The Australian marine soundscape exhibits a diversity of sounds, which can be grouped into biophony, geophony and anthrophony based on their sources. Animals from tiny shrimp, to lobsters, fish and seals, to the largest animals on Earth, blue whales, contribute to the Australian marine biophony. Wind, rain, surf, Antarctic ice break-up and marine earthquakes make up the geophony. Ship traffic, mineral and petroleum exploration and production, construction, defence exercises and commercial fishing add to the anthrophony. While underwater recorders have become affordable mainstream equipment, precise sound recording and analysis remain an art. Australia's Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS) consists of a network of oceanographic and remote sensors, including passive acoustic listening stations managed by the Centre for Marine Science & Technology, Curtin University, Perth. All of the acoustic recordings are freely available online. Long-term records up to a decade exist at some sites. The recordings provide an exciting window into the underwater world. We present examples of soundscapes from around Australia and discuss various aspects of soundscape recording, analysis and reporting—the to-dos and not-to-dos. 1. INTRODUCTION The marine soundscape is a rapidly growing field of research. At relatively low cost, marine soundscapes can be monitored over long periods of time. They provide information on geophysical events and weather, on human activities and on the animals living in the environment—entirely non-invasively by passively listening at a distance. Soundscapes are often compared to identify good versus bad habitat, or changes of an environment over time. However, comparisons can be difficult because of differences in sound measurement, analysis and reporting. The development of acoustic standards would help overcome some of these challenges, but is a long and tedious process depending entirely on voluntary time (Erbe, Ainslie, et al. 2016). Also, people working in slightly different fields of research sometimes use terminology differently. International Standard ISO 12913-1 (2014) defines an acoustic environment as the " sound at the receiver from all sound sources as modified by the environment " (International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 2014). The soundscape, however, is a perceptual construct and requires a listener: " acoustic environment as perceived or experienced and/or understood by a person or people, in context ". In underwater acoustics, the term soundscape is often used synonymously with acoustic environment and includes all sounds of an environment independent of a listener who might " filter " the received sound. The sounds of an acoustic environment are often grouped into geophony, anthrophony and biophony comprising abiotic, anthropogenic and biotic sounds respectively. These sounds vary with geographic location, recording depth below the sea surface, time of day, season and year. The sound propagation environment (characterised by the bathymetry, seafloor geology, water temperature, salinity, etc.) varies on similar scales and affects the spectral and temporal features of the sounds received. Finally, the chosen sound recording and analysis parameters (system calibration, sampling frequency, duty cycle, Fourier analysis settings, any filtering or averaging applied, etc.) affect the measured or displayed features of a soundscape. Here, we show examples of Australian marine soundscapes and provide some suggestions for soundscape recording, analysis and reporting.