Article

Effects of environmental factors on carotenoid content in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum (L.) Mill.) grown in a greenhouse

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  • Leibniz Institute of Vegetable and Ornamental Crops
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Abstract

Tomatoes are an important source of lycopene in the human diet. The effect of temperature (15°C - 24°C), CO2 supply (380-1000 ppm) and nutrient concentration measured as electrical conductivity of the nutrient solution (EC, 2 - 9 dS m-1) on the content of carotenoids (lycopene, β-carotene) were investigated in two tomato cultivars grown in a greenhouse. The cherry tomato cultivar Supersweet was characterised by higher lycopene contents than the conventional round tomato 'Counter'. The results indicated that temperature has a significant influence on the biosynthesis of lycopene and β-carotene during ripening. A temperature above 20°C seems to be optimal for lycopene production in the investigated cultivars, whereas a decrease to 15°C diminished the lycopene content. Neither CO2 supply nor EC increase affected the carotenoid content under the conditions investigated.

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... According to previous research, the quality of tomato was influenced by CO2 concentration in the greenhouse (Jin et al., 2009). Furthermore, many studies reported that the ideal concentration of CO2 for vegetable cultivation in the greenhouse is 800 -1000 ppm (Krumbein et al., 2006). On the other hand, the concentration of CO2 in 500 to 700 ppm potentially produces a higher yield in tomatoes (Krumbein et al., 2006). ...
... Furthermore, many studies reported that the ideal concentration of CO2 for vegetable cultivation in the greenhouse is 800 -1000 ppm (Krumbein et al., 2006). On the other hand, the concentration of CO2 in 500 to 700 ppm potentially produces a higher yield in tomatoes (Krumbein et al., 2006). The supply of higher CO2 concentration during the plant growth increases the sink strength where more carbohydrates shift to fruit development that leads to producing higher yield (Mamatha et al., 2014). ...
... This might be due to an increment of temperature (Figure 2a) in SGS reduced plant height. The previous result reported that the plant height was reduced due to elevated CO2 combined with higher temperatures (Krumbein et al., 2006). The maximum plant height was recorded under 70% of the shading level in CGS. ...
... 6 Grafting commercial cultivars (scions) onto selected tolerant rootstocks could be a promising method for producing tomato under suboptimal conditions. 7 Grafting is the union of two or more pieces of living plant tissue, 8 which are forced to develop vascular connections and grow as a single plant. 9 The root systems of grafted plants are stronger and more efficient in the uptake of water and nutrients, which indirectly improves yield. 10 In this context, the use of adequate rootstocks through grafting provides an alternative strategy to reduce the losses in production caused by environmental stresses, 11 such as excess solar radiation and temperature in the late cropping season. ...
... The nets can also increase the relative proportion of diffuse light (scattering by 50% or more) and absorb various spectral bands (infra-red radiation), thereby affecting light quality. 19 The only information existing on grafting and light is the work performed by Khah et al. 20 and Krumbein et al. 7 For field-grown tomatoes receiving high solar radiation, Khah et al. 20 reported an increase in the titratable acid concentration of grafted tomato plants compared to fruits from self-grafted and ungrafted plants. Surprisingly, interaction between shading and grafting for the investigated health-promoting and flavor compounds was rarely found. ...
... Interestingly, the concentration of titratable acids and several volatiles was enhanced by both shading and grafting. 7 The objectives of this research were to evaluate fruit yield and quality in response to the combined application of shading and grafting in open-field tomato production. ...
... 6 Grafting commercial cultivars (scions) onto selected tolerant rootstocks could be a promising method for producing tomato under suboptimal conditions. 7 Grafting is the union of two or more pieces of living plant tissue, 8 which are forced to develop vascular connections and grow as a single plant. 9 The root systems of grafted plants are stronger and more efficient in the uptake of water and nutrients, which indirectly improves yield. 10 In this context, the use of adequate rootstocks through grafting provides an alternative strategy to reduce the losses in production caused by environmental stresses, 11 such as excess solar radiation and temperature in the late cropping season. ...
... The nets can also increase the relative proportion of diffuse light (scattering by 50% or more) and absorb various spectral bands (infra-red radiation), thereby affecting light quality. 19 The only information existing on grafting and light is the work performed by Khah et al. 20 and Krumbein et al. 7 For field-grown tomatoes receiving high solar radiation, Khah et al. 20 reported an increase in the titratable acid concentration of grafted tomato plants compared to fruits from self-grafted and ungrafted plants. Surprisingly, interaction between shading and grafting for the investigated health-promoting and flavor compounds was rarely found. ...
... Interestingly, the concentration of titratable acids and several volatiles was enhanced by both shading and grafting. 7 The objectives of this research were to evaluate fruit yield and quality in response to the combined application of shading and grafting in open-field tomato production. ...
... 6 Grafting commercial cultivars (scions) onto selected tolerant rootstocks could be a promising method for producing tomato under suboptimal conditions. 7 Grafting is the union of two or more pieces of living plant tissue, 8 which are forced to develop vascular connections and grow as a single plant. 9 The root systems of grafted plants are stronger and more efficient in the uptake of water and nutrients, which indirectly improves yield. 10 In this context, the use of adequate rootstocks through grafting provides an alternative strategy to reduce the losses in production caused by environmental stresses, 11 such as excess solar radiation and temperature in the late cropping season. ...
... The nets can also increase the relative proportion of diffuse light (scattering by 50% or more) and absorb various spectral bands (infra-red radiation), thereby affecting light quality. 19 The only information existing on grafting and light is the work performed by Khah et al. 20 and Krumbein et al. 7 For field-grown tomatoes receiving high solar radiation, Khah et al. 20 reported an increase in the titratable acid concentration of grafted tomato plants compared to fruits from self-grafted and ungrafted plants. Surprisingly, interaction between shading and grafting for the investigated health-promoting and flavor compounds was rarely found. ...
... Interestingly, the concentration of titratable acids and several volatiles was enhanced by both shading and grafting. 7 The objectives of this research were to evaluate fruit yield and quality in response to the combined application of shading and grafting in open-field tomato production. ...
... 6 Grafting commercial cultivars (scions) onto selected tolerant rootstocks could be a promising method for producing tomato under suboptimal conditions. 7 Grafting is the union of two or more pieces of living plant tissue, 8 which are forced to develop vascular connections and grow as a single plant. 9 The root systems of grafted plants are stronger and more efficient in the uptake of water and nutrients, which indirectly improves yield. 10 In this context, the use of adequate rootstocks through grafting provides an alternative strategy to reduce the losses in production caused by environmental stresses, 11 such as excess solar radiation and temperature in the late cropping season. ...
... The nets can also increase the relative proportion of diffuse light (scattering by 50% or more) and absorb various spectral bands (infra-red radiation), thereby affecting light quality. 19 The only information existing on grafting and light is the work performed by Khah et al. 20 and Krumbein et al. 7 For field-grown tomatoes receiving high solar radiation, Khah et al. 20 reported an increase in the titratable acid concentration of grafted tomato plants compared to fruits from self-grafted and ungrafted plants. Surprisingly, interaction between shading and grafting for the investigated health-promoting and flavor compounds was rarely found. ...
... Interestingly, the concentration of titratable acids and several volatiles was enhanced by both shading and grafting. 7 The objectives of this research were to evaluate fruit yield and quality in response to the combined application of shading and grafting in open-field tomato production. ...
... For example, lower root temperature induced higher concentration of sugars in the leaves of red leaf lettuce [32] and spinach [33]. Carotenoids of tomato are an important source for human nutrition due to high frequency in the diet [34]. A number of environmental factors, such as light intensity, CO 2 levels, salinity, and temperature, are known to influence the levels of carotenoids in tomato [15,34]. ...
... Carotenoids of tomato are an important source for human nutrition due to high frequency in the diet [34]. A number of environmental factors, such as light intensity, CO 2 levels, salinity, and temperature, are known to influence the levels of carotenoids in tomato [15,34]. Lower root temperature was also demonstrated recently to enhance the accumulation of carotenoids, such as β-carotene, in hydroponically grown carrots [35]. ...
... accumulation of lycopene in "Delioso," but had no impact on "Amoroso." Fruit temperature plays an essential role in the synthesis of lycopene, below 12°C or above 30°C during fruit stage, synthesis of lycopene was inhibited [34,85]. e concentration of lycopene has been reported to be lower in the summer months than other times due to high air temperatures and excessive sunlight [93,94]. ...
Article
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Understanding the effects of root temperature on plant growth and key food components of horticultural crops under greenhouse conditions is important. Here, we assess the impact of root cooling on plant growth and fruit quality of two cocktail tomato cultivars ( Lycopersicon esculentum cv “Amoroso” and cv “Delioso”) during the winter of 2017-2018 and the summer of 2018. Plants were grown hydroponically on rockwool under different root temperatures (16–27°C and 10°C) from the 2 nd inflorescence to harvest inside the greenhouse. A root temperature of 10°C was controlled independently from air temperature (18–23°C in winter and 21–29°C in summer) by circulating cooling water. Reductions of marketable yield per plant (7.9–20.9%) in both cultivars were observed in response to root cooling in winter, but not significantly in summer. In most cases, root cooling had a positive effect on the functional quality (sugars, vitamin C, and carotenoids levels). In the case of “Delioso,” glucose concentration increased by 7.7–10.3%, vitamin C by 20–21%, and lycopene by 16.9–20.5% in both seasons. “Amoroso” exhibited only higher consistent values in glucose with increments between 6.9 and 7.8% in the two seasons. The levels of elements decreased by root cooling, with statistically significant reduction of N, P, S, and Fe by 12.1–15.7% in “Delioso” in winter and P and Zn by 9.1–22.2% in both cultivars in summer. Thus, manipulation of root temperature could be a feasible method to improve the overall fruit quality of cocktail tomato; however, this effect was also dependent on cultivars and other environmental factors.
... ds like fl avonoids and phenylpropanoids. At 35°C compared to 25°C the phenol level was doubled (Helyes et al . 2006 ) . George et al . ( 2004 ) measured huge variance among polyphenol (104 -400 mg·kg −1 ) content of different tomato varieties. Temperature had a signifi cant infl uence on the biosynthesis of lycopene and ß-carotene during ripening (Krumbein et al . 2006 ) . They showed that a temperature above 20°C seems to be optimal for lycopene production in studied cultivars, whereas the lycopene content diminished with decreasing temperature to 15°C. Temperatures below 12°C strongly inhibit lycopene biosynthesis and temperatures above 32°C stop this process (Dumas et al. 2003 ) . Fleisher et al . ( ...
... 2001a ) . On the other hand, Krumbein et al. ( 2006 ) recently observed an increase in the lycopene concentration of cherry and round type tomatoes when the temperature during the fruit ripening stage increased from 15°C to 20.3°C in fall and from 18°C to 22°C in spring. In agreement with Robertson et al. ( 1995 ) who found a maximum plateau of lycopene concentration between 18 and 26°C in cell suspension cultures. ...
... In agreement with Robertson et al. ( 1995 ) who found a maximum plateau of lycopene concentration between 18 and 26°C in cell suspension cultures. Krumbein et al. ( 2006 ) suggested that the optimal temperature for lycopene biosynthesis ranges between 20°C and 24°C. Also, Krumbein et al. ( 2006 ) indicated that temperature has a signifi cant infl uence on the biosynthesis of lycopene and ß-carotene during ripening. ...
Chapter
The concept of growing crops for health rather than only for food or fiber is becoming a major issue. Since standards of living have improved, food availability and connection between plant production practices and human health are launching new issues of dietary supplements, functional foods and ­plant-produced recombinant proteins. Consumption of fruits and vegetables is also beneficial to human health since fruits reduce the risk of developing cancer and cardio-vascular diseases. Although tomato have for many years been bred and grown for food, the development and production of health-beneficial tomatoes is of research interest. However the effect of production management practices, processing and storage conditions on quality and health aspect of tomato is not well-known.
... The soluble sugar content was determined by the uorenone colorimetric method (Krumbein et al. 2004). The lycopene content was quanti ed according to the method of (Krumbein et al. 2006). Petroleum ether was used to dissolve the lycopene, and the absorbance was determined at 502 nm. ...
... Sugar is the most important factor affecting plant growth and fruit quality (Dai et al. 2016). Sugar is not only an important form of stored energy in many plant storage organs but also a signaling molecule that composes a complex regulatory network with other signals such as hormones and nitrogen, and regulates gene expression and plant growth through signal transduction mechanisms (Granot et The mature fruits of ordinary cultivated tomatoes mainly accumulate monosaccharides such as glucose and fructose, while the characteristics of high sucrose accumulation were only found in a few types of wild tomatoes, such as Lycopersicon hirsutum, Lycopersicon chmielewskii and Lycopersicon peruvianum (Balibrea et al. 2006;Dali et al. 1992; Krumbein et al. 2006). High sucrose accumulation may be stably inherited, increasing the sweetness of the fruit and leading to more valuable genetic variation (Baxter et al. 2005;Chetelat et al. 1995;Fridman et al. 2000). ...
Preprint
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Sugar is the key factor in the formation of fruit quality. Hexose is the main form of sugar accumulated in ordinary cultivated tomatoes, while a small number of wild-type tomato varieties can also accumulate sucrose. Although several studies have focused on wild sucrose-accumulating tomatoes, the sugar accumulation mechanism in tomato is still unclear. Here, two cherry tomatoes lines that accumulated sucrose and hexose respectively were selected to analyze the assimilates unloading pathway and sugar accumulation mechanism using CF tracing, cytological observation, proteomics methods, etc. The results indicated that the later stages of fruit development were key stages for sugar accumulation, and sucrose-accumulating (S) cherry tomatoes had higher sucrose contents in the fruits, while hexose-accumulating (H) cherry tomatoes accumulated more glucose, fructose and starch. The unloading pathway of assimilates in the S cherry tomato was switched from apoplastic to symplastic during fruit development, and the opposite was true in the H type. Plasmodesmata transport may be the main means of sucrose accumulation and high activity or expression levels of acid invertase (AI) and SUT1 may be important factors in hexose accumulation in H and S cherry tomatoes, respectively. In addition to sugar metabolism, photosynthesis, fatty acid metabolism and other secondary metabolism pathways also play important roles in sugar accumulation. This study provides detailed evidence for the tomato sugar accumulation mechanism from the perspective of cell structure, physiology and molecular biology, providing a theoretical basis for the improvement of tomato quality and aiding the utilization of tomato genetic resources.
... Carotenoids including lycopene and ␤-carotene as well as other substances such as vitamin C and certain phenols are the most important antioxidants in tomato (Helyes et al., 2012b;Leiva-Brondoa et al., 2012), which are believed to delay or inhibit the oxidation of lipids and other molecules scavenging the free radicals. Lycopene represents 80-90% of the total carotenoids in fully ripened tomato fruits (Krumbein et al., 2006) and is also an effective antioxidant exhibiting high quenching ability for singlet oxygen (Story et al., 2010). Considerable evidence from several epidemiological research suggested that lycopene has anti-carcinogenic and anti-atherogenic potential (Singh and Goyal, 2008;Biddle et al., 2013). ...
... Irrigation water and fertilization are the main cultivation practices that are thought to influence the biosynthesis of antioxidant compounds (Dumas et al., 2003;Fanasca et al., 2006). With a few exceptions (Krumbein et al., 2006), many investigations have revealed that the lycopene and other antioxidant contents in tomato fruits are enhanced when the plants were grown in saline soil or irrigated with saline water (Wu and Kubota, 2008;Cliff et al., 2012;Juárez-López et al., 2014). ...
... For example, lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.) [82] and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) [78,79] had increased terpene concentrations, whereas terpenes were inhibited in oak (Quercus Ilex L.) [27], which could indicate differential responses between herbaceous and woody species. CO 2 had no effect on carotenoid content in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) [81] and sesquiterpenes were unaffected in tobacco (Nicotiana tobaccum L.) [76]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Abiotic environmental stresses can alter plant metabolism, leading to inhibition or promotion of secondary metabolites. Although the crucial roles of these compounds in plant acclimation and defense are well known, their response to climate change is poorly understood. As the effects of climate change have been increasing, their regulatory aspects on plant secondary metabolism becomes increasingly important. Effects of individual climate change components, including high temperature, elevated carbon dioxide, drought stress, enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation, and their interactions on secondary metabolites, such as phenolics, terpenes, and alkaloids, continue to be studied as evidence mounting. It is important to understand those aspects of secondary metabolites that shape the success of certain plants in the future. This review aims to present and synthesize recent advances in the effects of climate change on secondary metabolism, delving from the molecular aspects to the organismal effects of an increased or decreased concentration of these compounds. A thorough analysis of the current knowledge about the effects of climate change components on plant secondary metabolites should provide us with the required information regarding plant performance under climate change conditions. Further studies should provide more insight into the understanding of multiple environmental factors effects on plant secondary metabolites.
... The β-carotene content of the examined varieties varied between 0.65 and 11.6 mg.kg −1 . This level is in the range 5-12 mg.kg −1 reported in the relevant literature [24][25][26][27]. The highest β-carotene value was measured in the Cherrola F1 variety in 2015 (11.6 mg.kg −1 ), while the lowest value was measured in the Mokka F1 variety in 2016 (0.65 mg.kg −1 ). ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the present work was to evaluate the influence of genetic impact on the content of some characteristic secondary metabolites in tomato fruits. The study was conducted to screen 14 different tomato genotypes for antioxidant capacity and quality attributes (polyphenols, tocopherols, carotenoids, vitamin C) to select the genetic lines with high biological value, multiple disease resistance, and high yield capacity for further usage in crop improvement programs. Significant differences were found among the different hybrids and cultivation seasons for the phytochemical content of the fruits. The varieties developed by breeding to increase their resistance were found to differ significantly. During a 3-year cultivation experiment, the level of lycopene in freshly harvested fruits ranged between 10.38 and 63.23 mg.kg−1 fwt for outdoor-cultivated Naik114 and Naik352, respectively. As for β-carotene, its content varied between 0.49 mg.kg−1 for Unorosso and 11.66 mg.kg−1 for Cherrola F1. The highest level of vitamin C (702.59 mg.kg−1) was recorded for Cherrola F1, while the lowest level (1.36.86 mg.kg−1) was determined in fruits of Unorosso. Neither polyphenol nor vitamin C showed positive correlation with antioxidant activity. In the three cultivation seasons, the highest concentration of polyphenols (579.19–804.12 mg.kg−1 fwt) was determined in fruits of outdoor-cultivated Cherolla F1 variety. The α- and γ-tocopherol content varied between 2.56 and 18.99 mg.kg−1, and 0.28 and 9.35 mg.kg−1, respectively, in fresh tomato fruit. Among the newly bred resistant varieties, the ZKI114 variety was proved to have outstanding features concerning the amounts of the bioactive components.
... Despite the increases in overall biomass, less is known about the impact of increased concentrations of CO 2 on carotenoid content. In tomatoes, no differences were observed in the carotenoids, β-carotene, or lycopene, under various concentrations of CO 2 [14]. Flavonoid glycosides and chlorogenic acid concentrations generally increased in lettuce under higher CO 2 concentration [15,16]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations affect the growth rate of plants by increasing photosynthesis. Increasing CO2 in controlled environment agriculture (CEA) provides a means to boost yield or decrease daily light integral (DLI) requirements, potentially increasing profitability of growing operations. However, increases in carbon dioxide concentrations are often correlated with decreased nutritional content of crops. The objectives of this experiment were to quantify the effects of carbon dioxide on the growth, morphology, and nutritional content of two lettuce varieties, ‘Rex’ and ‘Rouxai’ under four CO2 concentrations. Applied CO2 treatments were 400, 800, 1200, and 1600 ppm in controlled environment chambers with identical DLI. Lettuce was germinated for eight days in a greenhouse, then transplanted into potting mix and placed in a growth chamber illuminated by fluorescent lights. After 21 days, lettuce was destructively harvested, and fresh weight and plant volume were measured. Anthocyanins, xanthophylls, chlorophyll, and mineral concentration were measured. The lettuce fresh and dry weight increased with increasing CO2 concentrations, with the greatest increases observed between 400 and 800 ppm, and diminishing increases as CO2 concentration further increased to 1200 and 1600 ppm. Violaxanthin was observed to decrease in ‘Rouxai’ with increasing CO2 concentration. Largely, no significant differences were observed in lutein, anthocyanins, and mineral content. Overall, increasing concentrations of carbon dioxide can significantly increase the yield for lettuce in controlled environments, while not significantly reducing many of the nutritional components.
... Carotenoids are pigments found in plants that give the colors between light yellow and red. It contains antioxidant properties, which are effective in preventing or delaying cancer (Stahl and Sies, 2005;Krumbein et al., 2012). Wala et al. (2022) reported that supraoptimal Fe-HBED supplementation significantly increased in xanthophylls and β-carotene contents in tomato plant which is very desirable for food quality. ...
Article
Full-text available
The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of two different ratios of Fe-EDDHA chelated fertilizers, (F1:4.8% and F2:6%) having the same amount of 6% soluble Fe content, on dry matter production and Fe uptake of tomato seedlings at different growth periods and Fe forms of a calcareous soil. The experiment was conducted in a factorial experimental design using Fe-EDDHA chelated fertilizers and the plant growth periods (10, 20, 30 and 40 days after seedling) with three replicates under the greenhouse conditions. The results indicated that the dry matter content, Fe uptake, chlorophyll-a, chlorophyll-b, total chlorophyll and carotenoid contents in plants generally increased over the control with increasing the growth periods. The plant dry matter contents were higher in F1 than F2 fertilization. The plant Fe uptakes in F1 treatment during the growth periods were also higher than that in F2 treatment. The carotenoid content and the chlorophyll formations in terms of both chlorophyll-a, chlorophyll-b were higher in F2 fertilization at the 20th day and higher in F1 fertilization at the 40th day. The DTPA-Fe and exchangeable-Fe contents in soil samples generally decreased while the organically bounded-Fe content in soil samples increased with increasing growth periods. It can be suggested that 4,8% of Fe-EDDHA fertilizer is more effective on Fe uptake when compared with 6% of Fe-EDDHA chelated Fe fertilizer. Therefore, F1 fertilizer can be used when chlorosis is seen on plants in calcareous soils. On the other hand, F2 fertilizer can be used if long-term Fe fertilization is desired. The differences in effectiveness between Fe-EDDHA chelated fertilizers having the same amount of water-soluble Fe content may be occurred due to differences in their chelating formulas.
... Mature fruits of most ordinary cultivated tomato genotypes accumulate mainly monosaccharides such as glucose and fructose, while high sucrose accumulation has been observed in a few types of wild tomato and cultivated tomato [9,10,14,27]. High sucrose accumulation may be stably inherited, and leading to more valuable genetic variation [12,13,28]. Here, the soluble sugar in the different tissues and developmental stages of the fruits of the two cherry tomato lines, that accumulated sucrose and hexose respectively, were determined (Fig. 2). ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Sugar content is an important indicator of fruit quality. Except for a few wild tomato species that accumulate sucrose in the fruits, most cultivated tomato species accumulate hexose. Although several studies have focused on wild sucrose-accumulating tomato, the sucrose accumulation mechanism is still unclear. Results Here, two homozygous inbred cherry tomato lines (‘TB0023’ and ‘TB0278’, which accumulated sucrose and hexose, respectively) were selected to analyze the sugar accumulation mechanism. Carbohydrate analysis, cytological observation, gene expression and enzyme activity analysis and proteomics methods were used in this study. The results indicated that glucose and fructose were absolutely dominant in the soluble sugar content of hexose-accumulating cherry tomato fruit, while sucrose and a certain proportion of hexose were the main forms of soluble sugar in sucrose-accumulating cherry tomato fruit. The phloem unloading pathway of the hexose-accumulating cherry tomato fruit switched from symplastic to apoplastic during fruit development, and the sucrose-accumulating cherry tomato probably had a mixed unloading pathway involving the symplastic and apoplastic. High activity of acid invertase (AI), sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS), sucrose synthase (SS) and sugar transporters LeSUT1, SlSWEET2a and SlSWEET12c were important factors for hexose accumulation in the hexose-accumulating cherry tomato fruit, while LeSUT2, SPS, SS, SlSWEET1b, SlSWEET5b, SlSWEET11b, SlSWEET7a, SlSWEET14 were responsible for solute sugar accumulation in the sucrose-accumulating cherry tomato. Conclusions This study provides detailed evidence for elucidation of the tomato sugar accumulation mechanism from the perspective of cell structure, physiology and molecular biology, providing a theoretical basis for the improvement of tomato quality and aiding the utilization of tomato genetic resources.
... Beside light, it is also known that an increase in mean ambient temperature from 18 • C to 22 • C favors the accumulation of carotenoids in tomatoes (Krumbein et al., 2006). Since the leaf temperature was increased under the influence of HPS lighting, it can be assumed that the fruit temperature was also increased. ...
Article
Full-text available
Light emitting diodes (LEDs) are an energy efficient alternative to high-pressure sodium (HPS) lighting in tomato cultivation. In the past years, we have learned a lot about the effect of red and blue LEDs on plant growth and yield of tomatoes. From previous studies, we know that plants absorb and utilize most of the visible spectrum for photosynthesis. This part of the spectrum is referred to as the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). We designed a LED fixture with an emission spectrum that partially matches the range of 400 to 700 nm and thus partially covers the absorption spectrum of photosynthetic pigments in tomato leaves. Tomato plants grown under this fixture were significantly taller and produced a higher fruit yield (14%) than plants grown under HPS lighting. There was no difference in the number of leaves and trusses, leaf area, stem diameter, the electron transport rate, and the normalized difference vegetation index. Lycopene and lutein contents in tomatoes were 18% and 142% higher when they were exposed to the LED fixture. However, the ß-carotene content was not different between the light treatments. Transpiration rate under LED was significantly lower (40%), while the light use efficiency (LUE) was significantly higher (19%) compared to HPS lighting. These data show that an LED fixture with an emission spectrum covering the entire PAR range can improve LUE, yields, and content of secondary metabolites in tomatoes compared to HPS lighting.
... Islam et al. (1996) [45] showed more ascorbic acid content at elevated CO 2 condition and at different maturity degrees. Such studies are in agreement with the research works conducted by [54] and [55] in sour orange and strawberry respectively grown at 700 ppm of CO 2 in OTCs. ...
Article
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Climate change has increasing effects on horticultural crops. To investigate the impact of CO2 and temperature at elevated levels on tomato production and quality of fruits an experiment was conducted by growing plants in open top chambers. The tomato plants were raised at EC550 (elevated CO2 at 550 ppm) and EC700 (elevated CO2 at 700 ppm) alone and in combination with elevated temperature (ET) + 2 °C in the open top chambers. These elevate CO2 and temperature treatment effects were compared with plants grown under ambient conditions. Outcome of the experiment indicated that growth parameters namely plant stature in terms of height (152.20 cm), leaf number (158.67), canopy spread (6127.70 cm2), leaf area (9110.68 cm2) and total dry matter (223.0 g/plant) were found to be high at EC700 compared to plants grown at ambient conditions in open field. The plants grown at EC700 also exhibited significantly higher number of flowers (273.80) and fruits (261.13), more fruit weight (90.46 g) and yield (5.09 kg plant−1) compared to plants grown at ambient conditions in open field. The percent increase in fruit yield due to EC varied from 18.37 (EC550) to 21.41 (EC700) percent respectively compared to open field and the ET by 2 °C has reduced the fruit yield by 20.01 percent. Quality traits like Total Soluble Solids (3.67 °Brix), reducing sugars (2.48%), total sugars (4.41%) and ascorbic acid (18.18 mg/100 g) were found maximum in EC700 treated tomato than other elevated conditions. Keeping quality was also improved in tomato cultivated under EC700 (25.60 days) than the open field (17.80 days). These findings reveal that CO2 at 700 ppm would be a better option to improve both quantitative as well as qualitative traits in tomato. Among the combinations, EC550 + 2 °C proved better than EC700 + 2 °C with respect to yield as well as for the quality traits. The tomato grown under ET (+2 °C) alone recorded lowest growth and yield attributes compared to open field conditions and rest of the treatments. The positive influence of EC700 is negated to an extent of 14.35 % when the EC700 combined with elevated temperature of + 2 °C. The present study clearly demonstrates that the climate change in terms of increased temperature and CO2 will have a positive effect on tomato by way of increase in production and quality of fruits. Meanwhile the increase in EC beyond 700 ppm along with ET may reduce the positive effects on yield and quality of tomato.
... However, much information has been investigated on the growth and composition of plants and their response to the elements contained in the soil. The plant benefits from several essential soil elements known as mineral nutrients required for enhancing growth and productivity [2]. In order for the element to be necessary, it must be required to complete the plant life cycle, and these elements cannot be substituted with any other nutrients [3]. ...
Article
The growth performance of plants varies in different environments and is strongly influenced by various biotic and abiotic factors. This, in turn affects the composition of the active compounds which are the product of metabolism (such as photosynthesis, respiration, etc.). Soil quality is considered to be important factor that negatively affect plant growth and productivity. Tomatoes are widely produced and consumed due to their high nutritional value and its important compounds have a role in the prevention of many diseases. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effects of three different soil types (clay, sand and compost) on growth and yield parameters of tomato Solanum lycopersicum var.Rio Grande. The experiment was done on the Faculty of Science in Gharyan University (April 2017). The tomatoes were grown in pots; twelve replications were used for each group of soils. Growth parameters such as number of seedling, plant height, number of leaves and number of fruits were recorded. The results indicated that soil quality hada highly significant effect (P < 0.001) on growth parameters. Compost was the optimal soil types for growth performance and production of tomatoes, while the growth performance was reduced in clay and sand soil. By contrast, tomatoes that grew in clay soil showed the least growth performance. On the other hand, tomato plants cultivated in clay and sand soil failed in production of flowers and fruits, unlike tomatoes grown in compost. Overall, soil quality and properties have affected tomato growth performance and productivity.
... Similarly, Brandt et al. (2006), Krumbein et al. (2006), and Dannehl et al. (2012) reported that the lycopene content in tomatoes increases with increasing temperature and reaches its maximum concentration at 25 • C. Temperatures below 12 • C strongly inhibit lycopene biosynthesis and temperatures above 32 • C stop the process (Dumas et al., 2003), affecting the activities of enzymes in the metabolic pathway and consequently, the fruit carotenoid composition (Gautier et al., 2008). Likewise, phenolic compounds (e.g. ...
Article
In the present study, tomatoes were grown under control conditions (CT), a moderate (MT, up to 2 °C) or a higher rise in temperature (HT, up to 5 °C), and a moderate rise followed by a lower air temperature at the end of the day (ED), in order to analyze the effects of increased temperature as well as management system impact on fruit quality. Rising temperatures up to 5 °C reduced the fruit growth duration by five days and greatly reduced the fresh (29.7 %) and dry matter (30 %) accumulation rate. Increasing the temperature during the day and lowering it at the end of the day increased citric and malic acid concentrations in the fruit, therefore reducing the sugar/acid ratio. The ascorbate concentration and carotenoids increased in the fruits grown under high temperature, while phenolics concentrations did not change. Fruit water conductance was strongly reduced under HT (−37 %), and so was starch accumulation, in contrast to hexoses. Dropping the air temperature at the end of the day could help mitigate HT impacts as it slightly increased the pericarp dry matter content. It could also improve seeds quality as it increased their dry matter content. It would be interesting to consider broader changes in ED temperature to confirm its potential role in improving fruits dry matter content.
... Temperature is the most important environmental factor that affects quality, very low or very high temperature may injure sensitive crops. High temperature (35 0 C) specially inhibits accumulation of lycopene due to stimulation of conversion of lycopene into β-carotene [5] . Tomato is a very good source of income to small and marginal farmers, and provides nutrients to the consumers. ...
... Temperature is the most important environmental factor that affects quality, very low or very high temperature may injure sensitive crops. High temperature (35 0 C) specially inhibits accumulation of lycopene due to stimulation of conversion of lycopene into β-carotene [5] . Tomato is a very good source of income to small and marginal farmers, and provides nutrients to the consumers. ...
... Water deficit decreased foliage development leading to increasing fruit sunlight exposure, and hence, more VC accumulated (Massot et al., 2010). Lycopene accounts for 80-90% of the total carotenoids (Krumbein et al., 2006) which has anti-carcinogenic and antiatherogenic potential (Singh and Goyal, 2008;Biddle et al., 2013). Moreover, lycopene increased by 10.46% under water deficit for the same reason as VC (Toor et al., 2006). ...
Article
Tomato is a popular healthy fruit worldwide because it is rich in secondary metabolites such as vitamin C. Deficit irrigation (DI) can be applied to improve tomato fruit quality to a certain degree and save water consumption. However, the effects of DI on tomato quality are complex and affected by factors such as tomato variety and soil bulk density and texture. The objective of this paper is to use meta-analysis to 1) investigate the effects of DI on tomato quality variables and 2) study how soil texture, soil bulk density and three tomato varieties affect quality variables under DI compared to those under full irrigation. We collected 83 research papers from around the world and analyzed 2369 data pairs. Overall, DI increased the total soluble solids (12.44%), soluble sugar (11.23%), organic acids (6.58%), sugar/acid content ratio (14.56%), vitamin C (13.84%), lycopene (10.46%), color index (8.42%), red-green value (11.89%), shape index (3.25%) and firmness (12.09%) while decreasing β-carotene, lightness, hue angle and yellow-blue value by 11.11%, 1.77%, 3.42% and 4.26%, respectively. In addition, DI had no significant effects on tomato chroma (0.89% on average; 95% CI: -0.96% to 2.79%) or pH (0.13% on average; 95% CI: -0.26% to 0.52%). The results indicated that it would be better to apply deficit irrigation in fine and coarse soil, because most of the quality variables improved more in these soil textures than in medium soil. Soil with a bulk density of 1.2∼1.4 g cm⁻³ benefited taste quality, vitamin C and shape index. The quality of the three tomato varieties responded differently to water deficit conditions. Moreover, cherry tomato responded better to water deficit conditions than the other two tomato varieties; four quality variables improved the most in cherry tomato and two other variables were also improved. Our findings could help to obtain a better understanding of how fruit quality responds to DI in different soil textures, soil bulk densities and tomato varieties and to produce higher-quality tomatoes.
... Fruit pH was not significantly affected by water treatment, in agreement with studies by Klunklin and Savage (2017) and Alvino, d'Andria, and Zerbi (1988). In addition, tomato carotenoids were also not significantly affected by the water treatment, as was also observed by Krumbein, Schwarz, and Klaring (2006). Effects of water stress on carotenoids concentration in fruits reported in the literature range from negative to non-significant to positive (Ripoll et al., 2014). ...
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Phenotyping for vegetable fruit quality traits can involve laborious postharvest and biochemical assays, decreasing efficiency of data collection. Portable devices that are easy to use and withstand in‐field conditions to non‐destructively and accurately quantify internal fruit quality traits would greatly enhance efficiency in breeding programs. We evaluated a hand‐held quality spectrophotometer, the Felix‐750, as an in‐field tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) and pepper (Capsicum annuum) high‐throughput phenotyping tool. Fruit quality traits included pH, soluble solids, carotenoids, and shrink in germplasm grown in replicated split‐plot field trials. Germplasm included elite inbred cultivars and introgression lines of tomato, and diverse hybrid and open‐pollinated cultivars of pepper. Our study employed a multi‐faceted approach to evaluate the use of the Felix‐750 in a plant breeding program. Our approach included chemometrics and trait‐based partial least squares regression modeling, and examination of patterns in the λ‐specific spectroscopy data based on variables relevant to genetic, fruit, and environmental factors using principal component analysis and biplots. Results of our study revealed: (a) the scope and limitations of the Felix‐750 in fruit quality trait assessment based on the range of predictive power of partial least squares models; (b) insights into the complex relationships of spectroscopy data with genetic diversity, fruit biology and biochemistry, and factors related to environment. Additional research on the Felix‐750 is needed to determine its potential applications at early and later stages of a breeding pipeline. We also suggest researchers explore more advanced chemometric tools and 3‐D fruit hyperspectral imaging approaches.
... Les effets sur la biosynthèse des caroténoïdes de la sécheresse et d'une salinité élevée sont variables. Les effets peuvent être négatifs (De Pascale et al., 2007;Riggi et al., 2008) positifs (De Pascale et al., 2001;Kim et al., 2008;Krauss et al., 2006;Leskovar et al., 2007;Navarro et al., 2006;Wu et al., 2004), ou non significatifs (Krumbein et al., 2006). Ces observations contradictoires sont dues à des interactions de facteurs. ...
... Tomato is rich in antioxidants including carotenoids, ascorbic acid, phenolic compounds, and α-tocopherol. Intake of carotenoids reduces the risk of certain cancer types, heart disease, and xerophthalmia (Wang et al., 2003;Krumbein et al., 2006). The presence of esters, aldehydes and ketones give tomato fruit its characteristic flavour (Tandon et al., 2000). ...
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Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is a widely consumed vegetable. This study evaluated the proximate, phytochemical and microbial composition of two local and two improved cultivars of tomato. The local cultivars (BNL and EKL) were obtained from traditional agriculture system while the improved ones (IMPA and IMPB) were obtained from Nigerian Institute of Horticultural Research, Ibadan. Field studies were conducted in the experimental farm of University of Benin. Based on the results, variations were observed in the phytochemicals and proximate composition of the four accessions. The ripe and unripe fruits are rich in flavonoid. Cultivars IMPA from unripe fruits and BNL from ripe fruits had the highest alkaloid content. Unripe IMPA and ripe IMPA had the highest saponin content from ripe and unripe fruits respectively. The highest values for tannin were found in unripe BNL and ripe EKL whereas unripe IMPB and ripe IMPA had the highest flavonoid content. The highest phenol content was found in unripe IMPB and ripe BNL. It was observed that generally, except for tannins and flavonoid, phytochemical contents of tomato fruits increases with ripening. The moisture content in both categories was higher than other proximate contents assessed. Ripe fruits have more moisture than unripe ones. Protein content was higher than fibre, fat and carbohydrate contents. Aspergillus sp., Penicillium sp., Saccharomyces sp., Pestalucia sp. and Mucor sp. were associated with the ripe and unripe fruits of the accessions. The study indicates that the two local cultivars may be phytochemically comparable to the improved ones.
... On the other hand, nutritional quality of cucumber fruit differs with grain crops, which consists of several attributes, e.g., taste flavor, antioxidants, etc. (Gruda 2005;Slavin and Lloyd 2012). Recently, there are some studies assessing the effects of eCO 2 on fruit quality of tomato (Krumbein et al. 2006;Mamatha et al. 2014;Zhang et al. 2014). However, it is impossible to interpret the influence of eCO 2 on cucumber quality through exploring other crops or vegetables. ...
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Elevated CO 2 and high N promote the yield of vegetables interactively, whilst their interactive effects on fruit quality of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) are unclear. We studied the effects of three CO 2 concentrations (400 ppm (ambient), 625 ppm (moderate) and 1 200 ppm (high)) and nitrate levels (2 mM (low), 7 mM(moderate) and 14 mM (high)) on fruit quality of cucumber in open top chambers. Compared with ambient CO 2 , high CO 2 increased the concentrations of fructose and glucose in fruits and maintained the titratable acidity, resulting in the greater ratio of sugar to acid in moderate N, whilst it had no significant effects on these parameters in high N. Moderate and high CO 2 had no significant effect on starch concentration and decreased dietary fiber concentration by 13 and 18%, nitrate by 31 and 84% and crude protein by 19 and 20% averagely, without interactions with N levels. The decreases in amino acids under high CO 2 were similar, ranging from 10-18%, except for tyrosine (50%). High CO 2 also increased the concentrations of P, K, Ca and Mg but decreased the concentrations of Fe and Zn in low N, whilst high CO 2 maintained the concentrations of P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn in moderate and high N. In conclusion, high CO 2 and moderate N availability can be the best combination for improving the fruit quality of cucumber. The fruit enlargement, carbon transformation and N assimilation are probably the main processes affecting fruit quality under CO 2 enrichment.
... Generally, eCO 2 increased the concentration of ascorbic acid by 18.5% (n = 12, meta-analysis). In contrast, the effect of eCO 2 on lycopene concentration is variable (Supplementary Table S4), perhaps due to the sensitivity of lycopene synthesis to temperature (Krumbein et al., 2006), and thus our meta-analysis (n = 18) found no significant effect of eCO 2 on lycopene concentration. Together, these results indicate that more research on the interactive effects of eCO 2 and other growth conditions on tomato fruit quality is needed. ...
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Elevated atmospheric CO2 (eCO2) enhances the yield of vegetables and could also affect their nutritional quality. We conducted a meta-analysis using 57 articles consisting of 1015 observations and found that eCO2 increased the concentrations of fructose, glucose, total soluble sugar, total antioxidant capacity, total phenols, total flavonoids, ascorbic acid and calcium (Ca) in the edible part of vegetables by 14.2%, 13.2%, 17.5%, 59.0%, 8.9%, 45.5%, 9.5% and 8.2%, respectively, but decreased the concentrations of protein, nitrate, carotenoids, magnesium, iron and zinc by 9.5%, 18.0%, 8.1%, 9.2%, 16.0% and 9.4%. The concentrations of titratable acidity, total chlorophyll, lycopene, anthocyanins, phosphorus, potassium, sulphur, copper and manganese were not affected by eCO2. Furthermore, we propose several approaches to improving vegetable quality based on the interaction of eCO2 with factors, i.e. species, cultivars, CO2 levels, growth stages, light, O3 stress, nutrient and salinity. Finally, we give a summary of the eCO2-effect on quality of three widely-cultivated crops, namely, lettuce, tomato and potato.
... Futhermore, 9-cis-violaxanthin may be enzymatically catabolized by 9-cisepoxycarotenoid dioxygenases (NCED) to produce C 25 epoxy-apocarotenoid and xanthoxin, which is modified for the synthesis of the phytohormone, abscisic acid (ABA). Temperature is known to be one of the most important environmental factors affecting the accumulation of bioactive compounds in higher plants (Lee et al., 2005;Krumbein et al., 2012;Manera et al., 2012;. In citrus fruits, the biosynthesis of carotenoid during fruit development was found to be strongly influenced by temperature both in the peel and pulp (Iglesias et al., 2007;Alquézar et al., 2008;and Porras et al., 2014). ...
Article
The present study investigated the regulation of carotenoid accumulation in response to temperatures (10, 20, and 30 °C) in citrus juice sacs in vitro. Carotenoid accumulation was induced at 10 °C, but was not affected at 30 °C in the Satsuma mandarin, Valencia orange, and Lisbon lemon. In the Satsuma mandarin and Valencia orange, carotenoid accumulation at 10 °C was transcriptionally regulated by carotenoid biosynthetic genes. The up-regulated expression of nine carotenoid biosynthetic genes (CitPSY, CitPDS, CitZDS, CitLCYe, CitHYb, CitHYe, CitLCYb2, CitZEP and CitVDE) in the Satsuma mandarin and seven carotenoid biosynthetic genes (CitPSY, CitPDS, CitZDS, CitLCYb1, CitLCYb2, CitZEP and CitVDE) in the Valencia orange was responsible for enhancing the content of carotenoid at 10 °C. In contrast to 10 °C, no marked changes were observed in carotenoid metabolic gene expression, and carotenoid accumulation was not significantly affected at 30 °C in the Satsuma mandarin and Valencia orange. In the Lisbon lemon, the expression of carotenoid biosynthetic and catabolic genes was involved in the regulation of carotenoid accumulation in response to temperature. The up-regulated expression of biosynthetic genes (CitPSY and CitVDE) and down-regulated expression of catabolic genes (CitNCED2 and CitNCED3) increased the content of carotenoid at 10 °C in the Lisbon lemon. In contrast to 10 °C, the expression of most carotenoid biosynthetic and catabolic genes was simultaneously up-regulated, whereas carotenoid levels remained unchanged and were constantly low at 30 °C in the Lisbon lemon.
... Плоды томата отличаются высокими питательными, вкусовыми и диетическими свойствами. Следует знать, что химический состав плодов несколько варьирует в зависимости от сорта, почвенно-климатических условий, приемов возделывания и других факторов (Krumbein, 2012). В плодах от 4,5 до 8,7 % сухого вещества, причем его количество постепенно снижается от первых сборов к последним, около 4 % сахаров (в основном глюкоза и фруктоза), около 1 % белка, имеются крахмал, клетчатка, жиры, пектин, различные ферменты, алкалоиды и другие соединения, значительное количество лимонной, яблочной кислот, небольшое -щавелевой, винной, янтарной и др. ...
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Характеризуется состояние овощеводства в Калининградской области в последние годы (2015—2016). Приводится агротехника возделывания в условиях Калининградской области 25 овощных культур, входящих в современный список, выращиваемых в области овощей. Существующий ассортимент овощных культур предлагается расширить, обратив внимание на нетрадиционные растения, интродуцированные и введенные в культуру усилиями ученых Всероссийского научно-исследовательского института селекции и семеноводства овощных культур. Дано описание 11 овощных растений — претендентов на их возможную интродукцию в условиях Калининградской области. Монография рассчитана на ученых-биологов, аспирантов, магистрантов, студентов, работников сельского хозяйства, овощеводов-любителей.
... A quantitative relationship between the carbohydrate metabolism preceding sprouting and bulb growth later on has not been established yet. Other known metabolic responses of plants to cold include biosynthesis of lipids and fatty acids (Xu and Siegenthaler 1997, Beaudoin and Napier 2004, Makarenko et al. 2011, retardation of carotenoid synthesis (Krumbein et al. 2012), amino-acid ratio changes (Sagisaka 1974, Yoshikawa et al. 2007) and more. ...
Article
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Large bulbs of Lilium longiflorum have an obligatory cold requirement to flower. Bulb cooling is widely used to induce and accelerate flowering. However, in-depth investigations of the effect of bulb cooling on major landmarks of plant development are lacking. It has been demonstrated that low temperature induces carbohydrate degradation, yet integrative studies on metabolic changes occurring in the bulb are not available. We detected that cold exposure mainly hastened bulb sprouting, rather than floral transition or blooming. Metabolite profiling of cooled and non-cooled bulbs was carried out, revealing cold-induced accumulation of soluble sugars, lipids and specific amino acids, and a significant reduction in TCA-cycle elements. We observed that metabolic pathways located in the cytosol—including glycolysis, lipid synthesis and part of the GABA shunt—were enhanced by cold exposure, while mitochondrial metabolism—namely the TCA cycle—was reduced by cold. We suggest a physiological model accounting for this metabolic discrepancy.
... In the case of lycopene, different ranges of optimal temperature are specified. Dorais et al. (2001) indicate 12°C to 21°C, whereas Krumbein et al. (2006) suggest 20°C to 24°C. Garcia and Barrett (2006) claimed that the formation of lycopene in tomato grown in field conditions is inhibited at temperatures higher than 32°C. ...
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This paper proposes a new approach to the application of microorganisms in vegetable production. The study presents the content of carotenoids and phenolic compounds in tomato fruits from two vegetation periods as affected by the application of a microbial preparation which included different strains of bacteria, actinomyces and fungi. In 2013 the content of carotenoids in tomato fruits (74-88 mg kg⁻¹ f. w.) was significantly higher than in 2012 (43-58 mg kg⁻¹ f. w.). The content of phenolic compounds ranged between 32-57 mg kg⁻¹ f. w. in 2012 and 50-55 mg kg⁻¹ f. w. in 2013. Field applications of the microbial preparation did not contribute to the increase of tomato yield and the lycopene, ß-carotene, phenolic compounds and soluble solids concentration in fruits. The effect of light intensity and temperature on yield and quality attributes was evaluated. It was found that under temperate climate conditions of field experiment a more intense solar radiation during fructification period (2013) favoured the accumulation of soluble solids, lycopene, fraction of ‘others’ in carotenoids and hydroxycinnamic acids but had no effect on the yield, concentration of ß-carotene and total phenolic compounds.
... As such, these findings suggest an improved nutritional quality because of specific plant stress responses, rather than being the result of reduced tomato fruit water content. However, although various studies have ascertained positive effects of this agronomic measure [8,12,13], conflicting or less conclusive data have been reported as well [14][15][16]. After all, the final carotenoid content strongly depends on the interactions between agronomic setting, environment, and genetic background [17]. ...
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As the presence of health-promoting substances has become a significant aspect of tomato fruit appreciation, this study investigated nutrient solution salinity as a tool to enhance carotenoid accumulation in cherry tomato fruit (Solanum lycopersicum L. cv. Juanita). Hereby, a key objective was to uncover the underlying mechanisms of carotenoid metabolism, moving away from typical black box research strategies. To this end, a greenhouse experiment with five salinity treatments (ranging from 2.0 to 5.0 decisiemens (dS) m(-1)) was carried out and a metabolomic fingerprinting approach was applied to obtain valuable insights on the complicated interactions between salinity treatments, environmental conditions, and the plant's genetic background. Hereby, several hundreds of metabolites were attributed a role in the plant's salinity response (at the fruit level), whereby the overall impact turned out to be highly depending on the developmental stage. In addition, 46 of these metabolites embraced a dual significance as they were ascribed a prominent role in carotenoid metabolism as well. Based on the specific mediating actions of the retained metabolites, it could be determined that altered salinity had only marginal potential to enhance carotenoid accumulation in the concerned tomato fruit cultivar. This study invigorates the usefulness of metabolomics in modern agriculture, for instance in modeling tomato fruit quality. Moreover, the metabolome changes that were caused by the different salinity levels may enclose valuable information towards other salinity-related plant processes as well.
... In general, the effect of CO 2 concentration on secondary metabolites seems to be low compared to other environmental factors. Thus, Krumbein, Schwarz, and Kläring (2006) could not find any effect on carotenoid content in tomato. In broccoli, rising CO 2 concentration increased the total glucosinolate concentration which however, was counteracted by a decrease of concentration of indole glucosinolates (Schonhof, Kläring, Krumbein, & Schreiner, 2007). ...
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Carbon dioxide (CO2) enrichment is a common practice in greenhouses to increase crop yields up to 30%. Yet, reports on the effect on foliar phenolic compounds vary. We studied the effect on two red leaf lettuce cultivars, grown for 25days in growth chambers at CO2 concentrations of 200 or 1000ppm, with some plants exchanged between treatments after 11days. As expected, head mass increased with higher CO2 concentration. Regression analysis, corrected for head mass, showed increased concentrations of most flavonoid glycosides at high CO2 concentrations while only some caffeic acid derivatives were increased, and not uniformly in both cultivars. Sugar concentrations increased with CO2 concentration. Generally, conditions in the 10days before harvest determined concentrations. We suspect that phenolic compounds were mainly accumulated because plenty of precursors were available. The results indicate that CO2 enrichment can result in high yields of red leaf lettuce rich in phenolic compounds.
... Validating a new cultivation technique in year-round production is crucial to implement the technology in a commercial setting. Previous studies revealed that there are factors that influence lycopene synthesis, including temperature (e.g., Krumbein et al., 2006) and light intensity (e.g., Dumas et al., 2003), both of which widely change diurnally and seasonally in greenhouse. It is also important to understand the potential change in lycopene concentration and other fruit quality attributes during postharvest storage. ...
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Durinta tomatoes were grown hydroponically using rockwool substrate in greenhouses to assess the seasonal and postharvest changes of selected quality attributes including lycopene and total soluble solids (TSS, % Brix) concentrations in fruit when grownundervariedelectricalconductivity(EC)inthenutrientsolution. TwolevelsofEC examined in this study were 2. 4 and 4. 8 dS·mL-1 for standard low EC and high EC treatments, respectively. All fruits at light-red and red ripeness stages were harvested and weighed every week, and nine fruits visually representing the median group of red fruits were selected from each EC treatment and subject to measurements of lycopene and TSS concentrations. Of 53 harvest weeks (Dec. 2005 to Dec. 2006), 45 weeks were subject to fruit quality analyses at harvest and 3 weeks were subject to postharvest quality analyses. Lycopene concentration and TSS showed seasonal differences with larger variation in lycopene, but the high EC treatment induced an overall average of 18% greater lycopene concentration and a 20% greater TSS. The regression analyses indicated that efflux solution EC (EEC) was the most influential factor for both lycopene and TSS concentrations, but secondary influential factors were greenhouse temperature for lycopene and daily light integral for TSS. Postharvest storage test showed that selected fruit quality attributes (lycopene, TSS, ascorbic acid, and total phenolics) changed minimally or not at all for 10 days when stored at 12 8C, a widely recommended tomato postharvest storage temperature. Overall, we consider that producing lycopenerich tomato by controlling EC of nutrient solution was feasible during year-round greenhouse production using a high-wire rockwool culture system.
... Cumulative effects were observed regarding sugar and quinic acid accumulation, whereas antagonistic effects were observed for citric acid, lutein or ␤-carotene. The reported effects of WD on carotenoid content in tomato, range from negative (De Pascale et al., 2007;Riggi et al., 2008), to nonsignificant (Krumbein et al., 2006), to positive (Zushi and Matsuzoe, 1998;Wu et al., 2004;Krauss et al., 2006;De Pascale et al., 2007;Favati et al., 2009). Similar findings have been reported for AsA (Ripoll et al., 2014). ...
Article
Many studies have advocated that water deficit (WD) may exert beneficial effects on fruit quality. However, the fruit response to WD at specific developmental stages was seldom investigated, although different mechanisms could be involved at each stage and lead to different effects on final fruit quality. In the present study, a moderate WD (−60% of water supply compared to control) was applied during each of the three major phases of fruit development, namely cell division (CD), cell expansion (CE) and maturation (MT). Two cocktail tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) genotypes were studied, one producing poor quality fruits (LA1420), and the other one producing tasty fruits (PlovdivXXIVa named Plovdiv). Contrasted responses were observed between the two genotypes. For both of them, fruit fresh mass and size were not significantly reduced by WD, whatever the developmental phase affected. Osmotic regulations were likely involved in the CD treatment for LA1420 fruits, which accumulated more sugars (both on a dry and fresh matter basis) and less acids (on a dry matter basis). In the CE treatment, other adaptive strategies involving sugar metabolism and sub-cellular compartmentation were suggested. In contrast, the composition of Plovdiv fruits changed only under the MT treatment, with less sugars, acids and carotenoids compared to control fruits (both on a dry and fresh matter basis). Total ascorbic acid (AsA) was not significantly influenced by treatments in both genotypes. On their whole, results suggest that, depending on genotypes, fruits are sweeter and less acidic under WD, but that the nutritive value related to vitamin and carotenoid contents may be lessened. The sensitivity of each developmental phase highly depends on the genotype. All phases were sensitive to WD for LA1420, but only the ripening phase for Plovdiv. Interestingly, major changes in fruit composition were observed in LA1420 which presents poor fruit quality under control conditions. This suggests the onset of fast adaptive response to WD at the fruit level in this genotype.
... All the species of tomato are native to Western South America (Rick, 1976). Tomatoes are the main source of lycopene (an antioxidant), ascorbic acid and ßcarotene and also are valued for its colour and flavor (Krumbein et al., 2006). Lycopene is the principle carotenoid, causing the characteristic red hue of tomatoes (Shi and Le-Maguer, 2000) used in treating various chronic human diseases like cancer, cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis and diabetes (Bai and Lindhot, 2007). ...
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The present study was aimed to investigate the yield and its contributing traits among indeterminate tomato genotypes in order to generate information regarding the extent of genetic variability, heritability and genetic advance. The experiment was conducted using a randomized complete block design with three replications at Vegetable Research Farm, Department of Horticulture, SHIATS, Allahabad during 2012-2013 cropping season. The analysis of variance revealed highly significant differences among all genotypes for the characters. Analysis of coefficient of variation revealed that the magnitude of phenotypic coefficient of variation was higher than genotypic coefficient of variation for all traits under study. The leaf curl incidence (39.73 and 39.74) and ascorbic acid (27.62 and 27.67) recorded high genotypic and phenotypic coefficients of variation, indicating higher magnitude of variability for these characters, thus the scope for improvement of these characters through simple selection would be better. The estimates of heritability were high for all the traits and ranged from 95 to 100 percent, suggested that selection based on phenotypic expression could be relied upon as there is major role of genetic constitution in the expression of these characters. High heritability accompanied with high genetic advance were noted for fruit yield per plant (1129.78), plant height (43.37), number of flowers per plant (40.35), number of leaves per plant (25.48) and ascorbic acid (21.68) indicating that these characters are under additive gene effects and that these traits could be considered as reliable indices for selection and higher responses of this trait could be expected from selection.
... Temperatures below 12 o C and above 32 o C strongly inhibit lycopene biosynthesis (Collins et al, 2006;Javanmardi and Kubota, 2006;Raffo et al, 2006;Helyes et al, 2007). High temperatures (35 o C) specifically inhibit accumulation of lycopene due to stimulation of conversion of lycopene into β-carotene (Krumbein et al, 2006). Growth season and location are highly significant factors affecting lycopene concentration in tomatoes. ...
... Other antioxidants found in tomato fruits are ascorbic acid (AsA), tocopherol and flavonoids. These mentioned bioactive compounds as well as content of minerals and flavor have to be considered when evaluating tomato fruit quality, because consumer's preference of fruits is strongly influenced by a characteristic sweet-sour tomato flavor(Krumbein et al. 2006). The desirable flavor of tomatoes is a result of a complex interaction between various aromatic volatiles and taste compounds present in the fruit(Petro-Turza, 1986, Hobson 1988. ...
Thesis
Ziel dieser Arbeit war es, das Verständnis über Reaktionen von Tomaten auf limitiertes Nährstoffangebot zu verbessern. In der Kontrollbehandlung (100% Biomassewachstum) wurden Pflanzen ohne Nährstofflimitierung kultiviert. Bei den Mangelvarianten wurde entweder K, Mg oder N kontinuierlich in Raten angeboten, die das Wachstum auf etwa 80% (leichter Mangel) oder 60% (starker Mangel) der Kontrolle reduzierten. Dieser Versuchsansatz ermöglichte es, pflanzliche Reaktionen auf eine gut definierte Intensität von Mangel an K, Mg und N zu vergleichen. Nährstofflimitierung veränderte die Biomasse- und Nährstoffallokation auf die verschiedenen Pflanzenorgane, wobei diese Veränderungen sich je nach Nährstoff unterschieden, aber nicht von der Intensität des Mangels abhängig waren. Die Wirkungen von Nährstofflimitierung auf morphologische Wurzel- und Sprosseigenschaften waren ebenfalls Nährstoff-spezifisch und nicht abhängig von der Intensität des Mangels. Die Wirkungen auf die Fruchtqualität, z.B. den Gehalt an Zuckern, Lycopin und Vitamin C waren Nährstoff-spezifisch und bei einigen Parametern auch von der Intensität des Mangels abhängig. Die Pflanzenreaktionen auf Mg-Mangel wurden in größerem Detail untersucht. In den ersten 6 Tagen nach Beginn der Limitierung nahmen die Mg-Konzentrationen in allen Organen stark ab, ohne Wirkung auf das Wachstum und die Photosynthese. Mangel erhöhte die Blattzuckergehalte, aber die Zuckerakkumulation stand in keiner Beziehung zur Photosyntheserate. Diese nahm erst ab, wenn die Blatt-Konzentrationen auf Werte unterhalb von 0,1 bis 0,2 mg Mg g-1 Frischmasse abgesunken waren. In Mg-Mangelpflanzen akkumulierten Zucker in den Sourceblättern sogar wenn das Source/Sink-Verhältnis in den Pflanzen durch Beschattung der basalen Blätter stark verringert wurde. Das stimmt mit der Annahme überein, dass Mg-Mangel aufgrund einer Inhibierung der Phloembeladung den Zuckerexport aus den Blättern verringert.
... Several study have been conducted in tomato where high temperature induces a strong reduction of lycopene content in fruits (Tomes, 1963;Dumas et al., 2003). The optimal temperature for lycopene accumulation in tomato ranges from 20 to 24 °C (Krumbein et al., 2006). Moreover, the effects of mineral nutrients in the soil on carotenoid content have been analyzed in numerous agronomic trials (Kopsell et al., 2003;Dumas et al. 2003). ...
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The carotenoids are natural phytochemicals important to exploit the nutritional value of fruits and vegetables because they are required as provitamin A, antioxidants and immune system stimulants. At biochemical level, the biosynthetic pathway has been extensively clarified in several organisms and a near complete set of genes encoding enzymes have been identified. Some major crops (i.e. cereals or potato) are characterized by insufficient (or null) carotenoid content and to combat malnutrition, especially in developing countries, food biofortification is a relevant objective. Traditional approaches of breeding have been applied in some vegetables to study the genetic factors implicated in carotenoid accumulation and more recently, several interesting results have been obtained by recombinant DNA techniques. The regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis is only partially known and it deserves particular attention to improve the efficiency of plant breeding. In the introduction of this chapter, we summarize the roles of carotenoids in plants and animals as well as the essential steps of biosynthetic pathway in higher plants. Then, we report basic aspects on regulatory mechanisms of carotenogenesis also including the characterization of some mutants in crop species with altered profile of carotenoid composition. Finally, with respect to species where traditional and innovative plant breeding have been applied, we review the main results obtained.
... Carotenoids were analyzed according to Krumbein et al. (2006). Briefly, 15 g homogenized tomatoes were mixed with 1 g calcium carbonate, 30 g sodium sulfate, and 30 mL acetone for 2 min. ...
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Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi can affect many different micronutrients and macronutrients in plants and also influence host volatile compound synthesis. Their effect on the edible portions of plants is less clear. Two separate studies were performed to investigate whether inoculation by AM fungi (Rhizophagus irregularis, Funneliformis mosseae, or both) can affect the food quality of tomato fruits, in particular common minerals, antioxidants, carotenoids, a suite of vitamins, and flavor compounds (sugars, titratable acids, volatile compounds). It was found that AM fungal inoculation increased the nutrient quality of tomato fruits for most nutrients except vitamins. Fruit mineral concentration increased with inoculation (particularly N, P, and Cu). Similarly, inoculated plants had fruit with higher antioxidant capacity and more carotenoids. Furthermore, five volatile compounds were significantly higher in AM plants compared with non-AM controls. Taken together, these results show that AM fungi represent a promising resource for improving both sustainable food production and human nutritional needs.
Chapter
Since the prehistoric times, at least 60,000 years back as per fossil records, humans have been using natural products, such as plants, animals, microorganisms, and marine organisms, in medicines to alleviate and treat diseases. The use of natural products as medicines must have a great challenge to early humans because when seeking food in forests and hills, early humans often consumed poisonous plants, which led them to vomiting, diarrhea, coma, or other toxic reaction-even death. Subsequently, they were able to develop knowledge about edible plant materials and to use many plants as natural medicines for treatment of diseases and ailments, which are the basis of traditional medicine. Such forms of traditional medicines, namely, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), Indian Ayurveda, Greek-Arabic Unani, Japanese Kampo, and traditional Korean medicine, known as Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM) have been practiced worldwide for more than thousands of years and have blossomed into the present systems of modern medicines. The advancement of modern technology helped us to evaluate the pharmacology and mechanism of action of many medicinal herbs in treatment of diseases and to use them as cornerstones of modern medicine. In the historic year 1805, German pharmacist Friedrich Serturner isolated morphine from the opium plant, Papaver somniferum L., and laid the foundation of modern medicine. Subsequently, countless active natural molecules, known as phytochemicals have been separated from natural plant and microbial extracts, and many of them have potential anticancer, antihypertensive, hypolipidemic, antiobese, antidiabetic, antiviral, antileishmanial, and antimigraine medicative properties. These phytochemicals, which have evolved over millions of years, have a unique chemical structural diversity, which results in the diversity of their biological actions to alleviate and treat critical human diseases. A group of evidence advocates that a “multidrugs” and “multi-targets” approach would be more effective compared to a “single-drug” and “single-target” approach in the treatment of complex diseases like obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Phytochemicals present in a single herb or in a herbal formulation can function alone or synergistically with other phytochemicals in a “multi-targets” approach to produce desired pharmacological effect in prevention and cure of complex diseases. The optimal efficacy of the herbal/polyherbal extract depends on its correct dosage containing the optimal concentration of bioactive phytochemical (s) and the method of preparing and processing of the herbal/polyherbal composition and the appropriate time of collection of plant parts. Therefore, the research on natural products is a thrust area for future research in drug discovery (Yuan et al. 2016). This chapter summarizes the current progress in the study of the antiobesity and antidiabetic potentials of natural products and their main bioactive phytochemicals, major molecular mechanisms in preventing and treating obesity and diabetes, and their associated complications.
Article
Grafting is an important means to overcome the obstacles of continuous cropping of solanaceous vegetables. The objective of this subject was to evaluate the performance of different rootstocks in grafted tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) under coconut coir cultivation. This research was carried out on a scion ‘Ruifen 882’ grafted onto four rootstocks (‘Guangzhen 1’, ‘Zhenai 1’, ‘Ganzhen 1’, and ‘Guozhen 1’) in comparison with non-grafted and self-grafted ‘Ruifen 882’ plants. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse environment and adopted the casing grafting method with three replicates; 20 plants per replicate were employed in a randomized block design. The following variables were analyzed: graft survival rate, growth parameters (plant height, stem diameter, fresh and dry weight of above-ground part and under-ground part, root-shoot ratio and strong seedling index), physiological characteristics (chlorophyll and mineral element contents), fruit yield, and fruit quality (hardness, soluble solid, soluble sugar, titratable acid, vitamin C and lycopene). The results of growth monitoring indicated that grafting could improve the growth and development of tomato plants at the seedling stage and ‘Ruifen 882’/‘Guozhen 1’ (R/GUO) had high grafting survival rate of nearly 98%, which is close to the self-grafted plants. Physiological analysis showed that R/GUO and ‘Ruifen 882’/‘Zhenai 1’ (R/ ZA) significantly increased the chlorophyll content and absorption of K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Na, Mn and Cu. On fruit yield, grafts ‘Ruifen 882’/‘Ganzhen 1’ (R/GAN) and R/GUO had better performance. Comprehensive analysis showed that the best results for tomato scion growth, development, fruit quality and yield were observed with the graft combination R/GUO.
Chapter
Agricultural production is highly influenced by the weather unpredictability which is gradually becoming severe due to the changing global climate system. In general, vegetable crops are highly sensitive to climatic extremes like high and low temperatures, moisture stress, salinity stress, etc. The elevated atmospheric CO2 levels have also disturbed the normal growth and development of crop plants. The important members of the Solanaceae family, consisting of a prime group of vegetables, are greatly affected by these environmental vagaries leading to lower productivity and poor quality. The responsiveness of various plants as a whole and Solanaceous vegetable crops (tomato, potato, pepper, and eggplant) in particular towards the elevating temperature and CO2 has been thoroughly discussed in this chapter.
Chapter
Plants in nature are continuously exposed to several biotic and environmental limitations. Among these limitations, soil water deficit is one of the most adverse factors of plant growth and productivity and is considered a severe threat for sustainable crop production in the conditions of changing climate. Scarcity of water is a severe environmental constraint to plant productivity. Soil water deficit-induced loss in crop yield probably exceeds losses from all other causes, since both the severity and duration of the limitations are critical. Various management strategies have been proposed to cope with soil water deficit. Soil water deficit reduces leaf size, stem extension, and root proliferation, disturbs plant–water relations, and reduces water use efficiency. Plants display a variety of physiological and biochemical responses at cellular and whole-organism levels towards prevailing soil water deficit, thus making it a complex phenomenon. CO2 assimilation by leaves is reduced mainly by stomatal closure, membrane damage, and disturbed activity of various enzymes, especially those of CO2 fixation and adenosine triphosphate synthesis. Low molecular weight osmolytes, including glycine betaine, proline, and other amino acids, organic acids, and polyols are crucial to sustain cellular functions under soil water deficit. Plant growth substances such as salicylic acid, auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, and abscisic acid modulate the plant responses towards soil water deficit. Polyamines, citrulline, and several enzymes act as antioxidants and reduce the adverse effects of water deficit. Soil water deficit is a multidimensional phenomenon affecting plants at various levels of their organization. The effect of and plant response to soil water deficit at the whole plant and crop level is most complex because it reflects the integration of these environmental limitation effects and responses at all underlying levels of organization over space and time.
Chapter
The number of Carotenoids of most natural sources is not as much of, so frequent dosing and a large amount of the source need to be consumed. The fortified carotenoid source overcomes this problem. Several strategies are used to fortify carotenoid content. One is the agricultural conventional breeding method, while the second includes the genetic engineering method used to enhance the content. The traditional techniques are cheaper but required persistent efforts to achieve the target. While genetic engineering is an expensive method but fortification may be achieved successfully. Another strategy which fortification at the consumer level, i.e., increase in bioavailability of the carotenoids.
Article
Carotenoids participate in photosynthesis and photoprotection in oxygenic phototrophs. Euglena gracilis, a eukaryotic phytoflagellate, synthesizes several carotenoids: β-carotene, neoxanthin, diadinoxanthin and diatoxanthin. Temperature is one of the most striking external stimuli altering carotenoid production. In the present study, to elucidate the regulation of carotenoid synthesis of E. gracilis in response to environmental stimuli, we functionally identified phytoene desaturase genes (crtP1 and crtP2) and the ζ-carotene desaturase gene (crtQ) of this alga and analyzed expression of those genes and the composition of major carotenoids in cells grown under cold (20˚􏰀C) and high-intensity light (HL; 240 µmol photon m–􏰁2 s–􏰁1) conditions. 20˚􏰀C–HL treatment increased the transcriptional level of the phytoene synthase gene (crtB), and crtP1 and crtP2, whose products catalyze the early steps of carotenoid biosynthesis in this alga. Cultivation at 20􏰀˚C under illumination at 55 µmol photon m􏰁–2 s–􏰁1 (low-intensity light; LL) decreased the cell concentration, Chl and total major carotenoid content by 61, 75 and 50%, respectively, relative to control (25˚􏰀C–LL) cells. When grown at 20˚􏰀C–HL, the cells showed a greater decrease in cell concentration and photosynthetic pigment contents than those in 20􏰀˚C–LL. β-Carotene, neoxanthin and diadinoxanthin contents were decreased by more than half in 20˚􏰀C–LL and 20􏰀˚C–HL treatments. On the other hand, when subjected to 20􏰀˚C–LL and 20􏰀˚C–HL, the cells retained a diatoxanthin content comparable with control cells. Our findings suggested that diatoxanthin plays crucial roles in the acclimation to cold and intense light condition. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on a photosynthetic organism possessing dual crtP genes.
Article
Greenhouse and controlled environment technology was traditionally developed to extend the crop cycle into the seasons that are not suitable for openfield production. Controlled environment technologies have also focused on optimizing environmental conditions to maximize plant growth and development rate as well as product quality. Today, product quality is a critical factor due to the increasingly competitive nature of the market for greenhouse products. Recognizing the unique opportunity to improve overall or specific product quality, various research has shown that the greenhouse environments could be tailored so that the products gain extra value such as improved vigor, nutritional quality or extended postharvest shelf life. For example, our research at the University of Arizona demonstrated that application of moderate salt stress to tomato plants could enhance soluble solids and lycopene concentrations in fruit throughout the experimental year-round production. However, it is also recognized that environmental conditions that maximize the biomass production are not necessarily the same as those that enhance the product quality. Therefore, economic analysis needs to be conducted and effective marketing strategies to promote and educate consumers must be developed to profitably introduce such controlled environment technologies that enhance specific quality attributes by reducing overall yields. In addition to pre-harvest controlled environment technologies, researchers should consider possible effects of post-harvest handling and storage environments and distribution methods to ensure delivery of high product quality to the consumers. Researchers and extension personnel must take a transdisciplinary systems approach that considers all factors involved from greenhouse production to consumption to successfully introduce such technologies that support sustainable development of greenhouse industry.
Conference Paper
Nowadays a trend in soilless cultivation systems is toward re-circulating and re-use of nutrient solution to avoid nutrient losses and to protect the environment. The standard strategy is the application of a nutrient solution based on empirical recipes and frequent analyses of the nutrient concentration in the solution. New concepts to predict nutrient and water uptake and thus supply are developed by several research groups. They are based mainly on growth and transpiration models and aim to synchronize nutrient uptake and supply related to yield. One of the remaining problems is the adaptation of the nutrient supply to climatic conditions. However, the larger present and future challenge is the nutrient management controlling further aspects of soilless production, particularly plant/microorganism interactions as well as taste and health related compounds in the product. The supply of silicon, phosphite, calcium, iron or other nutrients or nutrient like compounds may reduce the pathogenic activity in soilless systems. Regulation of pH and the control of the NO3/NH4 ratio can also have antipathogenic effects. On the other hand, antagonistic or plant growth promoting microorganisms can be fostered by a limited phosphorous supply (mycorrhizal fungi) or by a change of the composition (e.g., endophytes). Besides, appearance, taste and health related compounds determine produce quality. The improvement of taste by the increase of total sugars and soluble acids in tomato fruits is already a common practice. However, the use of different N-forms and the control of single nutrients, such as potassium, calcium, their ratio, and sulphate, can also influence quality related characteristics variously. This can affect even the allergenic potential or other nutraceutical properties of vegetables, not very much regarded yet. The consideration of microorganism and produce quality aspects often seems to counteract yield enhancement. Therefore, strategies are needed to optimize all aspects of nutrient supply, climate, and microorganism control to aim at an environmentally friendly and profitably grown produce of high quality. In the review examples from the research at the IGZ are presented indicating the conflict of plant, microorganism, consumer, and environmental demands and contributing to the search for an optimal crop management in soilless production.
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Lowering the temperature set point for heating is an important method of reducing energy consumption, and hence carbon dioxide emissions, in greenhouse tomato production. Nonetheless, this measure is rarely applied in Central European and North American greenhouses due to the high value of the product, worries about a decline in yield and quality, and the prices of fossil fuels, which continue to be relatively moderate. Temperature decreases can only be introduced successfully if the constraints of ecological and economic feasibility involved are known. To this end, two experiments were conducted in which tomato plants were cultivated at day and night heating set points of 20/18, 16/14 and 11/9. °C, respectively. In all of the treatments, the set points for opening the ventilation were an air temperature of 27. °C and 80% relative air humidity. Crop photosynthesis appeared to be unaffected by the temperature set point for heating, although the concentrations of leaf soluble sugar and starch increased significantly at low temperatures compared to at high temperatures. The reduction in the temperature set points also appeared to have no impact on the total production of dry matter, the dry matter fraction allocated to the fruit and, thus, the total fruit yield. However, each one Kelvin reduction in temperature resulted in a 3.5-day increase in the time required for fruit to develop and, thus, in a considerable delay of the first harvest. This delay was balanced out by higher yields generated in later harvests. The temperature of the fruit itself rather than that of the complete plant was responsible for this delay. Surprisingly, the reduction in temperature had little effect on the quality of the fruit: the mass of single fruits increased significantly as temperature decreased. However, there was no effect on the fruit reducing sugar content, and only a slight decrease in fruit titratable acid content. From an ecological perspective, carbon dioxide emissions caused by tomato production can be cut considerably by reducing the heating set points without affecting yield and only having a slight effect on the quality of the fruit. From an economic perspective, any loss of profit due to the delay of harvests would have to be balanced out by the savings generating by turning down the heating.
Thesis
Anbaubegleitende spektral-optische Analysen direkt an der Pflanze haben zunehmend Bedeutung für die gartenbauliche Produktion. Veränderungen individueller Pflanzeninhaltsstoffe können mit Hilfe optischer Sensoren unmittelbar und beliebig oft erfasst werden, wodurch Pflanzenreaktionen auf veränderte Umgebungs- und Kulturbedingungen instrumentell messbar sind. Im Konzept eines Präzisionsgartenbau könnten diese zusätzlichen Informationen adaptiven Kulturmaßnahmen dienen und zur effizienten Nutzung von Ressourcen in der Produktion von Obst und Gemüse beitragen. Die wellenlängenspezifische Lichtabsorption pflanzlicher Gewebe ermöglicht zerstörungsfreie Reflexions- oder Transmissionsmessungen und die Adressierung von Pigmentgruppen im ultravioletten und sichtbaren Bereich des elektromagnetischen Spektrums. Auf Grund veränderlicher Gehalte während des Wachstum und der Entwicklung pflanzlicher Gewebe, sind Pigmente zudem wichtige Indikatoren für den physiologischen Zustand von Obst und Gemüse. Präzise zerstörungsfreie Spektralanalysen werden allerdings durch komplexe optische Eigenschaften biologischen Materials, besonders im Hinblick auf die Reifeentwicklung von Obst und Gemüse erschwert. Zur Lösung dieser Problematik wurde ein neuer iterativer Ansatz (iMLR) entwickelt, der überlagerte in-situ und in-vivo Spektren individueller Pigmente aus einem Summenmessspektrum separiert. Dieser Algorithmus wurde in eine eigenständige Applikation überführt. Eine Datenbank enthält spektrale Signaturen von Chlorophyll a und b, Lycopin, β-Carotin, α-Carotin, Lutein und Violaxanthin. Obwohl die spektrale Analyse einzelner Pigmente durch optische Störgrößen in komplex aufgebauten biologischen Geweben und Pigmentgemischen erschwert ist, konnte ein neuer Ansatz erarbeitet und validiert werden. Diese Methode minimiert spektrale Überlagerung von in-situ und in-vivo aufgezeichneten Messsummensignalen und analysiert Pigmentgehalte in Farbstoffgemische zuverlässig.
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The effects of temperature on growth, development and yield of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) are reviewed with special emphasis on cultivar differences. The focus is on sub-optimal temperatures, above the level where chilling injury occurs. Temperature has a large effect on all aspects of development. Leaf and truss initiation rates decrease linearly with decreasing temperature. Although these rates may be different for different cultivars their response to temperature is the same. Young plants grown at sub-optimal temperatures produce thicker leaves, so they intercept less light and therefore have a lower relative growth rate. There was no interaction between temperature and cultivar for relative growth rate and related traits. In a crop producing fruits, this aspect is less important as most of the light is intercepted anyway. At sub-optimal temperatures, fruit set is reduced as a result of poorer pollen quality. The period between anthesis and ripening of the fruit increases and, as the growth rate of the fruit at a certain developmental stage is independent of temperature, fruits become larger at sub-optimal temperature. Higher temperature leads to an increase in early yield, at the cost of vegetative growth, but may also cause a delay in later trusses. Total yield over a whole season might be equal at lower temperatures, but higher tomato prices early in the season do not make it economically profitable to reduce the temperature in the greenhouse. Short-term effects might thus be different from long-term effects. In the literature, the link between yield and whole plant growth is often missing, limiting the possibilities of studying the underlying processes that contribute to changes in yield. Breeding for cultivars with equal production at lower temperatures is hampered by the limited variation for temperature response in cultivated tomato. Therefore breeders have to look for other sources of variation, as in related wild Lycopersicon species.
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The effect of the C0 <sub>2</sub> concentration of the greenhouse air (C) in the range 200 to 1100 μmol mol <sup>-1</SUP>was investigated in tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), cucumber ( Cucumis sativus L.), sweet pepper ( Capsicum annuum L.) and eggplant ( Solanum melongena L.), grown in greenhouses.The effect of C on canopy net photosynthetic C0 <sub>2</sub> assimilation rate (or photosynthesis, P) was expressed by a set of regression equations, relating P to PAR, C and LAI. A rule of thumb ('CO <sub>2</sub> -rule') was derived, approximating the relative increase of P caused by additional C0 <sub>2</sub> at a certain C. This C0 <sub>2</sub> -rule is: X = (1000/C) <sup>2</SUP>* 1.5 (X in % per 100 μmol mol <sup>-1</SUP>, and C in μmol mol <sup>-1</SUP>). Two models for canopy photosynthesis were examined by comparing them with the experimental photosynthesis data. No 'midday depression' in P was observed.The effects of C on leaf conductance ( g ) and on rate of crop transpiration ( E ) were investigated. An increase of 100 μmol mol <sup>-1</SUP>in C reduced g by about 3-4% in sweet pepper, tomato and cucumber and by about 11 % in eggplant. The effect of C on E was analyzed by combining the regression equation for g with the Penman-Monteith equation for E . C had only a relatively small effect on E , owing to thermal and hydrological feedback effects. The decoupling of g and E was quantified. No timedependent variation or 'midday depression' in E was observed, and no significant effect of C on average leaf temperature was established.In five experiments, the effect of C on growth and production and on specific features were analyzed: light use efficiency was increased by about 10 to 15% per 100 μmol mol <sup>-1</SUP>increase in C; fruit set of sweet pepper was greatly increased by high C; allocation of biomass to fruits was increased by high C in sweet pepper and cucumber; specific leaf area (SLA) was reduced by 15 to 20% at 150 to 250 μmol mol <sup>-1</SUP>increase in C (except in cucumber); dry matter content (DMC) of vegetative organs slightly increased at high C (also not in cucumber); fruit production (dry weight) was most affected by C in sweet pepper; fresh weight fruit production per unit CO <sub>2</sub> was highest in cucumber; fruit quality was not influenced by C. High C promoted the 'short leaves syndrome' in tomato and 'leaf tip chlorosis' in eggplant, probably related to calcium and boron translocation, respectively. The observed effect of C on production was larger than expected on the basis of the CO <sub>2</sub> -rule. Intermittent CO <sub>2</sub> supply (ICS) could under normal ventilation accomplish only a limited increase in average C, and hence a limited increase in production. No physiological advantages of ICS were revealed.
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The onium compound 2–(4-chlorophenylthio)-triethylamine (CPTA) was used to increase lycopene formation to levels approximating those in field–or glasshousegrown fruit, and then growth regulators, sucrose and temperature were used to regulate lycopene accumulation. It was found that the native auxin indole–3– acetic acid (IAA) was substantially more effective than 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4–D) in promoting lycopene formation, sucrose inhibited lycopene formation (cell basis), and temperature produced a pattern similar to that observed in the field with a temperature optimum between 18 and 26 °C. Suggestions for further improvements in technique are included.
Article
Tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum (L.) Mill. cv. F144) were irrigated with low concentrations of mixed salts; the highest level (E.C. 7 dS m-1) simulated conditions used to produce quality tomatoes in the Negev highlands. CO2 enrichment (to 1200 μmol mol-1, given during the daytime) increased plant growth at the early stage of development. However, later growth enhancement was maintained only when combined with salt stress. In the absence of CO2 supplementation, overall growth decreased with salt (7 dS m-1) to 58% and fresh biomass yields to 53% of the controls. However, under elevated CO2 concentrations total plant dry biomass was not reduced by salt stress. CO2 enrichment of plants grown with 7 dS m-1 salt increased total fresh fruit yields by 48% and maintained fruit quality in terms of total soluble salts, glucose and acidity. Fruit ripening was about 10 d earlier under CO2 enrichment, regardless of salinity treatment. It is suggested that a combined utilization of brackish water and CO2 supplementation may enable the production of high-quality fruits without incurring all the inevitable loss in yields associated with salt treatment.
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In terms of human diet, the tomato is a major component of daily meals in many countries and constitutes an excellent source of health-promoting compounds due to the balanced mixture of minerals and antioxidants including vitamins C and E, lycopene, β-carotene, lutein and flavonoids such as quercetin. These compounds vary according to cultivar, crop management and stage of fruit ripening at harvest. For example, orange cultivars have a higher content of carotenoids, vitamin A and volatile compounds, while yellow cultivars contain up to ten times less lycopene than red cultivars. Health quality of the tomato fruit also vary with interactions between cultivars, environmental factors such as light and temperature, composition of the nutrient solution and crop management. Although the formation of carotenoids in ripening fruit does not require induction by light, shaded fruits have lower carotenoid content. Whereas red light influences chlorophyll breakdown, carotenoid synthesis is enhanced by blue light. Increasing the EC of the nutrient solution may also lead to an increase in fresh fruit minerals, carotene and vitamin C, while high Ca or N fertilization adversely influences carotenoids and vitamin content. On the other hand, when potassium is increased in the nutrient solution, lycopene concentration is found to be higher. Concentration of antioxidant vitamins also changes with fruit ripening and will be discussed in this review. The purpose of this paper is to show how the health-promoting compounds of tomato fruit may be improved through varietal selection and by controlling conditions of production and harvest. In the face of a global market economy and public awareness of health attributes of food, obtaining tomato fruit of very high health quality is essential for insuring health benefit and consequently consumer satisfaction. This review will then conclude on the best strategy to adopt for improvement of the health-promoting phytochemicals of tomato.
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Cultivars of selected Brassica species (B. juncea, B. rapa subsp. nipposinica var. chinoleifera, B. rapa subsp. chinensis and B. rapa subsp. rapa) showed significant differences in their composition and contents of phytochemicals and ascorbic acid. B. juncea was characterised by high proportion of alkenyl glucosinolates (85 to 96%) with a predominance of sinigrin; whereas in B. rapa subsp. nipposinica var. chinoleifera and B. rapa subsp. chinensis, the alkenyl glucosinolate proportion varied between 27 and 88% and consisted mainly of gluconapin, glucobrassicanapin and progoitrin. In B. rapa subsp. rapa, the main glucosinolate was the aryl glucosinolate gluconasturtiin (44 to 47%) with a relatively high level between 23.6 and 35.9 mg 100 g-1 FM. Distinct genotypic variations were also observed for lutein (3.4 to 8.9 mg 100 g-1 FM), β-carotene (1.8 to 4.3 mg 100 g-1 FM) as well as chlorophyll a (35.7 to 96.8 mg 100 g-1 FM) and chlorophyll b (11.4 to 30.5 mg 100 g-1 FM). The cultivars 'Green Boy' (B. rapa subsp. nipposinica var. chinoleifera), 'Tatsoi' (B. rapa subsp. chinensis) and 'Green in Snow' (B. juncea) were rich in carotenoids (9 to 12 mg 100 g -1 FM) and chlorophylls (86 to 126 mg 100 g-1 FM). In contrast to other leafy vegetables tested, the Asian vegetables B. juncea, B. rapa subsp. nipposinica var. chinoleifera and B. rapa subsp. chinensis had relatively high ascorbic acid contents of between 49.2 and 89.1 mg 100 g -1 FM.
Article
The combined effect of increasing concentrations of NaCl in the irrigation water and fertilization with different nitrogen sources on the chemical composition of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) fruit was investigated. Increasing water salinity from 0.5 dS m-1 (non-salinized control) to 15.7 dS m-1 resulted in both reduced fruit size and fruit water content, whereas it caused an increase in soluble solids, carbohydrates, sodium and chloride concentrations. Titratable acidity increased upon irrigation with saline water, whereas the fruit redness significantly decreased. In addition, salinity reduced P, K+, Mg2+ and NO3- fruit concentrations. Total carotenoids and lycopene concentrations expressed on both fresh- and dry-weight basis gradually increased from the non-salinized control to the 4.4 dS m-1 treatment (approximately 0.25% NaCl w/v) and they decreased at electrical conductivities of the irrigation water higher than 4.4 dS m-1. Overall these data show that it is possible to improve carotenoid content and antioxidative activity of tomato, with an acceptable yield reduction, by irrigating with saline water containing NaCl up to 0.25% (w/v).
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The carotenoid metabolism in tomato fruit in relation to high temperature inhibition of pigmentation was investigated with pericarp sections of tomato fruits stored at 20°C, 30°C, and 35 °C. The pericarp sections were incubated with 2-14C-mevalonic acid for 10 hours at the same temperatures as the storage temperatures. When tomatoes were stored longer and at higher temperatures, the radioactivity of lycopene extracted from pericarp sections was low, whereas, that of β-carotene was high. The specific radioactivity of the carotenes decreased in order of the steps of carotenoid biosynthetic pathway, phytoene → lycopene → β-carotene, in all the sections of the fruit stored at each of the temperatures. We postulate from these results that high temperature inhibits the accumulation of lycopene in tomato fruit because the conversion of lycopene to β-carotene is stimulated instead.
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Antioxidants are believed to be important in the prevention of diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disease. Lycopene is one of the main antioxidants to be found in fresh tomatoes and processed tomato products. The lycopene content also accounts for the redness of the fruit, which is one of the main qualities for which industry and consumers now look. Other carotenes (such as β-carotene), vitamin C, vitamin E and various phenolic compounds are also thought to be health-promoting factors with antioxidant properties. Since the antioxidant content of tomatoes may depend on genetic factors, the choice of variety cultivated may affect the results at harvest. To be able to control the antioxidant content of tomatoes at the field level when growing a given variety, it is necessary to know the effects of both environmental factors and the agricultural techniques used. Temperatures below 12 °C strongly inhibit lycopene biosynthesis and temperatures above 32 °C stop this process altogether. The effects of the temperature on the synthesis of other antioxidants have not yet been properly assessed. The effects of light have been studied more thoroughly, apart from those on vitamin E. The effects of water availability, mineral nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and calcium) and plant growth regulators have been studied, but results are sometimes contradictory and the data often incomplete. During the ripening period, lycopene content of tomatoes increases sharply from the pink stage onwards, but no sufficient attempts have been made so far to assess the changes in the other antioxidants present in the fruit. This paper reviews the present state of the art. Copyright © 2003 Society of Chemical Industry
Article
Atmospheric CO2 enrichment is known to significantly enhance the growth and development of nearly all plants, implying a potential for elevated levels of CO2 to alter the concentrations of plant constituents related to animal and human health. Our review of this subject indicates that increases in the air's CO2 content typically lead to reductions in the nitrogen and protein concentrations of animal-sustaining forage and human-sustaining cereal grains when soil nitrogen levels are sub-optimal. When plants are supplied with all the nitrogen they can use, however, no such reductions are observed. CO2-enriched plants growing in the natural environment also tend to overcome initial reductions in plant mineral concentrations as time progresses, possibly due to development of larger root systems and consequent enhanced abilities to locate and absorb mineral nutrients. Atmospheric CO2 enrichment additionally appears to reduce oxidative stresses in plants; and it has been shown to increase the concentration of vitamin C in certain fruits and vegetables. Elevated CO2 has also been demonstrated to increase the biomass of plants grown for medicinal purposes while simultaneously increasing the concentrations of the disease-fighting substances produced within them. It is likely, therefore, that the ongoing rise in the air's CO2 content will continue to increase food production around the world, while maintaining the nutritive quality of that food and enhancing the production of certain disease-inhibiting plant compounds.
Article
The influence of three concentrations of nutrient solution (electrical conductivity, EC: 1.0, 3.5 and 6.0 dS m(-1)) on the sensory properties of tomato was investigated. Two tomato cultivars representing two types-a conventional round tomato (cv. Counter) and a round longlife tomato (cv. Vanessa)-were harvested from a closed hydroponic system with recirculating nutrient solution. The same products were investigated by quantitative descriptive analysis with trained panellists and by an acceptance test with consumers. Furthermore, the contents of reducing sugars and the titratable acid of fruits were analysed. To find explanations for consumer preferences relationships between the results of quantitative descriptive analysis, consumer acceptance tests and the sugar and acid contents of the fruits were investigated. The quantitative descriptive analysis revealed changing intensities of sensory attributes of appearance, firmness by touch, flavour, aftertaste and mouthfeel with increasing nutrient solution EC. However, the change of different sensory attributes was different for the two cultivars. Intensity of unfavourable flavour attributes such as mouldy, spoiled sweetish and hitter was stronger only for the longlife cultivar when cultivated at high EC. Higher EC values resulted in higher contents of reducing sugars and titratable acid, which influenced the intensity of several sensory attributes of smell, flavour and aftertaste evaluated by the descriptive panel.
Article
Lycopene is a non-provitamin A carotenoid present in human blood and tissues. The major dietary sources of lycopene for the human are tomatoes and tomato products. Protective effects of a lycopene-rich diet on some types of cancer were suggested on the basis of epidemiological studies. There are several biochemical mechanisms potentially underlying the protective effects of lycopene. These include antioxidant activity such as the quenching of singlet oxygen and the scavenging of peroxyl radicals, induction of cell-cell communication, and growth control. In vitro and in vivo studies support this assumption. Dietary lycopene is absorbed and distributed in the human organism, but its bioavailability depends on various factors such as food processing or coingestion of fat. Little is known about the metabolism of lycopene. Potentially biologically active oxidation products of lycopene have been identified in human plasma.
Article
Lycopene is the pigment principally responsible for the characteristic deep-red color of ripe tomato fruits and tomato products. It has attracted attention due to its biological and physicochemical properties, especially related to its effects as a natural antioxidant. Although it has no provitamin A activity, lycopene does exhibit a physical quenching rate constant with singlet oxygen almost twice as high as that of beta-carotene. This makes its presence in the diet of considerable interest. Increasing clinical evidence supports the role of lycopene as a micronutrient with important health benefits, because it appears to provide protection against a broad range of epithelial cancers. Tomatoes and related tomato products are the major source of lycopene compounds, and are also considered an important source of carotenoids in the human diet. Undesirable degradation of lycopene not only affects the sensory quality of the final products, but also the health benefit of tomato-based foods for the human body. Lycopene in fresh tomato fruits occurs essentially in the all-trans configuration. The main causes of tomato lycopene degradation during processing are isomerization and oxidation. Isomerization converts all-trans isomers to cis-isomers due to additional energy input and results in an unstable, energy-rich station. Determination of the degree of lycopene isomerization during processing would provide a measure of the potential health benefits of tomato-based foods. Thermal processing (bleaching, retorting, and freezing processes) generally cause some loss of lycopene in tomato-based foods. Heat induces isomerization of the all-trans to cis forms. The cis-isomers increase with temperature and processing time. In general, dehydrated and powdered tomatoes have poor lycopene stability unless carefully processed and promptly placed in a hermetically sealed and inert atmosphere for storage. A significant increase in the cis-isomers with a simultaneous decrease in the all-trans isomers can be observed in the dehydrated tomato samples using the different dehydration methods. Frozen foods and heat-sterilized foods exhibit excellent lycopene stability throughout their normal temperature storage shelf life. Lycopene bioavailability (absorption) can be influenced by many factors. The bioavailability of cis-isomers in food is higher than that of all-trans isomers. Lycopene bioavailability in processed tomato products is higher than in unprocessed fresh tomatoes. The composition and structure of the food also have an impact on the bioavailability of lycopene and may affect the release of lycopene from the tomato tissue matrix. Food processing may improve lycopene bioavailability by breaking down cell walls, which weakens the bonding forces between lycopene and tissue matrix, thus making lycopene more accessible and enhancing the cis-isomerization. More information on lycopene bioavailability, however, is needed. The pharmacokinetic properties of lycopene remain particularly poorly understood. Further research on the bioavalability, pharmacology, biochemistry, and physiology must be done to reveal the mechanism of lycopene in human diet, and the in vivo metabolism of lycopene. Consumer demand for healthy food products provides an opportunity to develop lycopene-rich food as new functional foods, as well as food-grade and pharmaceutical-grade lycopene as new nutraceutical products. An industrial scale, environmentally friendly lycopene extraction and purification procedure with minimal loss of bioactivities is highly desirable for the foods, feed, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. High-quality lycopene products that meet food safety regulations will offer potential benefits to the food industry.
Article
Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in American men. Preventable measures for this malignancy are not well established. Among potentially beneficial natural compounds is the carotenoid lycopene, which is derived largely from tomato-based products. Recent epidemiologic studies have suggested a potential benefit of this carotenoid against the risk of prostate cancer, particularly the more lethal forms of this cancer. Five studies support a 30% to 40% reduction in risk associated with high tomato or lycopene consumption, three are consistent with a 30% reduction in risk, but the results were not statistically significant, and seven were not supportive of an association. The largest relevant dietary study, a prospective study in male health professionals found that consumption of two to four servings of tomato sauce per week was associated with about a 35% risk reduction of total prostate cancer and a 50% reduction of advanced (extraprostatic) prostate cancer. Tomato sauce was by far the strongest predictor of plasma lycopene levels in this study. In the largest plasma-based study, very similar risk reductions were observed for total and advanced prostate cancer for the highest versus lowest quintile of lycopene. Other studies, mostly dietary case-control studies, have not been as supportive of this hypothesis. The reasons for these inconsistencies are unclear, but in three of the seven null studies, tomato consumption or serum lycopene level may have been too low to observe an effect. Because the concentration and bioavailability of lycopene vary greatly across the various food items, dietary questionnaires vary markedly in their usefulness of estimating the true variation in tissue lycopene concentrations across individuals. To optimize the interpretation of future findings, the usefulness of the questionnaire to measure lycopene levels in a population should be directly assessed. Although not definitive, the available data suggest that increased consumption of tomatoes and tomato-based products may be prudent.
Article
People who consume a diet rich in fruit and vegetables have lower risks of cancer, cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. Many prospective cohort studies have reported inverse associations between dietary intake or blood levels of beta-carotene and risks of cancer. Several large-scale trials were set up to assess whether beta-carotene supplementation might reduce the risk of cancer. Subsequently, evidence emerged from basic research which indicated that oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol increases its atherogenicity. The evidence from basic research, and epidemiological evidence for a possible protective effect of antioxidant vitamins for cardiovascular disease was strongest for vitamin E. More recently, further trials were set up to examine if supplementation with anti-oxidant vitamins might also reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. This review summarises the available randomised evidence from published trials of beta-carotene supplementation involving 70,000 people from 3 large-scale trials in healthy populations and on vitamin E supplementation involving 29,000 patients at high-risk of cardiovascular disease from 5 large-scale trials. The results of these trials have been disappointing and failed to confirm any protective effect of these vitamins for either cancer or for cardiovascular disease.
Article
Carotenoids comprise a class of natural fat-soluble pigments which are found in numerous fruits and vegetables. The consumption of a diet rich in carotenoids has been epidemiologically correlated with a lower risk for several diseases. The antioxidant activity of carotenoids and biochemical properties influencing signaling pathways have been discussed as basic mechanisms of prevention. Conflicting data from intervention studies with beta-carotene to prevent cancers and cardiovascular disorders have challenged the concept. However, there is convincing evidence that carotenoids are important components of the antioxidant network. Photooxidative damage is suggested to be involved in the pathobiochemistry of several diseases affecting the skin and the eye, and carotenoids may protect light-exposed tissues. Lutein and zeaxanthin are the predominant carotenoids of the retina and are considered to act as photoprotectants preventing retinal degeneration. The unique distribution, localization and high levels of both carotenoids within the macula lutea as well as their physicochemical properties make them suitable candidates for photoprotection. beta-Carotene is used as an oral sun protectant for the prevention of sunburn and has been shown to be effective either alone or in combination with other carotenoids or antioxidant vitamins. Protective effects are also achieved with a diet rich in lycopene.
Article
Irrigation with saline water affects tomato fruit quality. While total fruit yield decreases with salinity, inner quality characterized by taste and health-promoting compounds can be improved. For a detailed description of this relationship, the influence of three different salt levels [electrical conductivity (EC) 3, 6.5, and 10] in hydroponically grown tomatoes was investigated. Rising salinity levels in the nutrient solution significantly increased vitamin C, lycopene, and beta-carotene in fresh fruits up to 35%. The phenol concentration was tendentiously enhanced, and the antioxidative capacity of phenols and carotenoids increased on a fresh weight basis. Additionally, the higher EC values caused an increase of total soluble solids and organic acids, parameters determining the taste of tomatoes. Total fruit yield, single fruit weight, and firmness significantly decreased with rising EC levels. Regression analyses revealed significant correlations between the EC level and the dependent variables single fruit weight, total soluble solids, titrable acids, lycopene, and antioxidative capacities of carotenoids and phenols, whereas vitamin C and phenols correlated best with truss number, and beta-carotene correlated best with temperature. Only pressure firmness showed no correlation with any of the measured parameters. As all desirable characteristics in the freshly produced tomato increased when exposed to salinity, salinity itself constitutes an alternative method of quality improvement. Moreover, it can compensate for the loss of yield by the higher inner quality due to changing demands by the market and the consumer. This investigation is to our knowledge the first comprehensive overview regarding parameters of outer quality (yield and firmness), taste (total soluble solids and acids), nutritional value (vitamin C, carotenoids, and phenolics), as well as antioxidative capacity in tomatoes grown under saline conditions.
Kleur-stadia tomaten
ANONYMOUS, 1992: Kleur-stadia tomaten. Central Bureau van de Tuibouwveilingen in Nederland (Ed.), 2803 PE Gouda.
Voedingsoplossingen voor de teelt van tomaat in gesloten teeltsystemen
  • C De Kreij
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  • A L Bos
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DE KREIJ, C., VOOGT, W., VAN DEN BOS, A.L., BAAS, R., 1997: Voedingsoplossingen voor de teelt van tomaat in gesloten teeltsystemen. Proefstation voor Bloemisterij en Glasgroente, Naaldwijk, The Netherlands VG2.
Greenhouse tomato fruit quality: the influence of environmental and cultural factors
  • M Dorais
  • A P Papadopolus
  • A Gosselin
DORAIS, M., PAPADOPOLUS, A.P., GOSSELIN, A., 2001: Greenhouse tomato fruit quality: the influence of environmental and cultural factors. Horticultural Reviews 26, 239-319.
Effect of postharvest temperature on the conversion of 14 C-mevalonic acid to carotenes in tomato fruit
  • Y Hamauzu
  • K Chacin
  • Y Ueda
HAMAUZU, Y., CHACIN, K., UEDA, Y., 1998: Effect of postharvest temperature on the conversion of 14 C-mevalonic acid to carotenes in tomato fruit. J.