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Abstract

The bullying phenomenon has serious consequences for those that are involved. In order to find more effective ways to eradicate it from the schools, more research is needed. In this context, teacher management and emotional intelligence (EI) are shown to be relevant keys to consider. The aim of this study was to analyse the ways in which teacher management and trait EI affect involvement in bullying aggression and victimization. A total of 2,806 Spanish schoolchildren (51.8% girls; Age M = 15.44; SD = 1.79) participated in this transversal study. Self-report questionnaires were administrated; four of the dimensions of the Schoolwide Climate Scale: Bullying victimization; bullying aggression; positive teacher management; and negative teacher management. They also completed the Spanish version of the TMMS-24 EI questionnaire. After encoding the data, six structural equation models were created to study the direct and joint effects of teacher management and trait EI on bullying aggression and victimization. The models were run for both the whole sample and split samples based on the education cycles and sex. Results showed that both positive and negative teacher management were closely linked to involvement in bullying aggression and victimization. EI was also found to be directly related to bullying involvement. Furthermore, results revealed that teacher management was directly related to trait EI. Education cycle differences were found, but no sex-specific differences were apparent in the sample. Conclusions of the study highlight the important role that teacher management plays with regard to bullying involvement and trait EI, and include a discussion of the need to include teacher management in bullying prevention programmes at schools. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

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... With regard to the characteristics of the aggressors, there are currently numerous individual and family variables that have been associated with CPV [14,[36][37][38][39][40][41][42]. However, many of these variables have also been linked to the violence exerted towards peers [26,[43][44][45][46][47][48]. ...
... Thus, although the literature has identified different characteristics associated with the development of CPV, it also suggests that at least some of them would not be specific to this type of violence and would be present in other types of violence. Concerning the individual characteristics, emotional intelligence has been negatively related to CPV [38,40,42] and violence towards peers [26,44]. Moreover, difficulty in identifying emotions has been pointed out as a significant predictor of CPV [42] and violence in general [45]. ...
... These results provide empirical support to the trait-based model of CPV, which assumes higher levels of emotional insensibility traits in the generalist aggressors than in the specialist aggressors [29]. Moreover, such results also complement those of previous studies that negatively relate emotional intelligence to CPV [38,40,42] and to violence towards peers [26,44,45], since the greatest deficits of emotional intelligence were found in those adolescents who exert both CPV and violence towards peers. Likewise, low emotional regulation contributes significantly to the prediction of this type of aggressor. ...
Article
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Research on violence in general highlights the need to differentiate between those aggressors who only show specialized violence in the family context and those who also show generalized violence in other contexts outside the family. However, in the phenomenon of child-to-parent violence (CPV), the distinctive characteristics of this profile have not been yet analyzed. The aim of this study was to identify the typology of specialist aggressor versus the typology of generalist aggressor and examine whether they differ in their characteristics. A total of 1559 CPV aggressors participated, with ages between 12 and 18 years, of whom 22.4% exerted violence only towards parents (specialist aggressors) and 77.6% also exerted violence towards peers (generalist aggressors). The results show that specialized violence and generalized violence seem to follow different patterns according to age. The generalists were characterized by a more negative profile than the specialists. Specifically, the former showed more CPV and for more reasons, both reactive and proactive. Regarding individual characteristics, they obtained lower levels of emotional intelligence and resilience. Concerning family characteristics, they presented higher levels of insecure parental attachment and parental violence (direct and observed). The predictive variables retained in the regression model represented approximately 16.4% of the variation in the type of aggressor. This study supports the classification based on the specificity versus generality of violence, as it was found that specialist and generalist CPV aggressors differ significantly in their characteristics. It is considered that the findings could help to identify the differential mechanisms through which both types of aggressors have developed CPV. Further analysis of this profile can be of great use for the design of intervention and prevention programs adapted to the needs of each typology.
... Thus, Baroncelli and Ciucci [45] corroborated that bullying and cyberbullying were related to difficulties in regulating one's emotions. Casas, Ortega-Ruiz, and del Rey [46] found that victims paid more attention to emotions but had lower levels of emotional clarity and repair, whereas aggressors had lower levels of emotional attention, clarity, and repair. Garaigordobil [47] found a relationship between engaging in cyberbullying and lower emotional attention, clarity, and repair, whereas cyberbullying victimization was related only to an increased emotional attention. ...
... The data indicate that having a greater level of understanding and emotional regulation decreases the probability of participating in any of the roles of cyberbullying. The data are consistent with those from studies that have reported low levels of EI in victims, aggressors, and victims-aggressors of cyberbullying [45][46][47][48][49][50]. As for aggressors, it has been widely verified that they lack emotional skills [45,46,49,50], as well as having a low capacity to attend to, understand, and regulate emotions, leading to emotional and psychosocial imbalances, worsening their relationship with peers. ...
... The data are consistent with those from studies that have reported low levels of EI in victims, aggressors, and victims-aggressors of cyberbullying [45][46][47][48][49][50]. As for aggressors, it has been widely verified that they lack emotional skills [45,46,49,50], as well as having a low capacity to attend to, understand, and regulate emotions, leading to emotional and psychosocial imbalances, worsening their relationship with peers. However, students with a high ability to understand and regulate their emotions reveal high levels of nonparticipation in cyberbullying behavior, since this emotional understanding and regulation leads to an increased level of empathy towards their victims, thereby decreasing the probability of their being involved in aggressive behavior that would potentially harm their peers [62]. ...
Article
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The devastating consequences of cyberbullying during adolescence justify the relevance of obtaining empirical evidence on the factors that may cause participation in its distinct roles. The goal of this study was to analyze the predictive capacity of aggressiveness (physical aggression, verbal aggression, anger, and hostility) and emotional intelligence (attention, understanding, and emotional regulation) with respect to being a victim, aggressor or victim-aggressor of cyberbullying during adolescence. The Screening for Peer Bullying, the Aggressiveness Questionnaire and the Trait Meta-Mood Scale-24 were administered to a sample of 1102 Spanish secondary education students, aged 12 to 18. In general, results revealed a higher probability of being a victim, aggressor or victim-aggressor as physical aggressiveness and anger increased. On the other hand, results revealed a low probability of being a victim, aggressor or victim-aggressor as emotional understanding and emotional regulation increased. These findings highlight the importance of considering said variables when creating prevention programs to stop or reduce the social and educational issue of cyberbullying during adolescence.
... In other words, differences are found depending on whether the adolescent is the bully or the victim, with each of them having higher or lower levels of certain EI components. In four of the articles (Cañas et al., 2020;Casas et al., 2015;Elipe et al., 2012;Estévez et al., 2019) EI was measured with the TMMS-24 (Fernández-Berrocal et al., 2004;Salovey et al., 1995). These studies have shown that the levels of each component of EI help to discriminate between uninvolved and involved adolescents and, within the latter, between victim and bully. ...
... These studies have shown that the levels of each component of EI help to discriminate between uninvolved and involved adolescents and, within the latter, between victim and bully. The results show high levels of attention and lower levels of clarity and repair both in victims and bullies (Cañas et al., 2020;Casas et al., 2015;Elipe et al., 2012). Estévez et al. (2019) showed that the emotional profile of victims is characterized by high levels of attention and low levels of clarity and repair, which worsens victimization. ...
... The results show different levels in each of the EI components, with adequate levels of emotion perception, but lower levels of emotion understanding, and regulation. This means that adolescents involved in bullying do not have great difficulties in perceiving and expressing emotions, but they do have deficiencies in understanding and regulating them (Baroncelli & Ciucci, 2014;Cañas et al., 2020;Casas et al., 2015 ). In particular, both bullies and victims seem to lack adequate emotional management or regulation skills. ...
... In other words, differences are found depending on whether the adolescent is the bully or the victim, with each of them having higher or lower levels of certain EI components. In four of the articles (Cañas et al., 2020;Casas et al., 2015;Elipe et al., 2012;Estévez et al., 2019) EI was measured with the TMMS-24 (Fernández-Berrocal et al., 2004;Salovey et al., 1995). These studies have shown that the levels of each component of EI help to discriminate between uninvolved and involved adolescents and, within the latter, between victim and bully. ...
... These studies have shown that the levels of each component of EI help to discriminate between uninvolved and involved adolescents and, within the latter, between victim and bully. The results show high levels of attention and lower levels of clarity and repair both in victims and bullies (Cañas et al., 2020;Casas et al., 2015;Elipe et al., 2012). Estévez et al. (2019) showed that the emotional profile of victims is characterized by high levels of attention and low levels of clarity and repair, which worsens victimization. ...
... The results show different levels in each of the EI components, with adequate levels of emotion perception, but lower levels of emotion understanding, and regulation. This means that adolescents involved in bullying do not have great difficulties in perceiving and expressing emotions, but they do have deficiencies in understanding and regulating them (Baroncelli & Ciucci, 2014;Cañas et al., 2020;Casas et al., 2015 ). In particular, both bullies and victims seem to lack adequate emotional management or regulation skills. ...
... El acoso entre estudiantes se relaciona con características del contexto escolar (Mucherah, Finch, White, & Thomas, 2018) y en particular, con la relación docente-estudiante (Casas, Ortega-Ruiz, & Del Rey, 2015;Longobardi, Iotti, Jungert, & Settanni, 2018). Los docentes ejercen influencia en el desarrollo académico y psicosocial de los estudiantes, especialmente durante la adolescencia (Quin, Heerde, & Toumbourou, 2018;Rigby, 2014). ...
... Un elemento esencial de un clima escolar positivo es la existencia de relaciones cercanas entre docentes y estudiantes (Valdés et al., 2018). El maltrato erosiona la calidad del clima escolar al provocar relaciones de conflicto con los estudiantes, quienes perciben como injustos y poco confiables a sus docentes (Casas et al., 2015;Lucas-Molina et al., 2015;Longobardi et al., 2018;Van der Zanden et al., 2015). ...
Article
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n el estudio, se analizan las relaciones entre el maltrato docente- estudiante, clima social de la escuela, apoyo docente y el acoso entre estudiantes. Participaron 1 577 estudiantes (800 chicos y 777 chicas), con una edad promedio de 12.94 años (DE = 1.77 años), pertenecientes a 64 escuelas secundarias públicas de Sonora, México. Se calcula un modelo de ecuaciones estructurales con apoyo del AMOS. De los resultados, se infiere que el maltrato docente favorece de forma directa e indirecta, mediante sus efectos negativos, en el clima escolar y el apoyo docente y la violencia entre pares. Se concluye que el maltrato docente afecta negativamente la dinámica de las escuelas y favorece el acoso escolar. Finalmente, se discuten implicaciones teóricas y prácticas de los hallazgos
... Es de vital importancia trabajar sobre el acoso, sea el tipo que sea, con futuros docentes, pues Grumm y Hein (2013) ya mostraron que los docentes cuyo alumnado percibe que se interesa por su bienestar, necesidades personales y con un enfoque consistente, contribuye a prevenir la victimización. Así mismo, Casas, Ortega-Ruiz y Del Rey (2015) también confirmaron el caso inverso, es decir, que los docentes que realizan una gestión negativa de la clase, que muestran apatía y falta de valores positivos, favorecen la victimización. Por todo ello, desde nuestra perspectiva, la comunidad educativa debe diseñar y desarrollar estrategias y actividades específicas de actuación ante determinados comportamientos de riesgo en la Red, potenciando los usos positivos y beneficiosos. ...
Article
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Los nuevos requerimientos del siglo XXI en la formación docente son evidentes. El presente trabajo tiene como principal objetivo describir el perfil de los estudiantes universitarios en temas relevantes para su futuro profesional. Entre ellos se consideran importantes los enfoques de enseñanza, la atención a la diversidad, las TIC y su relación con el ciberacoso, la inteligencia emocional y la autoestima. La investigación fue llevada a cabo en la Universidad Católica de San Antonio de Murcia (UCAM) con una muestra de 230 estudiantes de Educación. Los instrumentos utilizados para este propósito fueron el cuestionario de autoestima Rosenberg, ATI, TMMS-24 y un instrumento diseñado ad-hoc para la atención a la diversidad y el uso de las TIC y su relación con el cyberbullying. Los resultados muestran un perfil definido de estudiantes mujeres, con una alta inteligencia emocional, autoestima dentro del promedio, que no favorecen un enfoque de enseñanza específico y con medios muy elevados en la atención a la diversidad y el ciberacoso
... This illustrates the importance of the teaching staff as a key element in the intervention against cyberbullying [39]. Just as happens in traditional bullying, schoolchildren see the degree of teacher involvement as a highly relevant factor in reducing or facilitating their involvement [57]. It has also become clear that the extent to which pupils perceive that their teachers are involved in managing interpersonal relationships in the classroom has a high predictive value for cyberbullying. ...
Article
Full-text available
This article presents the impact on cyberbullying of the Asegúrate program. This educational program is based on the theory of normative social behavior, self-regulation skills, and the beliefs held by adolescents and consists in a whole package of strategies and resources to help teachers to include in the ordinary curricula. The evaluation of Asegúrate was carried out with a sample of 4779 students (48.9% girls) in 5th and 6th grade in primary education and compulsory secondary education (M = 12.76; SD = 1.67) through a quasi-experimental methodology, with two measures over time. The instrument used was the European Cyberbullying Intervention Project Questionnaire. The results show that the involvement in cyberbullying as cyber-victim, cyber-aggressor, and cyber-bully-victim increase without intervention, whereas it diminishes when intervention is carried out by the teachers who have received specific training and have used the didactic Asegúrate package. Additionally, the impact of the intervention on the different types of behaviors was analyzed, and the results show that Asegúrate is more effective with some forms than with others. Consequently, the Asegúrate program is effective for decreasing the prevalence of cyberbullying, but some modifications need to be made to impact on all the different forms it can take.
... Another meta-analysis on empathy and cyberbullying (Zych, Baldry, Farrington, & Llorent, 2018a) found that also cyber-bullies score low on empathy whereas cybervictims score the same as non-cyber-victims. Casas, Ortega-Ruiz, and Del Rey (2015) found that bullying victimization was predicted by higher level of emotional attention, less emotional clarity and repair whereas bullying perpetration was predicted by less emotional attention, clarity and repair. Garaigordobil (2017) reported that cyberbullying perpetration was predicted by low emotional attention, clarity and repair whereas cyberbullying victimization was predicted by higher emotional attention only. ...
Article
Bullying and cyberbullying are extremely damaging violent behaviors present in schools. A promising research line focuses on social and emotional competencies in relation to bullying and cyberbullying. The aim of this study was to describe social and emotional competencies in Spanish adolescents in relation to age and gender and to find out if the level of social and emotional competencies was related to different bullying and cyberbullying roles. This study was conducted with a representative sample of 2139 adolescents enrolled in 22 schools. Social and emotional competencies differed by gender and age. Bullying and cyberbullying perpetrators and bully-victims scored low in social and emotional competencies. There was no significant difference between victims and uninvolved students. Controlling for age and gender, low social awareness and prosocial behavior were independently related to bullying perpetration and being a bully-victim. Low responsible decision making was related to being a bully-victim and being a cyberbully-cybervictim. These findings suggest that social and emotional competencies can protect adolescents against bullying and cyberbullying but future studies are needed to establish possible causal relationships between these competencies, bullying and cyberbullying.
... Lo cual concuerda la correlación antes mencionada entre el UAS y la Re del TMMS-24. El hecho de hacer sentir mal a los demás parece indicar que ellos se perciben con menos IEP, algo ya contrastado (Casas, Ortega-Ruiz, & Del Rey, 2015;Pérez-Villalobos, Jiménez-Espinoza, Vilos-Núñez, & Ortíz-Véliz, 2015). Otros estudios han mostrado que una mejor capacidad para la IE, no percibida sino real, se relaciona con una menor participación en conductas antisociales como las conductivas disruptivas (Mayer et al., 2001). ...
Article
Full-text available
Resumen Debido a que la inteligencia emocional se vincula con las experiencias significativas en las personas (Mayer, Caruso, & Salovey 2016), se busca convertir la EIIE (Sosa-Correa & Rodríguez-Ake, 2011) a un nuevo instrumento (EYUPIE-M) que evalúe el uso que los menores de edad le dan a su inteligencia emocional percibida (IEP) y conocer la naturaleza y significación de la relación de este nuevo instrumento con otros de IEP como el TMMS24, el ESCQ y con el PANAS. La Escala Yucatán del uso percibido de la IE en menores (EYUPIE-M; fiabilidad alfa = .87) consta de 24 ítems y cuatro sub escalas: Conciencia Emocional Intrapersonal (CE-Intra), Uso Prosocial (UPS), Conciencia Emocional Interpersonal (CE-Inter) y Uso Antisocial (UAS). La consistencia interna de las sub-escalas varió entre .72 y .85. Solo se encontró que CEIntra, UPS y CE-Inter se relacionaron positivamente con las tres sub-escalas del TMMS24, el UPS con todas las del ESCQ y el UAS negativamente con reparación del TMMS24 y con regulación del ESCQ. Palabras clave: inteligencia emocional percibida, menores de edad, funcionamiento prosocial, funcionamiento antisocial Abstract Because emotional intelligence is linked to meaningful experiences in people (Mayer, Caruso, & Salovey 2016), it seeks to convert the EIIE (Sosa-Correa & Rodríguez-Ake, 2011) to a new instrument (EYUPIE-M) to evaluate the use that minors give their perceived emotional intelligence (IEP) and to know the nature and significance of the relationship of this new instrument with other IEPs such as TMMS24, ESCQ and PANAS. The Yucatecan Scale of IEP perceived use in minors (EYUPIE-M, alpha reliability = .87) consists of 24 items and four sub-scales: Intrapersonal Emotional Consciousness (CE-Intra), Prosocial Use (UPS), Interpersonal Emotional Consciousness CE-Inter) and Antisocial Use (UAS). The internal consistency of the subscales ranged from .72 to .85. It was found that only CE-Intra, UPS and CE-Inter were positively related to the three sub-scales of the TMMS24, and so the UPS with all of the ESCQ and UAS, negatively with TMMS24 repair and with ESCQ regulation. Keywords: perceived emotional intelligence, minors, prosocial functioning, and antisocial functioning
... However, they also found that the level of perceived emotional intelligence was not statistically different between students who were involved in cyberbullying and those who were not involved in cyberbullying. Casas, Ortega-Ruiz and Del Rey (2015) reported that face-to-face victimisation was predicted by higher emotional attention and lower emotional clarity and repair. These fi ndings suggest that emotional intelligence could possibly protect children from victimisation but more studies are needed to confi rm this relationship. ...
Article
Background: Bullying and cyberbullying are global public health problems. However, very few studies described prevalence, similarities and differences among face-to-face victims, cybervictims and students who are victimised through both bullying and cyberbullying. This study was conducted to describe these different patterns of victimisation and severity of victimisation, emotional intelligence and technology use in different types of victims. Method: A total number of 2,139 secondary school students from 22 schools, randomly selected from all provinces of Andalusia, Spain, participated in this study. Information about bullying, cyberbullying, social networking sites use and perceived emotional intelligence was collected. Results: Face-to-face victimisation only is the most common type of victimisation followed by mixed victimisation. Cybervictimisation only is rare. Mixed victims score higher in severity of bullying and present higher emotional attention than face-to-face victims. Conclusions: Most victims of cyberbullying are also face-to-face victims. Holistic approach that focuses on different problems at the same time seems to be needed to tackle these behaviours.
... In such way, on the positive and facilitating side of the coexistence in school we can find three dimensions: "Positive interpersonal management" "Peer social network" and "Normative adjustment". The first one is related to elements of the organizational structure and the role of teachers in the improvement of relationships among the members of the educational community (Casas, Ortega-Ruiz, & Del Rey, 2015). The second one is a relevant factor in personal adjustment, according to scientific literature (Córdoba, Del Rey, Casas, & Ortega-Ruiz, 2016;Buelga, Cava, & Musitu, 2012). ...
Preprint
School-wide climate is a construct widely spread in the area of education. However, so far the instruments designed to measure this phenomenon usually collect data about specific aspects of the construct, rather than comprehending the construct as a whole. The objective was to analyse the validity of the factorial structure of a scale designed to assess the construct coexistence in school on students of primary education. The sample, 2447 primary education students from Chile and Spain. An exploratory and then a confirmatory analysis factor were run to test the validity of a structure composed by: Positive Interpersonal Management, Victimization, Disrup-tiveness, Peer Social Network, Aggression, Normative Adjustment, Indiscipline, and Teacher Apathy. The results proved that the eight-factor structure is suitable for the Chilean population. In addition, the results revealed in-variance across both populations. The School-wide Climate Scale is a reliable and valid instrument for the multi-dimensional assessment of the school-wide climate. The article can be found in this link: https://authors.elsevier.com/a/1WVN1,4Mg0LQPr
... In such way, on the positive and facilitating side of the coexistence in school we can find three dimensions: "Positive interpersonal management" "Peer social network" and "Normative adjustment". The first one is related to elements of the organizational structure and the role of teachers in the improvement of relationships among the members of the educational community (Casas, Ortega-Ruiz, & Del Rey, 2015). The second one is a relevant factor in personal adjustment, according to scientific literature (Córdoba, Del Rey, Casas, & Ortega-Ruiz, 2016;Buelga, Cava, & Musitu, 2012). ...
Data
The article can be found in this link: https://authors.elsevier.com/a/1WVN1,4Mg0LQPr
... Improving these components of emotional intelligence is critical to improve people's resilience against any psychological crisis. A correctly developed emotional intelligence represents a resilience factor against different life problems, including addictions [23], depression [24], bullying [25] or even suicidal behavior [26]. Training emotional intelligence also acts as a protective factor against radicalization processes [19]. ...
Article
Extremist ideologies are proliferating nowadays in both political and social levels. Considering that youngsters are in a development stage where they are still conforming their own social identity, they become especially vulnerable to these ideologies’ influence. Therefore, it becomes critical to provide them with the psychological skills to rationalize and resist those influences. Video games, which are already a technology commonly consumed by these generations, provide a way to motivate and engage youngsters. Therefore, implementing these video games in interventions to increase psychological resilience represents an opportunity to create an innovative learning approach. Following this motivation, this paper has three main objectives: adapting a traditional emotional intelligence training program to a novel serious game based intervention, called YoungRes; providing a metric to measure the student’ evolution based on in-game behavioural patterns, instead of indirect measures; and evaluating the impact of the intervention itself after its implementation. To do so, an 11 sessions intervention was applied to 36 students from two primary schools in Spain. Quantitative and qualitative data was extracted from the experience, consisting on data extracted from the player’s behaviour and a final survey. A detailed statistical analysis carried out showed two main outcomes: first, the serious game based intervention was very appreciated by the students, specially by those who frequently play video games; second, the intervention allowed to improve several emotional intelligence competences, such as active listening and controlled breathing, as well as to promote knowledge about the Islamic culture. Finally, the authors discussed about how the game could be improved for future applications in schools.
... Según Garaiordobil y Oñederra (2008) hay que poner los medios necesarios para normalizar los niveles de las variables implicadas en la salud psicológica de las víctimas, como el autoconcepto, la autoestima, el control de los impulsos y la regulación de las emociones. La búsqueda de apoyo es una de las estrategias más efectivas para prevenir y afrontar de manera adecuada el acoso escolar; por esto, generar vías de intervención para favorecer las relaciones interpersonales de todo el alumnado constituye un punto estratégico a trabajar en las dinámicas escolares, sin olvidar la figura del profesor como figura integradora ( Casas et al, 2015;Cava, 2011). Así mismo es importante generar intervenciones en la formación de las familias mediante las tutorías y las escuelas de padres para mejorar la calidad comunicativa entre padres e hijos, implicando especialmente a la figura paterna dada la importancia que tiene para el ajuste psicosocial del adolescente ( Cava, 2011 ...
... Finalmente, es importante destacar que los docentes somos uno de los modelos más importantes para nuestro alumnado, por lo que este mismo desarrollo debe ser trabajado internamente para mejorar nuestra competencia emocional, moral y social y, por tanto, nuestra capacidad para afrontar de forma efectiva las situaciones de conflictividad. En este sentido, Casas et al. (2015) han demostrado que la percepción del manejo interpersonal es uno de los factores que mejor refleja lo que el alumnado considera un clima escolar seguro, en el cual el bullying tiene pocas oportunidades de prosperar. En gran medida, es el profesorado con su comportamiento, su correcta lectura de las necesidades emocionales y sociales de sus alumnos y alumnas, el que establece los marcos en los cuales la inteligencia emocional de los escolares puede desplegarse, para afrontar los riesgos y sobre todo, para aprender a tener una vida social satisfactoria, en la cual los fenómenos de acoso sean rápidamente detectados y muy pronto expulsados de la convivencia. ...
Article
Full-text available
Education pursues two aims: teaching schoolchildren faced with a potentially challenging future to become self-reliant and turning them into ethical members of society that can contribute to our shared development. Given these goals, teaching children social and emotional skills is essential to provide a positive framework in which to learn to live together. Consequently, in this article we identify the role emotional intelligence, social skills and a moral compass play in developing good relationships at school and in situations that threaten them, focusing specifically on the risk of bullying.
... According to Topping et al. (2000), the term social competence was defined as being able to achieve social goals in a specific context and culture integrating abilities to think, feel, and act. These authors explain that people with a high level of social competence are able to analyze and think about different social Emotional attention, clarity and repair (see Casas et al. 2015) Involvement (including any bullying role) was predicted by higher level of attention and lower level of repair. Clarity was not a significant predictor. ...
Chapter
Although there is no specific profile of a child involved in bullying, there are some personal characteristics that increase a child’s likelihood of being involved. At the same time, there are certain competencies that can be acquired to protect children against becoming perpetrators or victims. These characteristics can be described in terms of risk and protective factors.
... Victimization was predicted by lower helpfulness and leadership in teachers and more uncertainty. A study conducted with Spanish adolescents (Casas et al. 2015) focused on positive and negative teacher management in the classroom. Positive management was defined as good relationships with students, other teachers and families, valuing and reinforcing the work done by the students, and teacher involvement in activities. ...
Chapter
Personal protective factors classified into social, emotional, and moral competencies have been described in Chap. 3. Children with better competencies are less likely to be involved in bullying. Nevertheless, bullying is a very complex phenomenon that is influenced by the individual, social, and contextual factors. There is always an interaction between the individual and the environment. While, some children are more vulnerable than others to get involved in bullying, specific circumstances are also needed.
... Gregory et al. 2010;Richard, Schneider, and Mallet 2011) or, more frequently, the individual level (e.g. Casas, Ortega-Ruiz, and Del Rey 2015;Raskauskas et al. 2010). However, with respect to the analysis of contextual influences on bullying, there are at least two reasons for considering the school class as the most relevant microsystem (Pozzoli, Gini, and Vieno 2012). ...
Article
The aim of the present study was to test whether teacher–student relationship (TSR) quality and student–student relationship (SSR) quality at class level and class moral disengagement (CMD), considered together in a single model, were related to class prevalence of victims (CPV) of bullying. A sample of 899 Swedish children was recruited from 43 elementary school classes. The participants filled out a questionnaire. Because the focus of the present study was on class behaviours, all analyses were conducted on aggregated class-level data. A path analysis revealed that the prevalence of victims was likely to be lower in classes with more positive teacher–student and SSRs and lower levels of CMD. TSR quality was not directly linked to CPV, but indirectly through its direct association with SSR quality. SSR quality was negatively associated with CMD and both were directly related to CPV. Results suggest that caring, supportive and warm SSRs in the class should be considered as a crucial protective factor against bullying victimisation. Further, the findings suggest that CMD has to be addressed in bullying prevention.
... Furthermore, León, Gozalo, and Polo (2012) affirm that cooperative learning techniques that are implemented in education centres reduce aggression in general, and above all, the social exclusion of students. In light of the foregoing, humanistic education is a valid option in order to reduce the cases of bullying and to improve the situation in education centres (Garaigordóbil and Oñederra 2010;Casas, Ortega-Ruiz, and Del Rey 2015;Lucas-Molina et al. 2015; Save the Children 2016; Zych et al. 2018). ...
Article
Abstract: Cyberbullying, which is a scourge within modern society, consists of assaulting and mistreating victims via new technologies, causing serious damage. In this study, we shall analyse the prevalence of cyberbullying according to gender, education centre, and academic year in two education centres of Spain. The sample was comprised of 227 Spanish primary and secondary school students. A non-experimental study, ex post facto, was conducted as a descriptive study by way of single measurement within a single group. The Cyberbullying Test has been adopted as the main instrument for the study. The statistical analysis was carried out by way of IBM software SPSS® 22.0. The internal reliability of the instruments used was analysed by means of Cronbach’s alpha coefficient. The results reveal that the cyberbullying conduct that is most perpetrated, suffered, and witnessed by adolescents is the sending of offensive and insulting messages, that girls are more often the victims, and that during early adolescence, the cases of cyberbullying increase with the age of the adolescents. We consider that humanistic education is the remedy for helping to reduce the cases of bullying and cyberbullying among adolescents.
... In other words, teachers who have responsibilities for handling school violence could experience increased job demand and conflicts in their relationships with officials and parents. While numerous studies discuss the effects of school violence on students and emphasize teacher's roles, such as discipline and management, in preventing recurrence (Casas, Ortega-Ruiz, & Del Rey, 2015;Yoon, Sulkowski, & Bauman, 2016), there have been few studies reporting school teacher's stress when dealing with school violence. Accordingly, this study focused on teacher's school violence-related stress, from a variety of types of occupational stresses, rather than school violence itself. ...
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This study examined associations between school violence-related stress, coping self-efficacy (CSE), job satisfaction, and quality of life (QOL) in school teachers, focusing particularly on the mediating effects of CSE and job satisfaction on teachers’ QOL. The sample consisted of 528 elementary, middle, and high school teachers. The multiple mediation model analyses showed that school violence-related stress was negatively associated with QOL through CSE and job satisfaction after controlling for covariates such as type of school and years of teaching experience. Specifically, CSE and job satisfaction fully mediated the negative association between school violence-related stress and QOL. An intervention program could be useful for helping teachers to reduce their stress and improve their CSE and job satisfaction when they encounter school violence that could decrease their QOL.
... Recently, some studies have incorporated the analysis of the protective role that contextual and personal variables play on the well-being of bullied adolescents, as stated in the review study carried out by Zych et al. (2019). Among the personal variables studied, Casas et al. (2015) point out to the role of emotional intelligence as a possible protective factor against face to face bullying, finding that high levels of emotional attention and low levels of clarity and reparation are able to anticipate victimization. Likewise, Elipe et al. (2012) found that victims exhibited higher levels of emotional attention and lower levels of emotional reparation. ...
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Although adolescence has been defined as a stage of vulnerability, due to the biopsychosocial changes that happen throughout this developmental stage, it is also one of growth. Some of the core personal competencies that have been identified to promote positive development at this stage while simultaneously preventing risks are: (1) a positive sense of self, (2) self-regulation, (3) decision-making skills, (4) a moral system of belief, and (5) prosocial connectedness. There are many factors and contexts that influence adolescent development. The school climate, for example, has the capacity to promote positive development and life satisfaction, yet on the other hand, it is a context within which different forms of violence, such as bullying, can occur. The principal aim of this study, therefore, is to analyze the influence that bullying has on one’s life satisfaction, while taking into account participants’ socio-demographic characteristics (i.e., gender and developmental stage), their core personal competencies (i.e., problem solving strategies, empathy, emotional repair, self-esteem, and values), and the school climate. To obtain data, a hierarchical regression analysis was conducted with a sample of 647 Spanish students (53.3% female), ranging in age from preadolescence (10–13 years old; 60.3%) to mid-adolescence (14–18 years old; 39.7%), and belonging to diverse socio-economic contexts (15.3% rural) and schools (32.1% public). After gaining informed consent from both the participants and their parents, students completed the survey voluntarily, and under anonymity. Initially results show that gender, developmental stage, and having been bullied were predictors of participants’ levels of life satisfaction. When the core personal competencies were also considered in data analysis process, self-esteem, emotional repair, and social values were those demonstrating significant effects on one’s life satisfaction; moreover, being bullied was a significant predictor too. Finally, after taking school climate into account, only this variable as well as self-esteem and emotional repair were significant predictors of life satisfaction: the other assessed variables were no longer found to be significant predictors (i.e., gender, developmental stage, being bullied, and social values). These results have important implications for education objectives, methodologies, and school functioning: school climate, self-esteem and emotional repair seem to be particularly important for promoting student life satisfaction and for preventing the negative consequences associated with being bullied.
... Domestic and international research on infl uence factors in school bullying is the major reference for confi rming the infl uence factors in school bullying in this study. Such research results focus on physiological factors (Smith et al., 2010;UNESCO, 2016), involving in age, gender, and appearance features, psychological factors (Van Geel et al., 2018;Zych, Ttofi , & Farrington, 2019), mainly concerning about depression, anxiety, and self-esteem, school factors (Casas, Ortega-Ruiz, & Del Rey, 2015;Huang et al., 2018;Thornberg, Wanstrom, & Pozzoli, 2017), including school environment, teacher management, and teacher-student relationship, family factors (Kaufman et al., 2019;Pickett & Wilkinson, 2008;Rigby, 2010), involving in family economic background, family relationship, and family parenting styles, and social factors, containing social anomie, social change, and legal system. The direct source is obtained through interviews. ...
... The role of teachers holds vital influence on students" activities and thus a teacher having spectator"s eyes significantly contribute to recognize, understand about bullying measures in school premises (Ertesvag, 2016). Literature has documented various contexts and individual factors which form the perception of the teacher about school bullying and his attitude towards handling it (Wei et al. 2010;Casas et al. 2015;Elliott et al. 2019). The individual variables and contextual factors are interdependent and develop mutual effect on teachers" perception about bullying events. ...
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Abstract Teachers’ perception about bullying, embedded in bullying knowledge and his/her perceived contributing factors, influences the mechanism of choosing and practicing appropriate intervention strategies to handle school bullying. The major purpose of the current paper was to explore the contributing factors of school bullying perceived by teachers which may significantly determine the bullying incidences in public elementary schools. To achieve this purpose, survey research design (quantitative) was adopted. Total 300 elementary teachers from 60 elementary schools were selected through stratified sampling technique from three randomly selected tehsils of Sargodha district. Data was collected through self-developed instrument. Results revealed that teachers’ perception about the seriousness of bullying is strongly associated with their knowledge of bullying. Further, teachers were found in favour of multiple constructive intervention strategies instead of corporal punishment to handle bullying issues. In addition, female teachers reported significantly more knowledge of school bullying than male teachers (t = 3.378, p < .01). Further, teaching experience and tehsils were also found significantly different. Concerning contributing factors, results showed that classroom management (bCM = .232, p < .001), conducive learning environment (bCLM = 1.413, p < .001) and fair environment (bCFE = .127, p < .01) significantly reduce the bullying incidents in school. Moreover, father’s support, parents’ interrelationship positively reduces the chance of a child to be victim of school bullying (F 6, 273 = 5.679, p < .001) and to be bully (F6, 274 = 14.327, p < .001). Thus, by introducing a conducive learning environment with constructive classroom management in schools and parents’ positive support in homes, school bullying can be minimized. Keywords: School bullying, Teachers‟ support, Parents‟ control, Parent‟s role in child rearing, Parents Interrelationship, Handeling strategies, Classroom management.
... This could, though, be assumed as indicated above. An interesting finding in a particular school was that when staff focused on developing a sense of belonging, a decrease in bullying amongst learners was also observed (Solomon, Battistich, Kim & Watson as cited in Casas, Ortega-Ruiz & Del Rey, 2015). Nevertheless, with the information at hand one could deduce that any experience impacting upon a relationship with a significant other could compromise a sense of belonging. ...
... Mihaela, 2014;Önen & Ulusoy, 2015 Chalamandaris & Piette, 2015) ‫2102؛‬ ‫�م،‬ � � ‫وقا�س‬ ‫�ن،‬ � � ‫(ح�س‬ ‫�وث‬ � � ‫و�لبح‬ ‫�ات‬ � � ‫�لدر��س‬ ‫�ن‬ � � ‫م‬ ‫�د‬ � � ‫�لعدي‬ ‫�رت‬ � � ‫أظه‬ � ‫�د‬ � � ‫وق‬ Stroch & Masia, 2003;Espinoza, Delfabro et al., 2006;Georgiou, 2008;Burger, Strohmeier, Spröber, Bauman & Rigby, 2015) Lopes, Salovey & Straus, (2003) Brackett, Mayer & Warner, (2004) Sukhodolsky, Golub, Stone & Orban, (2005) Weiner & Miller, (2006) (Bauman & Pero, 2011;Eisner, 2012;Weiner et al., 2013) . Casas et al., 2015) Goleman , (1995) Rigby, 2002;Sullivan & Cleary, 2004;Benitez & ;2013 ‫�اة،‬ � � ‫و�لق�س‬ Justicia, 2006;Burmaster, 2007;Storey & Slaby, 2008;James, . 2010;Ndlovu, 2013;Smith, 2014;Wijtenburg, 2015) ‫أنه:‬ ‫با‬ ‫�ملدر�سي‬ ‫�لتنمر‬ Dewey, (2015) Moon, (1996) ...
... Furthermore, León, Gozalo, and Polo (2012) affirm that cooperative learning techniques that are implemented in education centres reduce aggression in general, and above all, the social exclusion of students. In light of the foregoing, humanistic education is a valid option in order to reduce the cases of bullying and to improve the situation in education centres (Garaigordóbil and Oñederra 2010;Casas, Ortega-Ruiz, and Del Rey 2015;Lucas-Molina et al. 2015; Save the Children 2016; Zych et al. 2018). ...
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Cyberbullying, which is a scourge within modern society, consists of assaulting and mistreating victims via new technologies, causing serious damage. In this study, we shall analyse the prevalence of cyberbullying according to gender, education centre, and academic year in two education centres of Spain. The sample was comprised of 227 Spanish primary and secondary school students. A non-experimental study, ex post facto, was conducted as a descriptive study by way of single measurement within a single group. The Cyberbullying Test has been adopted as the main instrument for the study. The statistical analysis was carried out by way of IBM software SPSS® 22.0. The internal reliability of the instruments used was analysed by means of Cronbach’s alpha coefficient. The results reveal that the cyberbullying conduct that is most perpetrated, suffered, and witnessed by adolescents is the sending of offensive and insulting messages, that girls are more often the victims, and that during early adolescence, the cases of cyberbullying increase with the age of the adolescents. We consider that humanistic education is the remedy for helping to reduce the cases of bullying and cyberbullying among adolescents.
... A fi n de profundizar en las conductas que se desencadenan a partir de los factores del carácter, en la hipótesis 2 se esperaba que la resiliencia predijese la victimización, como ya sucediera en casos de ciberbullying (Navarro et al., 2018). Estos hallazgos dan soporte a los autores que sugieren incluir en los programas de prevención del bullying materias relacionadas con la gestión de las emociones (Casas et al., 2015). Además se propuso como hipótesis que la identidad moral predeciría negativamente las conductas de acoso. ...
... Taking into account that was demonstrated a significant impact of the violence and the school climate in family dynamics and the quality of life, that the structure of the educational system contributes to the formation of patterns of social interaction and the establishment of routines, and that adolescents are between 6 and 8 h daily in the institutions, it is proposed to build the school as a space that transcends the academic training and include other areas of human development through psychosocial interventions in the following lines: (1) Promote students as ''social referent'' that may influence the behavior of other, following theories of human behavior that suggest that individuals attend to the behavior of certain people in their community to understand what is socially normative and adjust their own behavior (Paluck, Shepherd, & Aronow, 2016), (2) to encourage the training of teachers and the continuous updating in cognitive and emotional tools to promote school life and prevent episodes of bullying, since it has been described that a lack of interest among teachers leads to greater leniency toward aggression, and this makes some students feel more vulnerable while at the same time giving aggressors the impression that their behavior is implicitly accepted (Casas, Ortega-Ruiz, & Del Rey, 2015); and (3) articulate in the formative task to the social network and the family because they have been described benefits for adolescents, teachers, and the family itself (Carlisle, Stanley, & Kemple, 2005); additionally, the achievements in the school are not invalidated through family dysfunction and the negative social environment. ...
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The purpose of this study was to develop a predictive population model with respect to quality of life, school violence, and family dynamics in adolescent students from Medellín, Colombia. Cross-sectional, explanatory study was realized with 3460 adolescents using probability sampling for selection. Structural equation modeling was performed. The results of this study showed that the quality of life of adolescents is determined based on physical health, psychology, leisure time, relationship with parents, peer support, and perception of academic well-being. School violence negatively affects quality of life; bullying is the factor with the least predictive capacity, and relationship with teachers is the most predictive factor. The improvement of family dynamics is associated with an improvement in quality of life. The results show lines of action to guide the design of intersectoral and interdisciplinary policies aimed at family dynamics and the school environment as primary support networks for improving adolescents’ quality of life.
... In the same direction Beltrán-Catalán, et al. [79] recommend further research on how emotional intelligence can help in the face of victimization. In fact, the results of Casas, et al. [80] identified as predictors of victimization factors such as the low ability to distinguish one's emotions at any given time and some people's low perception of their ability to replace their negative emotions with more positive ones. Considering these recommendations, the relationships of resilience with school engagement [81], and our results, we propose that formulas be included in the subject of PE to make students more resilient. ...
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The main objective of this study was to analyze student-perceived teaching styles’ power to predict students’ resilience and the emergence of bullying behaviors in physical education class. A total of 537 students of both sexes, between 11 and 15 years of age, from primary and secondary schools in the province of Alicante (Spain), participated in the study. The design of the study was cross-sectional. The results showed that bullying was positively predicted by students’ perceptions of a more controlling style and negatively by a greater perception of an autonomy-supportive style in physical education classes. Victimization was negatively predicted by greater resilience and positively by students’ perception of a teacher’s more controlling style. Finally, the mediation analysis showed that the perception of autonomy support indirectly and negatively predicted victimization, with resilience acting as a mediator. These findings provide useful information for physical education teachers interested in preventing bullying, and have important practical implications about the teaching style recommended for this purpose.
... En segundo lugar, es posible que la intervención se hubiese beneficiado de la implicación del profesorado y de las familias. Se sabe, por ejemplo, que los programas de intervención dirigidos a mejorar las habilidades de los padres son efectivos para mejorar la capacidad de los niños de regular sus emociones y disminuir la agresividad reactiva (Bookhout et al., 2018); también, que la percepción del alumnado sobre la implicación del profesorado en las relaciones positivas de la comunidad escolar es importante para evitar la victimización den situaciones de bullying (Casas, Ortega-Ruiz, & Del Rey, 2015). Finalmente, los contenidos implementados no incluyen la ciberagresividad. ...
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Se llevó a cabo una intervención educativa en 2.º curso de secundaria para mejorar la convivencia y reducir la agresividad. Los 64 participantes (media de edad = 13.57 años; DE = 0.35), divididos en un grupo control y otro de intervención, respondieron a un pretest y un postest para evaluar el cambio en el clima escolar, la empatía, la desconexión moral y la agresividad. Se realizaron 11 sesiones de intervención grupales para trabajar las habilidades socioemocionales y morales del alumnado. Los resultados muestran una correlación negativa entre la desconexión moral y la agresividad total en el pretest (r = -0.526; p < 0.001) y el postest (r = -0.463; p < 0.001). Además, existió una correlación entre el cambio observado en la agresividad impulsiva y el cambio en la subescala de fantasía de la empatía (r = -0.326; p = 0.01). Sin embargo, la intervención no fue efectiva para reducir la agresividad ni para mejorar la empatía o la desconexión moral. Además, empeoró el clima escolar en ambos grupos (pretest: Z = -2.132; p = 0.033; postest: Z = -3.473; p < 0.001). Finalmente, se discuten las implicaciones para el diseño de programas de intervención socioemocionales y morales.
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Resumen La intervención contra el ciberacoso entre escolares y otros riesgos asociados al uso inapropiado de las TIC y las redes sociales, es una importante demanda social. El programa «Asegúrate» pretende facilitar la labor docente en dicha intervención. El presente trabajo da cuenta del impacto de este programa entre quienes han mostrado ser menos sensibles en otros programas: los ciberagresores. Concretamente, se analiza su impacto en la prevalencia de agresión en ciberacoso y acoso escolar, así como en sexting y uso abusivo de Internet y redes sociales. La evaluación del programa se desarrolló con un total de 479 estudiantes (54,9% chicas) de Educación Secundaria Obligatoria (edad M=13,83. DT=1,40) mediante una metodología cuasi-experimental, con dos mediciones a lo largo del tiempo. Los instrumentos utilizados fueron el «European Cyberbullying Intervention Project Questionnaire», el «European Bullying Intervention Project Questionnaire», el «Cuestio-nario de Experiencias Relacionadas con Internet» y dos ítems sobre implicación en sexting. Los resultados muestran que, en ausencia de intervención, la implicación en ciberagresión, sexting y la dimensión intraper-sonal del uso abusivo de Internet y redes sociales aumenta mientras que, con intervención, dichas implica-ciones disminuyen. Asimismo, se evidencia una disminución significativa de la intensidad de la agresión y ciberagresión en ciberagresores. Por tanto, se puede afirmar que el programa resulta efectivo tanto para disminuir la prevalencia de agresiones y ciberagresiones como la implicación en otros fenómenos considera-dos factores de riesgo del ciberacoso.
Chapter
Based on theoretical frameworks and existing literature that highlight parental and teacher influences on the peer ecology and victimization, this chapter addresses how powerful socializing agents such as teachers and parents play critical roles in the experience of peer victimization and defending behaviors. The chapter outlines the mechanisms by which parents and teachers exert their influence, instill prosocial and anti-bullying values and beliefs, and model empathic and caring behaviors. The review points to many practical implications and future research directions. Considering alarming rates of peer victimization among LGBTQ+ youth, the authors highlight the role of teachers and parents and challenges specific to this vulnerable population.
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Previous research has identified the main predictors of being a victim of school bullying. This study focused on the phenomenon of school bullying and its relationship with self-perceived emotional intelligence. The main aim was to analyze the mediating effect of emotional attention, clarity, and repair in relation to school victimization. The sample was made up of 822 primary school pupils from 10 public schools. Data were collected through self-reports, exploring the profile of victims of school bullying, and the dimensions of self-perceived emotional intelligence (PEI). A multivariate analysis and multinomial regression showed a relationship between the two variables; the probability of being a victim of school bullying was 5.14 times higher among pupils with low clarity, 2.72 times higher among pupils with low repair, and 2.62 times higher among pupils with excessive attention. The results demonstrated that the better their emotional regulation and understanding, the less likely pupils are to be victims of school bullying. This confirmed that adequate emotional attention and excellent emotional clarity and repair are protective factors against victimization.
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In the present study we analyze the relationship between the bullying implication of students of Secondary Education (SE) and the level of physical activity measured with accelerometry. To this end, 54 students from two ESO centers aged between 12 and 18 years (M = 14.26, Sd = 1.34) were evaluated through the European Bullying Intervention Project Questionnaire (EBIP-Q, 2016) to assess the involvement in bullying and, ActiGraph GT3X accelerometers, to assess the level of physical activity. The results show us that the average time invested in performing light Physical Activity (PA) is 1560.89 minutes in a week (Sd = 376.67), as well as in performing moderate PA is 358.87 (118.38) minutes / week and 451.89 (164.33) minutes / week in vigorous PA. These data are analyzed taking into account that 22.2% of the sample has involvement in bullying (victim: 16.7%, aggressor: 3.7% and victimized aggressor: 1.9%), although there are no significant correlations between the different levels of PA and the different roles of implication. Likewise, it should be noted in the ANOVA conducted between the involvement in bullying and the different levels of PA, that the F is significantly higher than 1 in the activity levels light (p = .029) and moderate (p = .020), by what there is no equality of means. As conclusions, it should be noted that according to our sample of the study, which is physically active, it has levels of involvement of bullying lower than other studies. Although we must indicate that after the results obtained, we cannot verify that attending to the practice recommendations of PA can protect against the direct implication of bullying.
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El contexto digital y las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación (TIC) avanzan a una gran velocidad y, aunque presentan múltiples beneficios, sus posibles riesgos también repercuten en la convivencia de los centros educativos. Entre ellos, el cyberbullying es un fenómeno de gran interés, pero sigue siendo necesario comprobar la eficacia de intervenciones basadas en la evidencia para prevenirlo. Por ello, el presente estudio se propuso analizar si es posible disminuir el cyberbullying con una intervención psicoeducativa implementada por el propio profesorado, teniendo en cuenta las diferencias según el género, el curso y los roles de implicación. La muestra estuvo formada por 4.575 estudiantes (48,50 % chicas; 12-16 años). Los resultados muestran que, con escaso coste y sin requerir una gran especialización, es posible que los centros educativos realicen una intervención psicoeducativa eficaz para la disminución tanto de la «ciberagresión» como de la «cibervictimización». Se proponen estrategias y orientaciones eficaces para el desarrollo de intervenciones psicoeducativas basadas en la evidencia.
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In the present study we analyze the relationship between the bullying implication of students of Secondary Education (SE) and the level of physical activity measured with accelerometry. To this end, 54 students from two ESO centers aged between 12 and 18 years (M = 14.26, Sd = 1.34) were evaluated through the European Bullying Intervention Project Questionnaire (EBIP-Q, 2016) to assess the involvement in bullying and, ActiGraph GT3X accelerometers, to assess the level of physical activity. The results show us that the average time invested in performing light Physical Activity (PA) is 1560.89 minutes in a week (Sd = 376.67), as well as in performing moderate PA is 358.87 (118.38) minutes / week and 451.89 (164.33) minutes / week in vigorous PA. These data are analyzed taking into account that 22.2% of the sample has involvement in bullying (victim: 16.7%, aggressor: 3.7% and victimized aggressor: 1.9%), although there are no significant correlations between the different levels of PA and the different roles of implication. Likewise, it should be noted in the ANOVA conducted between the involvement in bullying and the different levels of PA, that the F is significantly higher than 1 in the activity levels light (p = .029) and moderate (p = .020), by what there is no equality of means. As conclusions, it should be noted that according to our sample of the study, which is physically active, it has levels of involvement of bullying lower than other studies. Although we must indicate that after the results obtained, we cannot verify that attending to the practice recommendations of PA can protect against the direct implication of bullying.
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One hundred fifty preservice teachers and 25 in-service teachers were surveyed to examine whether mental representations of relationships, confidence about managing bullying, empathy toward victims, and emotional expressiveness were associated with their peer victimization-related beliefs. Teachers' confidence about managing bullying was positively associated with their prosocial peer beliefs. In addition, the belief that the distress that children experience as a result of being victimized should be dismissed was negatively related to teachers' positive representations. Teachers' reports of positive emotional expressiveness were negatively related to normative, assertive, avoidance, and dismissive victimization-related beliefs and positively related to prosocial peer beliefs. In contrast, teachers' reports of negative emotional expressiveness were negatively related to prosocial peer beliefs and avoidance victimization-related beliefs. In-service teachers reported slightly higher positive expressiveness than preservice teachers did. Minority teachers reported higher scores for positive expressiveness, empathy, and lower negative classroom expressiveness than nonminority teachers did. Implications of these findings for practice are discussed.
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Life satisfaction is a cognitive and stable construct that comprises the subjective well-being and an accurate indicator of the perception of life circumstances among adolescents. Previous studies demonstrate that adolescents’ life satisfaction is associated with developmental outcomes and positive psychological variables as well as protection against risk factors, such as bullying. Several international studies demonstrate that adolescents’ life satisfaction can be negatively affected by bullying; consequently this behavior has become a matter of public concern. Our study hypothesized that the perception of safety plays a protective role against bullying and therefore maintains life satisfaction levels in adolescents. We examined a cohort of 1955 Chilean and 1789 Brazilian adolescents that participated in the International Survey of Children’s Well-Being (ISCWeB) 3rd Wave in Latin America. Using multiple regression and moderation analyses we found that the interaction victim × feeling safety predicts adolescents life satisfaction. Hence, adolescents that report high victim scores and high safety also report high life satisfaction levels, versus adolescents that report high victim scores and low safety that report lower levels of life satisfaction; suggesting a protective role of the perception of safety against victim scores. Our results confirm the importance and the protective role of the perception of safety (i.e. “feeling safe”) on adolescents’ life satisfaction. Particularly, we provide evidence that supports the promotion of safer environments at schools, within families, and in our communities in Latin America.
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Resumen El bullying y el cyberbullying son comportamientos violentos extremadamente dañinos, presentes en las escuelas. Una línea de investigación prometedora se centra en las competencias sociales y emocionales en relación con el bullying y el cyberbullying. El objetivo de este estudio es describir las competencias sociales y emocionales de adolescentes españoles en relación con la edad y el sexo, y comprobar si el nivel de competencias sociales y emocionales se relaciona con diferentes roles de bullying y de cyberbullying. Este estudio se lleva a cabo con una muestra representativa de 2139 adolescentes matriculados en 22 escuelas. Se encuentran diferencias en competencias sociales y emocionales por sexo y edad. Los agresores y agresores victimizados de bullying y cyberbullying puntúan bajo en competencias sociales y emocionales. No hay diferencias significativas entre las víctimas y los adolescentes no involucrados. Controlando el sexo y la edad, baja conciencia social y comportamiento prosocial están independientemente relacionados con ser agresor de bullying y con el rol de agresor victimizado. Puntuaciones bajas en la toma de decisiones responsables están relacionadas con ser agresor victimizado y ciberagresor victimizado. Estos resultados sugieren que las competencias sociales y emocionales pueden proteger a los adolescentes del bullying y del cyberbullying, pero estudios futuros son necesarios para establecer posibles relaciones causales entre estas competencias, el bullying y el cyberbullying.
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The emotional intelligence construct has been introduced in recent years to the field of educational psychology. However, only a few researches have examined this topic in relation to social relationship dynamics in school contexts. Some previous studies have shown that meta-mood about one's own emotions, perceived emotional intelligence (PEI), can distinguish students involved in bullying from those not involved. Specifically, this study aims to look further into this issue by focusing on cyberbullying situations where bullying is mediated by the use of information and communication technologies. Participants were 5759 adolescent students from Andalucia (South of Spain). The results show that PEI can discriminate between the roles young people play in traditional bullying but not for cyberbullying. These results are discussed according to possible differences in emotional management across bullying and cyberbullying.
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From a social-ecological perspective, bullying exists within the larger context of school climate. In this study, 2,240 middle and high school students participated in a districtwide effort to assess the prevalence and effects of bullying and cyberbullying, as well as perceptions of school climate. Students reported positive school climate perceptions, although bullying was a prevalent occurrence. Types of bullying, effects on students, and coping strategies used varied across sex and school level, with girls reporting more experiences with cyberbullying than boys. Students involved in bullying as perpetrators, victims, or both had more negative perceptions of school climate, although this varied by specific aspect of climate studied. Chronicity of victimization also related to differences in perceptions of all aspects of school climate. Findings highlight the importance of understanding bullying within the larger context of school climate, with implications for prevention and intervention efforts.
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The aim of the present study is to assess reasons for school non-attendance including somatic symptoms, subjective health complaints, truancy, and school refusal and to investigate the relationship of these with gender, grade, and self-reported special educational needs. The study is based on a self-reported questionnaire distributed to students recruited from seven municipalities in Norway. The total sample included 5,465 students in the sixth to tenth grades. The measurement model yielded indices of good fit, and the four suggested dimensions of reasons for school non-attendance were supported. Subjective health complaints emerged as the most commonly reported reason for school non-attendance, whereas 6.2% of students reported that their non-attendance “quite often” was due to truancy- or school refusal-related reasons. There was a tendency for students who report special educational needs to report more truancy reasons and for females to report more school refusal reasons. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
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Adolescence is a critical period of life during which significant psychosocial adjustment occurs and in which emotional intelligence plays an essential role. This article provides validity evidence for the Trait Meta-Mood Scale–24 (TMMS-24) scores based on an item response theory (IRT) approach. A sample of 2,693 Spanish adolescents (M = 16.52 years and SD = 1.38), of whom 51.1% were boys, completed the TMMS-24. The three-dimensional structure of the TMMS-24 was confirmed, showing adequate psychometric properties for assessing adolescents. With one exception, the IRT analyses showed that the items have a reasonable fit to Samejima’s Gradual Response Model. In addition, all three dimensions exhibit the best measurement precision around the mean of the latent trait levels. Again, with one exception (Item 23), all items have a moderate to very high discrimination power.
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Abstract. The aim of this research was to explore the influence of Perceived Emotional Intelligence (PEI) on aggression dimensions (Physical Aggression, Verbal Aggression, Hostility, and Anger) above and beyond the effects of gender, age, and personality traits (Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, and Openness to Experience), as well as the moderating role of PEI on the relationship between personality and aggressive behavior, among young adults. The Trait Meta-Mood Scale, the Big-Five IInventory, and the Aggression Questionnaire were administered to a 313 Spanish community sample, comprised of both males (39.0%) and females (61.0%), ranging from 14 to 69 years old (X = 24.74; SD = 9.27). Controlling the effects of age, gender, and personality, PEI dimensions (Attention, Clarity and Repair) accounted for 3% of the variance (p < .05) in Verbal Aggression and Hostility. Interaction analysis showed that all PEI subscales moderated the relationship between four out of the Big-Five personality dimensions (Extraversion, Agreeableness, Neuroticism, and Openness to Experience) and the aggression dimensions. Particularly, the interaction between Attention and Extraversion and between Clarity and Neuroticism were significant predictors of Total Aggression (b = .67, t(313) = 2.35, p < .05; b = –.71, t(313) = –2.50, p < .05). The results show evidence of the predictive and incremental validity of PEI dimensions on aggressive behavior among young adults and of the moderating role of PEI on the personalityaggression relationship.
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Although emotional intelligence is related to psychological and social adjustment, currently there is not any tool that enables valid and reliable measurement of such construct in the Basque adolescent population. The TMMS-23 is a wellestablished assessment tool of perceived emotional intelligence in adolescence that measures people’s beliefs and attitudes about their own emotional experience. The aim of this instrumental study was to adapt the TMMS-23 to the Basque culture. We examined the psychometric properties of the Basque TMMS-23 in a sample of 1,038 participants (ages ranging between 13 and 19). The results of the CFA corroborated the three-factor structure of the original scale (Attention to feelings, Clarity of feelings, and Mood repair). Moreover, these dimensions showed adequate internal consistency and temporal stability and correlated among themselves in the expected direction. The study also showed some evidence of convergent validity and it provided external validation data based on differences in the TMMS-23 dimensions according to participants’ selfconcept, gender, and age.
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Peer victimization is associated with increased internalizing problems and reduced school adjustment. Research into the main effect and the buffering effect of social support on these internalizing problems has produced inconsistent findings, and none has tested the buffering effect of social support on school adjustment. Moreover, recent studies have underlined the importance of taking various sources of social support into account. This study aims to test the relationships between peer victimization and school disaffection, the moderation effect of parental, peer and teacher social support, and the mediation effect of depression. Four hundred seventh and eighth graders participated in this study. Students filled out a questionnaire assessing peer victimization, depression, academic self-efficacy, school disaffection, and perceived social support from parents, peers, and teachers. Peer victimization was negatively associated with self-efficacy and positively associated with school disaffection. Regression analyses showed a main negative effect of social support (especially teacher support) on depression and school disaffection and a positive effect on self-efficacy. No significant interactions emerged between victimization and social support or between sources of social support. Path analyses indicated that the effects of victimization on self-efficacy and school disaffection were fully mediated by depression, but that the effects of social support are partially independent of depression. Multigroup analyses indicated that these relationships were parallel among boys and girls. The results of this study are consistent with the main effect model of social support. They also highlight the importance of teacher support for school adjustment.
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We examined the relationship between perceived emotional intelligence (PEI), measured by the Trait Meta-Mood Scale (TMMS), and psychophysiological measures of adaptive coping. The TMMS assesses perceived ability to (a) attend to moods (Attention), (b) discriminate clearly among moods (Clarity), and (c) regulate moods (Repair). Study 1 showed significant positive associations between PEI and psychological and interpersonal functioning. In Study 2, skill at mood Repair was associated with less passive coping and perceptions of repeated laboratory stressors as less threatening; Clarity was related to greater increases in negative mood, but lower cortisol release during repeated stress. In Study 3, Repair was associated with active coping and lower levels of rumination; Attention was associated with lowered cortisol and blood pressure responses to acute laboratory challenges. These findings suggest that psychophysiological responses to stress may be one potential mechanism underlying the relationship between emotional functioning and health.
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Bullying has come to be recognized as a pervasive problem in schools today. Frequently bullying is not immediately recognizedor viewed by classroom teachers as problematic behavior. As more students experience bullying, questions arise as to how well teachers understand the bullying dynamic and are aware of strategies for intervening when those behaviors occur. This article is designed to give teachers, administrators, and researchers a fundamental understanding of bullying behavior and strategies for intervening in schools and classrooms.
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An evaluation of the success of the evidence-based ConRed program, which addresses cyberbullying and other emerging problems linked with the use of the internet and seeks to promote a positive use of this new environment. The main aims of the ConRed program are a) to improve perceived control over information on the internet, b) to reduce the time dedicated to digital device usage, and c) to prevent and reduce cyberbullying. The impact of the program was evaluated with a quasi-experimental design with a sample of 893 students (595 experimental and 298 control). The results of the mixed repeated measures ANOVAs demonstrate that ConRed contributes to reducing cyberbullying and cyber-dependence, to adjusting the perception of information control, and to increasing the perception of safety at school.
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In this study we examined authoritative discipline theory, which posits that 2 complementary aspects of school climate—structure and support—are important for adolescents' safety in school. Using a statewide sample of over 7,300 ninth-grade students and 2,900 teachers randomly selected from 290 high schools, we showed, using hierarchical linear modeling, that consistent enforcement of school discipline (structure) and availability of caring adults (support) were associated with school safety. Structure and support were associated with less bullying and victimization after we controlled for size of school enrollment and the proportion of ethnic minority and low-income students. These findings suggest that discipline practices should not be polarized into a “get tough” versus “give support” debate because both structure and support contribute to school safety for adolescents. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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recently, we have begun to explore . . . [the] process of emotional contagion / people's conscious analyses give them a great deal of information about their social encounters / [people] can also focus their attention on their moment-to-moment emotional reactions to others, during their social encounters / this stream of reactions comes to them via their fleeting observations of others' faces, voices, postures, and instrumental behaviors / further, as they nonconsciously and automatically mimic their companions' fleeting expressions of emotion, people also may come to feel as their partners feel / by attending to the stream of tiny moment-to-moment reactions, people can gain a great deal of information on their own and their partners' emotional landscapes begin by defining emotion and emotional contagion and discussing several mechanisms that we believe might account for this phenomenon / review the evidence from a variety of disciplines that "primitive emotional contagion" exists / examine the role of individual differences in emotional contagion / outline some of the broad research questions researchers might profitably investigate (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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In this article, we revised the empirical articles carried out with the Trait Meta-Mood Scale (Salovey, Mayer, Goldman, Turvey, & Palfai, 1995), the first self-report measure to evaluate emotional intelligence (EI) based on Salovey and Mayer's model of emotional intelligence (1990; Mayer & Salovey, 1997). In short, a brief description of the measure and its Spanish adaptation is done. Moreover, the published findings since its development in 1995 from applied, clinical, experimental, and cross-cultural studies are reported. Furthermore, each dimension that composes the instrument along with its differential pattern as predictors of individual well-being is examined. Findings showed that individuals who pay medium-low attention to their own emotions, and score higher on emotional clarity and repair show better emotional adjustment on reviewed studies. Finally, we discuss potential improvements of the scale, further research, and the implications from the use of the instrument.
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Conceptions of teachers' authority and reported misconduct regarding 20 moral, conventional, personal, contextually conventional, and prudential issues were assessed in 120 fifth, seventh, ninth, and eleventh graders (mean ages = 10.66, 12.88, 15.04, and 17.25 years, respectively). Adolescents viewed moral, conventional, and prudential issues as legitimately subject to teachers' authority and personal issues as under personal jurisdiction, but they were equivocal about contextually conventional issues. Fifth graders judged all acts as more legitimately subject to teachers' authority, all rule violations as more negative, and personal and prudential issues as personal more than did older students. Conventional misconduct was more frequent and moral misconduct was less frequent than other rule violations, but both were greater among boys than girls. Adolescents' negative rule evaluations, fewer rules, greater dislike for school, poorer grades, and living in single- or step-parent families predicted teacher- and self-reported misconduct. Relations to previous research on conceptions of adult authority, school misconduct, and autonomy development are discussed.
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In recent years, innovative schools have developed courses in what has been termed emotional literacy, emotional intelligence, or emotional competence. This volume evaluates these developments scientifically, pairing the perspectives of psychologists with those of educators who offer valuable commentary on the latest research. It is an authoritative study that describes the scientific basis for our knowledge about emotion as it relates specifically to children, the classroom environment, and emotional literacy. Key topics include: historical perspectives on emotional intelligence neurological bases for emotional development the development of social skills and childhood socialization of emotion. Experts in psychology and education have long viewed thinking and feeling as polar opposites reason on the one hand, and passion on the other. And emotion, often labeled as chaotic, haphazard, and immature, has not traditionally been seen as assisting reason. All that changed in 1990, when Peter Salovey and John D. Mayer coined the term emotional intelligence as a challenge to the belief that intelligence is not based on processing emotion-laden information. Salovey and Mayer defined emotional intelligence as the ability to monitor one’s own and others’ feelings and emotions, to discriminate among them, and to use motivated scientists, educators, parents, and many others to consider the ways in which emotions themselves comprise an intelligent system. With this groundbreaking volume, invited contributors present cutting-edge research on emotions and emotional development in a manner useful to educators, psychologists, and anyone interested in the unfolding of emotions during childhood. In recent years, innovative schools have developed courses in “emotional literacy” that making; these classes teach children how to understand and manage their feelings and how to get along with one another. Many such programs have achieved national prominence, and preliminary scientific evaluations have shown promising results. Until recently, however, there has been little contact between educators developing these types of programs and psychologists studying the neurological underpinnings and development of human emotions. This unique book links theory and practice by juxtaposing scientific explanations of emotion with short commentaries from educators who elaborate on how these advances can be put to use in the classroom. Accessible and enlightening, Emotional Development and Emotional Intelligence provides ample evidence about emotional intelligence as well as sound information on the potential efficacy of educational programs based on this idea.
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This article presents a framework for emotional intelligence, a set of skills hypothesized to contribute to the accurate appraisal and expression of emotion in oneself and in others, the effective regulation of emotion in self and others, and the use of feelings to motivate, plan, and achieve in one's life. We start by reviewing the debate about the adaptive versus maladaptive qualities of emotion. We then explore the literature on intelligence, and especially social intelligence, to examine the place of emotion in traditional intelligence conceptions. A framework for integrating the research on emotion-related skills is then described. Next, we review the components of emotional intelligence. To conclude the review, the role of emotional intelligence in mental health is discussed and avenues for further investigation are suggested.
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The information given in this report should be used as a means of generating hypotheses and as a guide to development. Higher standard scores are associated with greater levels of emotional intelligence and better performance. 100 represents effective emotional functioning. Scores greater than 100 represent enhanced emotional functioning, and scores of less than 100 indicate areas that may be improved.
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Emotions have ubiquitous effects in human affairs. Vivian Gornick, in Fierce Attachments,^ recounts a typ-ical exchange with her mother. Gor-nick always begins these encounters with high hopes. "Somehow," de-spite her best intentions, the conver-sations always spiral downward: Today is promising, tremendously prom-ising I go to meet my mother. I'm flying. Flying! I want to give her some of this shiningness bursting in me, siphon into her my immense happiness at being alive. Just because she is my oldest inti-mate and at this moment I love every-body, even her. "Oh, Ma! What a day I've had," I say. "Tell me," she says. "Do you have the rent this month?" "Ma, listen ..." I say. "That review you wrote for the Times," she says. "Ifs for sure they'll pay you?" "Ma, stop it. Let me tell you what I've been feeling," I say. "Why aren't you wearing something warmer?" she cries. "It's nearly winter." The space inside begins to shimmer. The walls collapse inward. I feel breath-less. Swallow slowly, I say to myself, slowly. To my mother I say, "You do know how to say the right thing at the right time. Ifs remarkable, this gift of yours. It quite takes my breath away." But she doesn't get it. She doesn't loiow I'm being ironic. Nor does she Elaine Hatfield is a Professor of Psychology and Richard L. Rapson is a Professor of History at the Uni-versity of Hawaii. John T. Ca-cioppo is a Professor of Psychology at the Ohio State University. Ad-dress correspondence to Elaine Hatfield, 2430 Campus Rd., Honolulu, HI 96822; BITNET: psych@uhunix; INTERNET: psych@uhunix.uhcc.hawaii.edu. know she's wiping me out. She doesn't know I take her anxiety personally, feel annihilated by her depression. How can she know this? She doesn't even know I'm there. Were I to tell her that it's death to me, her not knowing I'm there, she would stare at me out of her eyes crowd-ing up with puzzled desolation, this young girl of seventy-seven, and she would cry angrily, "You don't under-stand! You have never understood!" (pp. 103-104)
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Background: School management, in Ireland and also internationally, are currently faced with the problem of peer aggression among students both in a traditional school context and in a cyber context. Although Irish school principals are obliged to implement policy and procedures to counter bullying among students, there is a need for guidance that relates specifically to cyber-based peer aggression.Purpose: The present research was conducted in order to assess Irish post-primary school principals’ methods of addressing both forms of peer aggression through school policy and procedures in the absence of cyber-specific guidelines.Sample: A sample of 45 post-primary school principals in Ireland responded to the research.Design and methods: A questionnaire study was undertaken in spring 2011 and a broad sampling frame was applied, with members of the National Association of Principals and Deputy Principals (N=584) invited to respond to the research online. Following a low response rate, 12% of the entire population of post-primary school principals (N=712) were invited to respond via a postal survey. Although both quantitative and qualitative data were collected, the present research approach is predominantly qualitative. Quantitative data were examined using descriptive statistics, whilst thematic analysis of qualitative data was conducted.Results: It emerged that all respondents implemented policy to counter traditional bullying and the majority (32 of 44 respondents) addressed cyberbullying within this policy. It was evident that a number of respondents were attempting to provide training for pupils, parents and teachers in relation to traditional bullying, cyberbullying and cyber safety. However, there was great disparity with regard to the training approaches. With respect to cyberbullying specifically, principals indicated a need for greater support from the Department of Education and Skills in relation to training, resources, guidance and information.Conclusions: It was evident that further guidance and support is required from the Department of Education and Skills to assist Irish post-primary school principals in countering cyberbullying. The current research also had implications for conducting research online with school personnel.
Article
The study of emotional intelligence (EI) and its association with psychological maladjustment in adolescence is a new and active area of research. However, the diverse range of EI measurements and aspects of psychological maladjustment examined make it difficult to synthesize the findings and apply them to practice. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review to summarize the relationship between EI and adolescents' emotional problems, eating disorder symptoms, addictions, and maladaptive coping. Using English and Spanish keywords, we identified 32 studies that found a negative association between EI and internalizing problems, depression, and anxiety. EI was also associated with less substance abuse and with better coping strategies. These associations differed slightly depending on whether EI was evaluated based on self-reporting or by testing maximum performance. We highlight methodological limitations in the literature on EI and adolescence, and we discuss potentially important areas for future research.
Article
Aggressive behaviors in schools and bullying behaviors amongst children are a serious problem in the school context. As a consequence of an aggressive atmosphere in the classroom, learning processes are disturbed and children are less likely to experience pleasure when attending school. Teachers face a big challenge as a result. As we know from previous research, teachers have different possibilities when handling incidents of aggressive behaviors and bullying in their classrooms. The present study sought to examine correlates (e.g. attitudes toward aggression) of ways of handling bullying in German teachers. Factor analysis indicated a two-factor solution with respect to ways of handling bullying (Factor 1: Ignoring vs. Taking Action, Factor 2: Attribution of Responsibility) and it was demonstrated that attitudes toward aggression and beliefs about the changeability of aggressive behaviors are correlates of the different strategies that teachers use. The implications for the school context and for teacher preparation are discussed.
Article
Objectives The aim of this paper is to respond to the commentary of Peter K. Smith, Christina Salmivalli, and Helen Cowie (Journal of Experimental Criminology, 2012), who raise concerns regarding some of the findings of our systematic review and meta-analyses on the effectiveness of bullying prevention programs. They target three findings in particular: (1) the significant association of ‘Work with Peers’ with greater victimization; (2) the significant association of ‘Disciplinary Methods’ with less bullying perpetration and victimization; and (3) the age variations in effectiveness, suggesting larger effect sizes for older age students. Methods We provide explicit information and further detailed analyses on the relationship between these features and effect sizes, including heterogeneity tests and results from weighted regression analyses. For one element in particular (work with peers), we present further research findings from evaluations conducted by Smith, Salmivalli, and Cowie (and also findings from other independent researchers) which support our previous findings. New within-program analyses to examine variations in effect sizes with the age of the students are also presented. Results Evaluations conducted by Smith, Salmivalli and Cowie (and by other independent researchers) indicate the same research conclusions: although peer support schemes appear effective based on attitudinal surveys, these schemes are not related to actual levels of bullying or victimization and, in fact, are quite often related to an increase in bullying and victimization. Our definition of ‘disciplinary methods’ did not include the zero-tolerance approach or any type of harsh discipline as suggested in the commentary. In all relevant cases, ‘disciplinary methods’ included sanctions within a warm and loving framework, following the Olweus bullying prevention guidelines. While most programs that utilized firm disciplinary methods were inspired by Olweus, the relationship between disciplinary methods and less victimization was not driven by the Olweus program (which was not related to the victimization effect size). Larger effect sizes (i.e. reductions in bullying and victimization) for programs implemented with older students is a robust result also found in a more recent systematic review regarding the effects of anti-bullying programs on bystander intervention. In within-program analyses, most results suggested that effect sizes were greater for younger students, but these results were driven by the less controlled evaluations. The most controlled evaluation (randomized experiment) provided the opposite result. Conclusions More research is clearly needed on the effectiveness of bullying prevention programs with students of different ages, and we also recommend randomized experiments to assess the importance of different intervention components.
Article
The aim of this study was to investigate whether different aspects of morality predict traditional bullying and cyberbullying behaviour in a similar way. Students between 12 and 19 years participated in an online study. They reported on the frequency of different traditional and cyberbullying behaviours andcompleted self-report measures on moral emotions and moral values. A scenario approach with open questions was used to assess morally disengaged justifications. Tobit regressions indicated that a lack of moral values and a lack of remorse predicted both traditional and cyberbullying behaviour. Traditional bullying was strongly predictive for cyberbullying. A lack of moral emotions and moral values predicted cyberbullying behaviour even when controlling for traditional bullying. Morally disengaged justifications were only predictive for traditional, but not for cyberbullying behaviour. The findings show that moral standards and moral affect are important to understand individual differences in engagement in both traditional and cyberforms of bullying.
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This article examines the relation between concepts of emotional giftedness and emotional intelligence, and attempts to relate a person's level of emotional intelligence to the actual ways they cope with challenging social situations. Emotional intelligence and social behavior were explored in a pilot study with adolescents. Emotional intelligence was measured with the Multifactor Emotional Intelligence Scale (Mayer, Salovey, & Caruso, 1997), an ability‐based measure of emotional perception, facilitation, understanding, and management. General intelligence was measured with the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Scale (Dunn & Dunn, 1981). Each of the 11 adolescents also answered questions about how he or she had handled a difficult social encounter. Those with higher emotional intelligence were better able to identify their own and others’ emotions in situations, use that information to guide their actions, and resist peer pressure than others.
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SUMMARY Measures of multivariate skewness and kurtosis are developed by extending certain studies on robustness of the t statistic. These measures are shown to possess desirable properties. The asymptotic distributions of the measures for samples from a multivariate normal population are derived and a test of multivariate normality is proposed. The effect of nonnormality on the size of the one-sample Hotelling's T2 test is studied empirically with the help of these measures, and it is found that Hotelling's T2 test is more sensitive to the measure of skewness than to the measure of kurtosis.
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Disruptive and potentially unsafe classroom behaviours such as threatening, bullying, verbal and/or physical assaulting present challenges not only for teachers, aides and other students in the classroom, but potentially for all others in the building as well as the families of those students/pupils involved. These behaviours can greatly influence a student's ability to achieve academic success as well as place undue stress and risk on others in the milieu.Discovering the cause for the behaviours and then developing a plan to help these young people succeed emotionally will greatly increase the probability for improved academic achievement. This chapter will examine the core principles of the Therapeutic Crisis Intervention for Schools (TCIS) programme and present a range of evidence-based responses designed to help build upon and further develop staff skills in preventing disruptive behaviours, de-escalating potential disruptive behaviours, and teach students how to develop less disruptive and more appropriate responses to their lack of or inability to self-regulate.This chapter will contend that the foundation for all interventions and responses presupposes an accurate assessment of risk for the youth(s), the adults, and the environment. That any risk assessment must consider the internal (effects of trauma, ability to self-regulate, cultural issues) and external (organizational culture/climate, level of restrictiveness, caring community, quality of instruction) setting conditions for the youth.The TCIS programme is embedded in the five domains for effective crisis management; leadership and building support, social work and clinical services participation (social workers, psychologists, therapists, nurses), building administration and post crisis response, training and competency standards, and data-driven incident monitoring and feedback.
Article
Teachers play a critical role in protecting students from harm in schools, but little is known about their attitudes toward addressing problems like bullying. Previous studies have rarely used theoretical frameworks, making it difficult to advance this area of research. Using the Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM), we examined the association between teachers' perceived threat and perceived efficacy and their likelihood of intervening in bullying situations. We also explored whether the school level at which teachers taught (elementary vs secondary), and their years of experience of working at the school moderated these associations. Data come from 1062 teachers who completed an anonymous Web-based survey regarding their attitudes and responses to bullying. Structural equation modeling and multiple group analyses were used to test the hypothesized relationships and for effect modification by teacher characteristics. Perceived threat and efficacy were associated with teachers' likelihood of intervening in bullying situations but varied based on teachers' years of experience at their school. For less experienced teachers, perceived efficacy, but not perceived threat, was strongly associated with likelihood of intervening. For more experienced teachers, both perceived threat and perceived efficacy were significantly associated. Finally, the associations did not differ by the school level. This is one of few studies examining possible predictors of teachers' likelihood of intervening in bullying situations. EPPM may inform the development of bullying interventions aiming to increase the likelihood that teachers will intervene in bullying situations.
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The RULER Approach ("RULER") is a setting-level, social and emotional learning program that is grounded in theory and evidence. RULER is designed to modify the quality of classroom social interactions so that the climate becomes more supportive, empowering, and engaging. This is accomplished by integrating skill-building lessons and tools so that teachers and students develop their emotional literacy. In a clustered randomized control trial, we tested the hypothesis that RULER improves the social and emotional climate of classrooms. Depending upon condition assignment, 62 schools either integrated RULER into fifth- and sixth-grade English language arts (ELA) classrooms or served as comparison schools, using their standard ELA curriculum only. Multi-level modeling analyses showed that compared to classrooms in comparison schools, classrooms in RULER schools were rated as having higher degrees of warmth and connectedness between teachers and students, more autonomy and leadership among students, and teachers who focused more on students' interests and motivations. These findings suggest that RULER enhances classrooms in ways that can promote positive youth development.
Recent legislation enacted across the United States mandates schools to intervene and improve the reporting system of school bullying. Although the laws are an extension of safe school mandates, restoring justice in schools has taken a top priority. The lack of intensity of current anti-bullying programs and educators underestimating the gravity of bullying and its long-term effects on victims is problematic. In addition, little emphasis is being placed on understanding the research base of children who bully others. A review of the criminology and psychiatric research provides insight into the behavior of the bully. Studies demonstrate that bullying in school is a "gateway" behavior toward future criminal behavior; bullying will persist if professionals do not buy into the gravity of chronic child aggressors. Remediation directed at young children is essential, concurrent with the provision of teacher training programs focused on understanding the common behavioral disorders of childhood. A look at the existing research provides direction toward meeting the significant needs of children who bully others and perpetuate violence in schools and into adulthood.
Article
Research that partners with youth and community stakeholders increases contextual relevance and community buy-in and therefore maximizes the chance for intervention success. Concept mapping is a mixed-method participatory research process that accesses the input of the community in a collaborative manner. After a school-wide health needs assessment at a low-income, minority/immigrant K-8 school identified bullying and obesity as the most important health issues, concept mapping was used to identify and prioritize specific strategies to address these two areas. Stakeholders including 160 K-8 students, 33 college students working in the school, 35 parents, 20 academic partners, and 22 teachers/staff brainstormed strategies to reduce and prevent obesity and bullying. A smaller group of stakeholders worked individually to complete an unstructured sorting of these strategies into groups of similar ideas, once for obesity and again for bullying. Multidimensional scaling and cluster analysis was applied to the sorting data to produce a series of maps that illustrated the stakeholders' conceptual thinking about obesity and bullying prevention strategies. The maps for both obesity and bullying organized specific strategies into themes that included education, parental role, teacher/school supervision, youth role, expert/professional role, and school structure/support.
Article
The aim of this research was to investigate if and how the group process of bullying can be examined using a social network perspective. In two studies, bullying was investigated using a social network version of the participant-role questionnaire. Study 1 explored the social network structure of one classroom in detail. The findings provide evidence that ingroup and outgroup effects are important in explaining the group process of bullying, and shed new light on defending, suggesting that not only victims are defended. In line with Study 1, Study 2, using data from 494 children in 25 elementary school classes (M age = 10.5), revealed that victims as well as bullies were defended by their ingroup members. The social network perspective can be integrated in antibullying interventions by using it to inform teachers about the positive and negative relations among students, and the group structure of the classroom. Aggr. Behav. 38:494-509, 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Article
This paper examines the role of trait emotional intelligence ('trait EI') in academic performance and in deviant behavior at school on a sample of 650 pupils in British secondary education (mean age %16.5 years). Trait EI moderated the relationship between cognitive ability and academic performance. In addi-tion, pupils with high trait EI scores were less likely to have had unauthorized absences and less likely to have been excluded from school. Most trait EI effects persisted even after controlling for personality var-iance. It is concluded that the constellation of emotion-related self-perceived abilities and dispositions that the construct of trait EI encompasses is implicated in academic performance and deviant behavior, with effects that are particularly relevant to vulnerable or disadvantaged adolescents.
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The response styles theory (Nolen-Hoeksema, 1991) was proposed to explain the insidious relationship between rumination and depression. We review the aspects of the response styles theory that have been well-supported, including evidence that rumination exacerbates depression, enhances negative thinking, impairs problem solving, interferes with instrumental behavior, and erodes social support. Next, we address contradictory and new findings. Specifically, rumination appears to more consistently predict the onset of depression rather than the duration, but rumination interacts with negative cognitive styles to predict the duration of depressive symptoms. Contrary to original predictions, the use of positive distractions has not consistently been correlated with lower levels of depressive symptoms in correlational studies, although dozens of experimental studies show positive distractions relieve depressed mood. Further, evidence now suggests that rumination is associated with psychopathologies in addition to depression, including anxiety, binge eating, binge drinking, and self-harm. We discuss the relationships between rumination and worry and between rumination and other coping or emotion-regulation strategies. Finally, we highlight recent research on the distinction between rumination and more adaptive forms of self-reflection, on basic cognitive deficits or biases in rumination, on its neural and genetic correlates, and on possible interventions to combat rumination. © 2008 Association for Psychological Science.
Article
This article examines the adequacy of the “rules of thumb” conventional cutoff criteria and several new alternatives for various fit indexes used to evaluate model fit in practice. Using a 2‐index presentation strategy, which includes using the maximum likelihood (ML)‐based standardized root mean squared residual (SRMR) and supplementing it with either Tucker‐Lewis Index (TLI), Bollen's (1989) Fit Index (BL89), Relative Noncentrality Index (RNI), Comparative Fit Index (CFI), Gamma Hat, McDonald's Centrality Index (Mc), or root mean squared error of approximation (RMSEA), various combinations of cutoff values from selected ranges of cutoff criteria for the ML‐based SRMR and a given supplemental fit index were used to calculate rejection rates for various types of true‐population and misspecified models; that is, models with misspecified factor covariance(s) and models with misspecified factor loading(s). The results suggest that, for the ML method, a cutoff value close to .95 for TLI, BL89, CFI, RNI, and Gamma Hat; a cutoff value close to .90 for Mc; a cutoff value close to .08 for SRMR; and a cutoff value close to .06 for RMSEA are needed before we can conclude that there is a relatively good fit between the hypothesized model and the observed data. Furthermore, the 2‐index presentation strategy is required to reject reasonable proportions of various types of true‐population and misspecified models. Finally, using the proposed cutoff criteria, the ML‐based TLI, Mc, and RMSEA tend to overreject true‐population models at small sample size and thus are less preferable when sample size is small.
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The study of school bullying has recently assumed an international dimension, but is faced with difficulties in finding terms in different languages to correspond to the English word bullying. To investigate the meanings given to various terms, a set of 25 stick–figure cartoons was devised, covering a range of social situations between peers. These cartoons were shown to samples of 8– and 14–year–old pupils (N= 1,245; n= 604 at 8 years, n= 641 at 14 years) in schools in 14 different countries, who judged whether various native terms cognate to bullying, applied to them. Terms from 10 Indo–European languages and three Asian languages were sampled. Multidimensional scaling showed that 8–year–olds primarily discriminated nonaggressive and aggressive cartoon situations; however, 14–year–olds discriminated fighting from physical bullying, and also discriminated verbal bullying and social exclusion. Gender differences were less appreciable than age differences. Based on the 14–year–old data, profiles of 67 words were then constructed across the five major cartoon clusters. The main types of terms used fell into six groups: bullying (of all kinds), verbal plus physical bullying, solely verbal bullying, social exclusion, solely physical aggression, and mainly physical aggression. The findings are discussed in relation to developmental trends in how children understand bullying, the inferences that can be made from cross–national studies, and the design of such studies.
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The trait emotional intelligence (trait EI or trait emotional self-efficacy) framework provides comprehensive coverage of emotion-related self-perceptions and dispositions. In this study, we investigated the relationship between trait EI and four distinct socioemotional criteria on a sample of Dutch adolescents (N = 282; 136 girls, 146 boys; mean age = 13.75 years). As hypothesized, trait EI was positively associated with adaptive coping styles and negatively associated with depressive thoughts and frequency of somatic complaints. It was also negatively associated with maladaptive coping styles, in boys only. Adolescents with high trait EI scores received more nominations from their classmates for being co-operative and girls gave significantly more nominations to classmates with high trait EI scores for having leadership qualities. The discussion focusses on the operationalization of trait emotional self-efficacy in adolescents.
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This paper sets out the theoretical foundation of emotional intelligence (EI) as a constellation of traits and self-perceived abilities. The discriminant validity of trait EI is explored in two studies. In study 1 (N = 227), the psychometric properties of the BarOn Emotional Quotient inventory were scrutinized through confirmatory factor analysis and the measure was found to be unifactorial. When the EQ-i was examined concurrently with the Eysenck Personality Profiler, a clear trait EI factor emerged in Eysenckian factor space. In study 2 (N = 166), a modified version of the EQ-i was examined concurrently with the NEO PI-R and a truncated trait EI factor was isolated within the Five-Factor Model. Results are discussed with explicit reference to established personality models and it is concluded that trait EI can be conceptualized as a distinct composite construct at the primary level of hierarchical trait structures. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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This article presents a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effectiveness of anti-bullying programs in schools. Studies were included if they evaluated the effects of an anti-bullying program by comparing an intervention group who received the program with a control group who did not. Four types of research design were included: a) randomized experiments, b) intervention-control comparisons with before-and-after measures of bullying, c) other intervention-control comparisons, and d) age-cohort designs. Both published and unpublished reports were included. All volumes of 35 journals from 1983 up to the end of May 2009 were hand-searched, as were 18 electronic databases. Reports in languages other than English were also included. A total of 622 reports concerned with bullying prevention were found, and 89 of these reports (describing 53 different program evaluations) were included in our review. Of the 53 different program evaluations, 44 provided data that permitted the calculation of an effect size for bullying or victimization. The meta-analysis of these 44 evaluations showed that, overall, school-based anti-bullying programs are effective: on average, bullying decreased by 20–23% and victimization decreased by 17–20%. Program elements and intervention components that were