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Subsea pipeline infrastructure monitoring: A framework for technology review and selection

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Abstract

The level of inherent risk associated with subsea oil and gas pipelines has led to advances in non-invasive infrastructure monitoring technologies. However, from an asset owner׳s perspective, identifying those technologies that provide the highest value presents a significant challenge. In addressing this problem, this paper presents a technology selection framework that is comprised of three main stages. In the first stage, ‘failure pathway’ diagrams are developed that clearly illustrate the issues and interactions that conspire to cause deterioration and failure of subsea pipelines and related components in service. In the second stage, a set of candidate technologies are identified that can provide data/information to populate the failure pathway diagrams. This ensures that only relevant technologies are identified. Finally, a Multi Criteria Assessment (MCA) procedure is used to assess technologies against industry-agreed performance metrics. Using the framework, a prioritised subset of high-value technologies are identified to address erosion, corrosion, fatigue, deformation, blockage and flow control problems in subsea pipeline infrastructure.

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... Fiber optic sensors need to design a special encapsulation protection structure. Davis [4], in 2013, studied measurement techniques for a subsea pipeline ring strain in Gulf of Mexico oil fields. K.S. Ong [5] developed a simple-to-fabricate and low-cost acoustic vibration sensor based on optical fiber (SMF-28). ...
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... Typical sensors used for inspecting pipelines[11] ...
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... EAFLOOR images reveal submarine substrate distributions and underwater features, which are of significance to marine scientific research and ocean engineering, such as habitat mapping [1], design of offshore structures [2], underwater navigation [3], pipeline inspection [4] and subsea engineering [5]. Side scan sonar (SSS) towed behind a survey vessel emits a wide-angle beam and receives backscatter data at fixed time intervals to form a high-resolution seafloor image [6]. ...
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... Typically, harsh environments and the difficulty of accessing underwater pipelines make the inspection and monitoring of subsea pipelines a challenging task [9] [10]. Underwater robots, such as ROVs and AUVs, can observe and find any bending deformations of subsea pipelines through acoustic or optical imaging [11] [12]. ...
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... Possible damage modes of subsea pipelines.33 ...
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One of the largest movers of the world economy is the oil and gas industry. The industry generates billions of barrels of oil to match more than half the world’s energy demands. Production of energy products at such a massive scale is supported by the equally massive oil and gas infrastructure sprawling around the globe. Especially characteristic of the industry are vast networks of pipelines that traverse tens of thousands of miles of land and sea to carry oil and gas from the deepest parts of the earth to faraway destinations. With such lengths come increased chances for damage, which can have disastrous consequences owing to the hazardous substances typically carried by pipelines. Subsea pipelines in particular face increased risk due to the typically harsher environments, the difficulty of accessing deepwater pipelines, and the possibility of sea currents spreading leaked oil across a wide area. The opportunity for research and engineering to overcome the challenge of subsea inspection and monitoring is tremendous and the progress in this area is continuously generating exciting new developments that may have far reaching benefits far outside of subsea pipeline inspection and monitoring. Thus, this review covers the most often used subsea inspection and monitoring technologies as well as their most recent developments and future trends.
... The studied anisotropic plates are always comprised of fiber reinforced plastic composites, and the purpose is basically to obtain the guided wave propagation mechanism in the composite laminates [10][11][12][13][14][15][16] . In case of researches on cylinder structures, ultrasonic guided waves have been widely utilized for long range inspection of structures such as oil and petrochemical pipes [17][18][19][20][21][22][23] . It should be noted that although there are a large number of studies have investigated guided wave excitation, propagation, and interaction with the defect in the aforementioned structures, researches on guided wave propagation in complex structures such as CPVs have not been conducted in detail yet. ...
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Guided wave inspection based structural health monitoring technique is widely viewed as one of the most encouraging tools to investigate the structural integrality. However, guided wave propagation is quite complicated in complex structures due to its dispersive and multimodal natures. Major emphases of this research are on the guided wave propagating behavior in composite pressure vessel (CPV). The CPV is a complex structure that consists of 30CrMo steel as the inner tank and glass fiber reinforced epoxy resin (GF/epoxy) composites as the skin. According to the geometric similarity between the CPV and pipelines, we theoretically calculate the dispersion curves and analyze the dispersive features. After the optimum excitation frequency is selected, the piezoelectric transducers array arrangement is developed to investigate the guided wave propagation mechanism on the steel and composite layer of the healthy CPV, respectively. Finite element simulation is performed to assist the analysis of the captured signals. Furthermore, the wave feature in CPV after fatigue and rupture is discussed by comparing with the healthy signal.
... can be highlighted. There are two ways to reduce A1:(1) Install the accelerometer at the center of the SD to have r=0, Remove 1 via data post-processing.The SD rolls with a constant angular speed in the pipeline for a certain period of time, during which the centripetal acceleration always points to the point B, as shown inFigure 2.As the angles between each of the three sensitive axes of the accelerometer and the rotation axis is unchanged, the projection of 1 on each sensitive axis is the DC bias of each acceleration component. Removing the DC biases can eliminate 1 and weaken the magnitudes of 1 , 2 − 1 and 2 + 1 . ...
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... These structures are generally safe and reliable due to being designed to withstand severe loading conditions of the environment as well as the internal impacts from the transported medium. Failure rate of subsea pipelines is reported to be relatively lower than for other pipeline systems (Davis and Brockhurst, 2015). However, certain unavoidable factors can cause reduction in the capacity of the structure, resulting in earlier failure (Breton et al., 2010). ...
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... Subsea pipelines across the globe are widely used for transportation of large quantities of hydrocarbons from offshore wells to onshore locations, playing an important role in procurement of fuel for power generation and transport. Davis and Brokhurst [4] state that recorded failure rates in oil and gas subsea pipelines are relatively lower than pipelines in other facilities such as water distribution or wastewater collection systems. One of the major causes of failure in offshore pipeline is in degradation of structural properties [6,27]. ...
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... This model is based on the technology review which have been carried out by Davis et Al. [20] This review provides a list of available pipeline inspection tools, where each tool is ranked from 1 to 5 against 16 features (where 1 means that the tool doesn't fit with the considered feature and 5 means that the tool perfectly fit with the considered feature.). The model which has been developed provides an input table which allows operator to select the features considered relevant for the asset they have to inspect. ...
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... The type of flow pattern has a significant effect on the pressure drop, heat transfer, wax deposition, hydrate formation, etc inside the pipeline [1][2][3][4]. Apart from these, the distribution of water and flow pattern has a significant effect on the corrosion rate of flow-lines and pipelines. Although the crude oil itself is not corrosive Copyright © 2016 by ASME the existence of water and dissolved gases such as CO2 and H2S can potentially result in internal corrosion. ...
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