Dalam konteks promosi penjualan, penawaran premi seperti merchandise mainan untuk anak, merupakan penawaran item gratis atau dalam harga yang lebih murah yang bertujuan menimbulkan suatu respons. Dalam kelanjutannya, diketahui bahwa visual merchandise mainan dalam paket HappyMeal mempengaruhi perilaku konsumen anak-anak. Disamping itu, anak-anak adalah pasar yang potensial dewasa ini. Skripsi ini tidak hanya memberikan pemaparan deskriptif mengenai pengaruh visual merchandise terhadap perilaku pembelian paket HappyMeal pada anak, tetapi juga mengenai analisis hubungan korelasi dan regresi linear sederhana. Hasil penelitian mengidikasikan adanya pengaruh yang kuat dan signifikan antara visual merchandise terhadap perilaku pembelian paket HappyMeal pada anak. Abstract In sales promotion context, premium offers such as toy merchandizes for kids are free incentives or discounted price to encourage sales. A common finding that toys on merchandize offered in Happy Meal packets influence their consumer behavior which are kids, besides kids are known as potential target market nowadays. This thesis is not only giving descriptive explanation about the visual influence on merchandise towards kid's buying behavior on the purchase of Happy Meal packets, but also about correlation and simple linear regression analysis. The result indicates that visual elements on merchandises have strong and significant impact to kid's buying behavior on Happy Meal packets.
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Gender has become a growth industry in the academy. Gender has historically played a significant role in how the lives and fortunes of men and women are shaped. Gender serves as one of the most significant identifying labels throughout the life span. Human differentiation on the basis of gender is a fundamental phenomenon that affects virtually every aspect of people's daily lives. Gender development is a fundamental issue because some of the most important aspects of people's lives, such as the talents they cultivate, the conceptions they hold of themselves and others, the socio-structural opportunities and constraints they encounter, and the social life and occupational paths they pursue are heavily prescribed by societal gender-typing. It is the primary basis on which people get differentiated with pervasive effects on their daily lives. Theoretical exploration of gender development can take many different forms. Over the years several major theories have been proposed to explain gender development. The theories differ on several important dimensions. Keeping in view importance of theme the monograph has been prepared. The monograph explores the various approaches to theorising gender, as they have evolved in recent decades. It then explains a range of key concepts like theory of gender development, gender identity: masculinity/femininity, gender and socialization and gender roles, gender prejudice and stereotypes etc. The present monograph explores the psychosocial determinants and mechanisms by which society socializes male and female infants into masculine and feminine adults, gender socialization roles, Gender Prejudice and Stereotypes. It specifies how gender conceptions are constructed from the complex mix of experiences and how they operate in concert with motivational and self-regulatory mechanisms to guide gender-linked conduct throughout the life course. The theory integrates psychological and sociostructural determinants within a unified conceptual structure.
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This cross-sectional study investigated toy-choice in 38 one-year-old, 33 three-year-old, and 35 five-year-old children, who could choose between 10 different toys (four feminine, four masculine, and two neutral) in a structured play-session. The children played alone for 7 minutes and together with their accompanying parent for another 7 minutes (play-status). The results showed that girls and boys chose different toys from as early as the age of one year (Mdn=12 months). These sex differences were found at all three ages. In contradiction to earlier studies, our results showed that feminine toys became less interesting for both girls and boys with increasing age. The present study showed no consistent effects of play-status. This study contributes to the knowledge of how early behavioral sex differences can be observed, how these differences develop, and it also raises questions concerning what sex differences stem from.
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This study examined how parents influence sex differences in young children's physical risk taking behaviors. Eighty three- and four-year old, mostly middle class and Caucasian children climbed across a five-foot high catwalk and walked across a three-foot high beam under their mother or father's supervision. Based on average preschooler gross motor capabilities, both of these activities posed potential threats to preschoolers' physical safety without proper parental monitoring. Analyses revealed that fathers of daughters monitored their children more closely than did fathers of sons. In contrast, mothers of daughters and mothers of sons monitored their children similarly. Differential treatment of preschool-aged girls and boys in risk taking situations is discussed as a contributor to sex differences found in children's physical risk taking and unintentional injuries.
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