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Yield, Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Properties of Extracts and Essential Oils of Sage and Rosemary Depending on Seasonal Variations

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The aim of this research was to determine yield, chemical composition and antioxidant properties of extracts and essential oils of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) leaves harvested during the months of June to September 2004. The maximum essential oil yields in the leaves were observed during July (3.24%) in sage and during August (1.35%) in rosemary. The maximum extract yields were found in July (15.57%) for sage and in June (30.48%) for rosemary. The sage oil was characterized by the presence of main components: camphore (20.73-26.07%), α-thujone (13.84-21.96), 1, 8-cineole (13.94-20.40%), ß-thujone (7.07-9.34%) and ß-caryophyllene (2.28-9.19%). Fourteen compounds of rosemary essential oil were identified and the main components were found as camphore (14.77-31.12%), 1, 8-cineole (7.70-26.18%), α-pinene (3.53-9.75%) and borneole (5.07-13.03%). Antiradical activities of sage and rosemary essential oils were found as IC 50=2492.84-6645.43 μg ml-1 and IC50=370.03- 2812.50 μg ml-1, respectively. Antioxidant capacities were also 25.20-43.46 mg AAE g-1 essential oil for sage and 18.53-37.95 mg AAE g-1 essential oil for rosemary. Sage and rosemary essential oils distilled from the early season (June) harvested leaves had the highest antioxidant activity, expressed as low concentration providing 50% inhibition of antiradical activity and high levels antioxidant capacity. Total phenolic content was between 85.33-110.52 mg GAE g-1 extract for sage and 94.29-104.44 mg GAE g-1 extract for rosemary. It was the lowest in June and the highest July in both extracts. Both antiradical activities and antioxidant capacities changed significantly depending on the phase in the growing season.
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Yield, Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Properties of Extracts
and Essential Oils of Sage and Rosemary Depending on Seasonal
Variations
H. Baydar
1
, G. Özkan
2
, S. Erbaş
1
and D. Altındal
1
1
Süleyman Demirel University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Field Crops, 32260
Isparta, Turkey
2
Süleyman Demirel University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Food Engineering,
32260 Isparta, Turkey
Keywords: Salvia officinalis L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., antioxidant capacity,
antiradical activity, essential oil composition, seasonal variation
Abstract
The aim of this research was to determine yield, chemical composition and
antioxidant properties of extracts and essential oils of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) and
rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) leaves harvested during the months of June to
September 2004. The maximum essential oil yields in the leaves were observed
during July (3.24%) in sage and during August (1.35%) in rosemary. The maximum
extract yields were found in July (15.57%) for sage and in June (30.48%) for
rosemary. The sage oil was characterized by the presence of main components:
camphore (20.73-26.07%), α-thujone (13.84-21.96), 1,8-cineole (13.94-20.40%),
β-thujone (7.07-9.34%) and β-caryophyllene (2.28-9.19%). Fourteen compounds of
rosemary essential oil were identified and the main components were found as
camphore (14.77-31.12%), 1,8-cineole (7.70-26.18%), α-pinene (3.53-9.75%) and
borneole (5.07-13.03%). Antiradical activities of sage and rosemary essential oils
were found as IC
50
=2492.84-6645.43 μg ml
-1
and IC
50
=370.03-2812.50 μg ml
-1
,
respectively. Antioxidant capacities were also 25.20-43.46 mg AAE g
-1
essential oil
for sage and 18.53-37.95 mg AAE g
-1
essential oil for rosemary. Sage and rosemary
essential oils distilled from the early season (June) harvested leaves had the highest
antioxidant activity, expressed as low concentration providing 50% inhibition of
antiradical activity and high levels antioxidant capacity. Total phenolic content was
between 85.33-110.52 mg GAE g
-1
extract for sage and 94.29-104.44 mg GAE g
-1
extract for rosemary. It was the lowest in June and the highest July in both extracts.
Both antiradical activities and antioxidant capacities changed significantly
depending on the phase in the growing season.
INTRODUCTION
Antioxidants can minimize or prevent lipid oxidadation in food products (Shahidi
and Wanasundara, 1992). Synthetic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxytoluene BHT,
butylated hydroxyanisole BHA, propyl galate PG and tertiary butyl hydroquinone TBHQ.
However, such synthetic antioxidants are not preferred due to toxicological concerns
(Bracco et al., 1981). In the recent years, considerable attention has been devoted to herbs
and spices with antioxidant properties. The use of herbs and spices as antioxidants in
processed foods is a promising alternative to the use of synthetic antioxidants. A general
recommendation to the consumer is to increase the intake of foods rich in antioxidant
compounds (e.g. polyphenols, flavanoids, carotenoids) due to their well-known healthy
effects. As a consequence, these evidences accelerated the search for antioxidants
principles, which led to the identification of natural resources and isolation of active
antioxidant molecules (Katalinic et al., 2005).
Phenolic compounds are secondary metabolites that are derivatives of the pentose
phosphate, shikimate, and phenylpropanoid pathways in plants, and exhibit a wide range
of physiological properties, such as anti-allergenic, anti-artherogenic, anti-inflammatory,
anti-microbial, antioxidant, anti-thrombotic, cardioprotective and vasodilatory effects
(Balasundram et al., 2006). Many herbs and spices such as rosemary and sage belonging
383
Proc. I
s
t
IC on Culinary Herbs
Eds.: K. Turgut et al.
Acta Hort. 826, ISHS 2009
to the family Labiatae are an excellent source of phenolic compounds which have been
reported to show good antioxidant activity (Schwartz and Ternes, 1992). The antioxidant
activities of Labiatae family species could be mainly due to phenolic compounds,
especially rosmarinic acid (Gerhart and Schröter, 1983; Capecka et al., 1997; Dorman et
al., 2003; Erdemoglu et al., 2006).
Rosemary and sage essential oils have also antioxidative properties. Antioxidant
capacity of these essential oils is largely related with the phenolic compounds (Lu and
Foo, 2001; Zheng and Wang, 2001; Stefanovits-Bányai et al., 2003; Durling et al., 2007).
1,8-cineole, camphore and borneole in rosemary and α-thujone, 1,8-cineole and camphore
in sage oil are the primary essential oil components (Pıtarevic et al., 1984; Boutekedjiret
et al., 2003).
The aim of the present work is to characterize the composition of the essential oils
and extracts obtained from samples of leaves of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) and rosemary
(Rosmarinus officinalis L.) at different stages of the of plant growth and to determine
their antiradical activities and antioxidant properties.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Plant Material
Sage (Salvia officinalis L.) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) leaves
harvested in approximately the middle of the month from June to December, 2004, at the
Experimental Station of Suleyman Demirel University in Isparta, Turkey.
Isolation of Essential Oil
The plant leaves from Rosmarinus officinalis and Salvia officinalis were air-dried
(200 g, each), mill powdered and water-distilled for 3h using Clevenger-type apparatus.
The distilled oils dried over anhydrous sodium sulphate and, after filtration, stored at
-20°C until tested and analyzed.
Preparation of the Extract
Dried and powdered herb material (15 g) were extracted with 100 ml mixture of
methanol:acetone:water:acetic acid (55:40:4.5:0.5) for 2h by using an ultrasonicated
water bath. The extracts were filtered and the solvent mixtures were concentrated by
using both rotary evaporator (Rotavator, T<40
o
C) under vacuum and lyophilizers (Virtis
2K, T=-60) to get crude extracts. The residues were stored in a desiccator until use.
Analysis of Essential Oil Components
Analyses of the essential oil components were performed on GC–MS/Quadropole
detector, using a Shimadzu QP 5050 system, fitted with an FFAP (50 m×0.32 mm (i.d.),
film thickness: 0.25 μm) capillary column. Detector and injector temperatures were set at
240°C. The temperature program for FFAP column was from 60°C (1 min) to 220°C at a
rate of 5°C min
-1
and than held at 220°C for 35 min. Helium was used as a carrier gas at a
flow rate of 14 psi. (Split 1:20) and injection volume of each sample was 5 μl. The
identification of the components was based on the comparison of their mass spectra with
those of Wiley and Nist, Tutore Libraries. The ionization energy was set at 70 eV.
Analysis of Phenolic Constituents
The procedure for quantization of the phenolic compounds has previously been
described by (Capanio et al., 1999). The reversed phase-high performance liquid
chromatography (RP-HPLC) was used. Detection and quantification was carried out with
a SCL-10 Avp System controller, a SIL–10AD vp Autosampler, a LC-10AD vp pump, a
DGU-14a degasser, a CTO-10 A vp column heater and a diode array detector set at 278
nm. The 250 x 4.6 mm i.d. C18 column used was filled with Agilent Eclipse XDB C-18
(250 x 4,6 mm), 5μ. The flow rate was 0.8 ml/min, injection volume was 10 μl and the
column temperature was set at 30°C. Gradient elution of two solvents was used: Solvent
384
A consisted of acetic–water (2:98, v/v), solvent B: methanol and the gradient program
used is given Table 1. The data were integrated and analyzed using the Shimadzu Class-
VP Chromatography Laboratory Automated Software System (Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo,
Japan). The extract samples, standard solutions and mobile phases were filtered by a 0.45-
μm pore size membrane filter (Vivascience AG, Hannover, Germany). The amount of
phenolic compounds in the extract was calculated as mg 100 g
-1
herb using external
calibration curves, constructed for each phenolic standard.
Determination of Total Phenolics, Antiradical Activity and Antioxidant Capacity
Total phenolic compounds of extracts were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu
colorimetric method (Singleton and Rossi, 1965). Estimations were carried out in
triplicate and calculated from a calibration curve obtained with gallic acid and total
phenolics were expressed as gallic acid equivalent (mg GAE g
-1
extract). Antiradical
activity was determined by the method given by Lee et al. (1998) and calculated
according to the following formula: antiradical activity = 100 x (absorbance of control
sample - absorbance of sample / absorbance of control sample). Extract concentration
providing 50% inhibition (IC
50
) was calculated from the plot of inhibition percentage
against extract concentration. The antioxidant activity of the extract and essential oil was
evaluated by the formation of molybdenum complex method according to Prieto et al.
(1999). The antioxidant activity was expressed relative to that of ascorbic acid. All
determinations were carried out in triplicates and the results were averaged.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The yields of the essential oil and extracts are given in Table 2. The essential oil
yields varied from 1.43% to 3.24% for sage and 0.60% to 1.35% for rosemary. The
maximum essential oil yields in the leaves were detected during July (3.24%) for sage and
during August (1.35%) for rosemary. The maximum extract yields were found in July
(15.57%) for sage and in June (30.48%) for rosemary (Table 2).
The composition of the essential oil samples of sage and rosemary are given in
Table 3. The sage oil was characterized by the presence of 16 compounds and showed as
main components camphore (20.73-26.07%), α-thujone (13.84-21.96), 1,8-cineole
(13.94-20.40%), β-thujone (7.07-9.34%) and β-caryophyllene (2.28-9.19%) (Table 3).
The examined oil, compared to the published literature, showed camphore, α-thujone,
β-thujone and 1,8-cineole were the main and/characteristic constituents of the Salvia
officinalis oil (Pıtarevic et al., 1984; Perry et al., 1999; Sagareishvili et al., 2000; Lenzi et
al., 2003; Santos-Gomes and Fernandes-Ferreira, 2003). It was observed that there were
changes in the composition of the essential oil during the months. In order to obtain an
essential oil with maximum percentages of α-thujone and camphore, the harvest of sage
leaves is recommended during August.
Fourteen compounds of rosemary essential oil were identified and the main
components were found as camphore (14.77-31.12%), 1,8-cineole (7.70-26.18%),
α-pinene (3.53-9.75%) and borneole (5.07-13.03%) (Table 3). Boutekedjiret et al. (2003)
reported also that camphore and 1,8-cineole were the main two components of rosemary
oil. Both camphor and 1,8-cineole contents were the highest in the samples harvested
during August (31.12% and 26.18%, respectively). Essential oil composition differed
depending on the harvest times similarly to the results by Yesil Celiktas et al. (2007).
Antiradical activity and antioxidant capacity of sage and rosemary essential oils
are presented in Table 4. Antiradical activities of sage and rosemary essential oils were
found as IC
50
=2492.84-6645.43 μg ml
-1
and IC
50
=370.03-2812.50 μg ml
-1
, respectively.
Antioxidant capacities were also 25.20-43.46 mg AAE g
-1
essential oil for sage and
18.53-37.95 mg AAE g
-1
essential oil for rosemary (Table 4). Rosemary samples had the
higher antioxidant capacity and antiradical activity than sage samples. These results are
similar the other studies reported by Baratta et al. (1998) and Erdemoglu et al. (2006). In
the essential oils of sage and rosemary, antioxidant capacity decreased while antiradical
activity increased from June to September. Thus, sage and rosemary essential oils
385
distilled from the early season (June) harvested leaves had the highest antioxidant ability,
expressed as low levels of antiradical activity and high levels antioxidant capacity.
Table 5 presents the results of the content of phenolic acids and flavonoids in the
dried herbs of the two species tested. A very important compound in herbs of Labiatae
family is rosmarinic acid, showing high antioxidant potential (Capecka et al., 1997), this
being related to the presence of four hydroxyl groups in its molecule (Houlihan et al.,
1985). The rosmarinic acid content in sage and rosemary extracts was very high (573.98-
725.02 and 410.10-1036.88 mg 100 g
-1
dried herb, respectively) (Table 5). The highest
rosmarinic acid values were in June for sage and in August for rosemary. Apart from
rosmarinic acid, the other phenolic acids (i.e. rutin, hesperidin, apigenin, quercetin,
naringenin and apigenin in sage and i.e. naringin, hesperidin, quercetin, naringenin, and
acecetin in rosemary) could be considered as a valuable source of potent antioxidants.
Total sixteen compounds were analyzed, and naringin, eriodictiol and acecetin in sage,
gallic acid, eriodictiol, luteolin and carvacrol in rosemary were not detected (Table 5).
Table 6 shows the total phenolic content, antiradical activity and antioxidant
capacity of sage and rosemary extracts. As shown in the table, total phenolic content was
found between 85.33-110.52 mg GAE g
-1
extract for sage and 94.29-104.44 mg GAE g
-1
extract for rosemary. Total phenolic content was the lowest in June and the highest July in
both extracts. Both antiradical activities and antioxidant capacities changed importantly
depending on vegetative periods of growing season. Antiradical activities and antioxidant
capacities for sage IC
50
=422.93-453.39 μg ml
-1
and 136.76-156.94 mg AAE g
-1
extract,
respectively. In rosemary, antiradical activity was between IC
50
388.47-537.42 μg ml
-1
and antioxidant capacity was between 128.22-178.35 mg AAE g
-1
extract (Table 6).
Antiradical activities were supported with literatures of Exarchou et al. (2002), Lu and
Foo (2001), Dorman et al. (2003), Tepe et al. (2005), Erdemoğlu et al. (2006) and
antioxidant capacity results were found similar with previous literature of Lu and Foo
(2001), Mensor et al. (2001) and Refaei et al. (2006).
In conclusion, regarding the significant growth season dependent variations in
both chemical composition and antioxidant properties, the extracts and essential oils of
sage and rosemary could be used as a source of natural antioxidants for food industry. In
the prospective experiments, it would be interesting to examine their applications in some
final food products, as natural antioxidant additives.
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Tables
Table 1. Solvent gradient conditions with linear gradient.
Final time 3 20 28 35 45 60 62 70 75 80
A% 95 75 72 70 65 63 55 50 20 0
B% 5 25 28 30 35 37 45 50 80 100
A (solvent): Acetic–water (2:98 v/v), B (solvent): Methanol.
Table 2. The yield of essential oil and extract for sage and rosemary.
Species Months Oil yield (%) Extract yield (%)
June 1.43 8.98
July 3.24 15.57
August 1.66 14.03
Sage
(S. officinalis)
September 2.88 15.24
June 0.60 30.48
July 1.15 22.25
August 1.35 22.30
Rosemary
(R. officinalis)
September 0.80 19.75
Table 3. Essential oil composition (%) of sage and rosemary in different harvest times.
Sage essential oil composition Rosemary essential oil composition Components
June July August Sept. June July August Sept.
α-pinene 1.33 3.25 1.66 2.88 3.53 8.09 8.50 9.75
Camphene 1.85 2.73 2.62 4.35 10.40 4.14 4.83 2.26
β-pinene 2.29 2.77 1.55 1.68 1.09 1.81 1.82 2.44
Limonene 1.00 1.31 1.49 1.55 1.94 2.87 3.05 3.61
1,8-cineole 13.94 20.40 17.22 19.87 7.70 20.03 26.18 14.02
γ-terpinene 0.64 0.44 0.43 0.50 0.86 1.05 0.99 0.63
p-cymene 0.43 0.42 0.37 0.35 1.30 1.10 0.71 0.97
α-thujone 13.84 14.16 21.96 21.84 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
β- thujone 9.34 9.22 9.28 7.07 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Linalool 0.39 0.54 0.19 0.26 3.99 1.89 1.56 6.11
Camphore 20.73 23.74 26.07 23.70 14.77 24.95 31.12 18.00
Nonanale 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 2.06 0.76 0.52 2.05
β-caryophyllene 9.19 4.11 2.60 2.28 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Terpineole 0.82 0.97 0.64 0.60 2.90 3.08 3.34 2.88
Borneole 1.99 4.00 2.07 2.01 13.03 6.78 5.07 7.90
Unknown 9.79 10.65 4.28 1.32 9.39 5.40 4.40 11.85
Carvacrol 3.23 1.22 0.47 1.72 14.87 4.38 0.00 2.55
388
Table 4. Antiradical activity and antioxidant capacity of sage and rosemary oils.
Species Months Antiradical activity
(IC
50
= μg ml
-1
)
Antioxidant capacity
(mg AAE g
-1
essential oil)
June 2492.84 43.46
July 4789.60 36.82
August 6562.76 28.77
Sage
(S. officinalis)
September 6645.43 25.20
June 370.03 37.95
July 402.16 28.48
August 1206.91 20.24
Rosemary
(R. officinalis)
September 2812.50 18.53
Table 5. Phenolic acids and flavonoids content of sage and rosemary.
Sage (mg 100 g
-1
dried herb) Rosemary (mg 100 g
-1
dried herb) Components
June July August Sept. June July August Sept.
Gallic acid 0.44 0.40 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Cafeic acid 1.92 2.81 2.77 1.56 2.68 2.09 1.55 1.10
Vitexin 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 2.86 4.82 0.00
Rutin 13.38 21.31 10.51 11.21 6.69 0.00 4.75 0.00
Naringin 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 10.39 9.32 8.37 12.99
Hesperidin 8.60 8.85 8.79 13.01 142.75 159.70 199.20 51.96
Apigenin-7-glucosid 5.04 10.19 6.50 12.73 0.00 0.00 3.08 0.00
Rosmarinc acid 589.99 588.12 573.98 725.02 410.10 604.68 1036.88 725.87
Eriodictiol 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Quercetin 8.16 23.37 28.34 23.39 8.69 12.89 9.88 7.44
Naringenin 1.55 11.77 11.60 6.64 10.21 10.13 11.82 4.31
Luteolin 4.89 5.04 1.51 1.74 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Genistin 0.00 1.17 0.59 0.78 1.07 1.93 2.04 1.13
Apigenin 9.89 14.55 23.78 15.26 6.50 5.31 4.60 4.26
Carvacrol 5.75 0.00 5.56 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Acecetin 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 9.49 9.58 13.84 11.16
Table 6. Total phenolic content, antiradical activities and antioxidant capacity of sage and
rosemary extracts.
Species Months Total phenolic
content
(mg GAE g
-1
extract)
Antioxidant
capacities
(mg AAE g
-1
extract)
Antiradical
activities
(IC
50
=μg ml
-1
)
June 85.33±3.08 154.31±3.09 453.39±0.99
July 110.52±4.64 156.94±2.75 430.40±1.48
August 105.62±2.90 154.62±0.80 438.91±1.95
Sage
(S. officinalis)
September 108.32±1.84 136.76±1.43 422.93±1.16
June 94.29±0.59 128.22±0.95 537.42±0.62
July 104.44±2.55 178.35±1.66 388.47±0.46
August 99.37±4.79 151.19±1.59 445.80±0.49
Rosemary
(R. officinalis)
September 101.39±1.55
142.95±1.14 465.07±0.07
389
390
... The EO yield of sage plants did not show significant differences among the four different substrates and was lower than that reported by Baydar et al. [53], ranging from 1.43 to 3.24%, and by Arraiza et al. [54], ranging from 0.6 to 1.5%. The lower yield values found in this study, compared to those of Baydar et al. [53] and Arraiza et al. [54], may be due to intrinsic and extrinsic factors, such as substrates used for the cultivation, climate, maturity of the plants at the harvest time during the day and extraction method. ...
... The EO yield of sage plants did not show significant differences among the four different substrates and was lower than that reported by Baydar et al. [53], ranging from 1.43 to 3.24%, and by Arraiza et al. [54], ranging from 0.6 to 1.5%. The lower yield values found in this study, compared to those of Baydar et al. [53] and Arraiza et al. [54], may be due to intrinsic and extrinsic factors, such as substrates used for the cultivation, climate, maturity of the plants at the harvest time during the day and extraction method. Consider-ing that many of these factors did not differ, among them, the lower EO yield values can be ascribed to the young age (9 months) of the sage plants used in this study compared to the old age of those reported by Baydar et al. [53] and by Arraiza et al. [54]. ...
... The lower yield values found in this study, compared to those of Baydar et al. [53] and Arraiza et al. [54], may be due to intrinsic and extrinsic factors, such as substrates used for the cultivation, climate, maturity of the plants at the harvest time during the day and extraction method. Consider-ing that many of these factors did not differ, among them, the lower EO yield values can be ascribed to the young age (9 months) of the sage plants used in this study compared to the old age of those reported by Baydar et al. [53] and by Arraiza et al. [54]. ...
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Peat is a common substrate used for the cultivation of potted plants. However, the use of peat in horticulture has recently been questioned from an environmental standpoint, since it is a non-renewable resource and plays a major role in atmospheric CO2 sequestration. The aim of this work was to assess the potentialities of substrates obtained from vermicompost, compost and anaerobic digestion processes to partially substitute peat for sage (Salvia officinalis L.) cultivation. Therefore, we planned an experiment to assess the effect of these substrates on essential oil (EO) yield and composition, as well as on leaf nutrients concentration of sage plants. The three substrates were mixed with commercial peat (Radicom) at a ratio of 40% of alternative substrates and 40% of commercial peat. The chemical properties of the alternative substrates did not affect the leaf content of macro and micronutrients, as well as of heavy metals. Moreover, the EO yield and quality was not affected by the substrates and did not differ among them. Results provided evidence that the three alternative substrates can be used to partially substitute peat in soilless cultivation of sage plants. However, due to the higher values of the electrical conductivity of the substrates obtained from composting and anaerobic digestion processes, such substrates must be used with caution.
... S. officinalis EOs collected from north of Tunisia, Hatay (Turkey) and Albania showed 1,8-cineole (33.27%, 60.72% and 26.9%, respectively) as the main component [36][37][38]. On the contrary, Baydar et al. [39] reported α-thujone (20.06%) and camphor (43.38%) as the major compounds of EO and HY, respectively, in plants from Isparta, Turkey. α-Thujone was also the principal constituent in EOs from Mexico and California (18.8% and 27.4%) [38], while in two Italian sites eucalyptol (from 40.22% to 60.94%) was the chemical compound characterizing the related wild Salvia fruticosa subsp. ...
... Variations in the chemical composition of EOs depend on many factors such as the quality of the plant material, the part of the plant used for extraction, the characteristics of the climate and soil, the harvest time, as well as methods and times extraction used for the production and analysis [39,[43][44][45][46][47]. Depending on the distillation time and method, the chemical profile of HYs can also vary [48]. ...
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Laurus nobilis, Salvia officinalis and Salvia sclarea essential oils (EOs) and hydrolates (HYs) were investigated to define their chemical compositions and biological properties. Gas-chromatography/Mass-spectrometry (GC/MS) and Headspace-GC/MS (HS-GC/MS) techniques were used to characterize the liquid and vapor phase chemical composition of EOs and HYs. 1,8-Cineole (42.2%, 33.5%) and α-pinene (16.7%, 39.0%) were the main compounds of L. nobilis EO; 1,8-cineole (30.3%, 48.4%) and camphor (17.1%, 8.7%) were for S. officinalis EO; linalyl acetate (62.6%, 30.1%) and linalool (11.1%, 28.9%) were for S. sclarea EO for the liquid and vapor phase, respectively. Chemical profile of HYs was characterized by 1,8-cineole (65.1%, 61.4%) as a main constituent of L. nobilis and S. officinalis HYs, while linalool (89.5%) was the main constituent of S. sclarea HY. The antioxidant activity of EOs and HYs was carried out by DPPH and ABTS assays and antimicrobial properties were also investigated by microdilution and the disc diffusion method for liquid and vapor phase against five different bacterial strains such as Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 13525 and Acinetobacter bohemicus DSM 102855 among Gram-negative and Bacillus cereus ATCC 10876 and Kocuria marina DSM 16420 among Gram-positive. L. nobilis and S. officinalis EOs demonstrated considerable antibacterial activity, while S. sclarea EO proved to be less effective. Agar diffusion method and vapor phase test showed the EOs activity with the biggest halo inhibition diameters against A. bohemicus and B. cereus. A remarkably high antioxidant activity was determined for L. nobilis showing low EC50 values and also for S. sclarea; good EO results were obtained in both of the used assays. S. officinalis EC50 values were slightly higher to which corresponds to a lower antioxidant activity. Concerning the HYs, the EC50 values for L. nobilis, S. officinalis and S. sclarea were remarkably high corresponding to an extremely low antioxidant activity, as also obtained by expressing the values in Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC).
... On the other hand, other studies have reported lower rates, such as the work of Baydar et al. (2009), carried out in Isparta in Turkey, which revealed a rate of return of 0.9% to 1.35%. In Italy, a rate between 0.12% to 0.75% was obtained in a study carried out in 2020 (Serralutzu et al., 2020). ...
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The aim of this study was to study the chemical composition and the antibacterial activity of the essential oil (EO) of Rosmarinus officinalis from Blida region, against bacterial strains: Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermis and Pseudomanase fragi. The chemical composition of the EO obtained by hydrodistillation was determined using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The antibacterial activity of the EO was studied by the disk diffusion method and the agar dilution method in order to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentration (CMB). The results obtained from this work show that the yield of rosemary EO was 1.6% respectively. The main compounds present in the essential oil of R. officinalis are 2-Bornanone (19.47%), Eucalyptol (18.58%), α-Pinene (9.14%) and Camphene (5.68%). The MIC and CMB values expressed by the essential oil of R. officinalis were identical as for P.fragi and S. epidermidis (MIC is equal to 0.37% and CMB> 3%) and for E .coli were 0.75% (MIC equals CMB). The results of this work confirmed the activity of the EOs of R. officinalis on the pathogenic bacterial strains tested and to recommend its exploitation for use as an alternative to industrial antibacterial molecules.
... The analytical data were evaluated using a Shimadzu Class-VP Chromatography Laboratory Automated Software System (Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, Japan). The gradient used was similar to that used for the determination of phenolics in sage and rosemary (Baydar et al., 2007) with some modifications. The amount of phenolic compounds in the extract was calculated as mg 100 g -1 dried rhizome using external calibration curves, constructed for each phenolic standard. ...
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The aim of our study was to evaluate and collate the chemical constituents and antioxidant properties of dry rhizomes of Ginger and dry rhizomes of Turmeric. The assay for quantification of the phenolic compounds in the samples was carried out using the reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). To determine mineral components in samples inductively coupled plasma optical out flow spectroscopy (ICP-OES) procedure was applied. The most abundant phenolic components in turmeric rhizomes are ferulic acid (93.59 mg), benzoic acid (40.09 mg), vanillin (26.69 mg) and p-coumaric acid (23.25mg) respectively. On the other hand, the most common phenolic components in ginger rhizomes are Benzoic acid (33.31mg), Ferulic acid (11.41 mg) and vanillin (11.83 mg). In addition, ethanolic extract ginger (EEG) and ethanolic extract turmeric (EET) had an effective DPPH• scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, ferric ions (Fe3+) reducing power activities. According to ICP-OES analysis results of rhizomes and extracts, the potassium was, quantitatively, the most abundant mineral in samples. Subsequently, sodium, magnesium, phosphorus and calcium were identified, respectively.
... mg GAE and 104.44±2.55 mg GAE/g (Baydar et al., 2009). Regarding mint, Kalemba-Drożdż et al., (2020) reported 8.90-10.68 ...
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Current nutritional strategies of livestock industry are focused on evaluating the effects of terrestrial sources rich in natural bioactive compounds that can be used in farm animal feed and the subsequent implications on the quality of resulting animal products. In this context, the present study aimed to characterize from a nutritional point of view some natural plants used as phyto-additives in poultry nutrition: oregano, mint, basil, sage, fenugreek, thyme, turmeric, cumin and rosemary. The results of this study on plants nutritional evaluation showed a varied proximate analysis. Of all the plants, cumin, fenugreek and basil were the richest source of crude protein. Thyme had a large ether extractives content, followed by rosemary, sage and cumin. The obtained results revealed that oregano has the strongest antioxidant capacity (849.77 mmols equiv. asc. acid; 863.57 mmols equiv. vit. E), the highest total polyphenols concentration (86.77 mg GAE/g) and lutein and zeaxanthin (304.23 μg/g) of the analysed plants. Nevertheless, all plants had high concentration of total polyphenols, except cumin, a large amount of xanthophylls and vitamin E. After oregano, sage and thyme have been noted for their antioxidant capacity and major antioxidant compounds. Basil and sage revealed the highest amount of essential trace elements.
... e highest (1.27%) was obtained by the HYDRO method using 50 g of the whole sample. e result obtained in this work is consistent with those reported by Baydar et al. [17] (1.43-3.24%), who used Clevenger-type apparatus for 3 h. ...
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The essential oils (EOs) extracted by hydrodistillation (HYDRO) and steam distillation (SD) from Mexican Salvia officinalis L were analyzed for yield, chemical composition (GC-MS), particle morphology (SEM), antioxidant activity (ABTS), and antibacterial activity against Enterobacter agglomerans, Citrobacter freundii, Salmonella sp, E. coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The influence of the factors (method, quantity, and sample) was evaluated using a 23 full factorial design, Pareto chart, normal probability plot, main effects, and interaction plots in variance analysis on yield and antioxidant activity. The quantity, methods, sample, and the methods × sample and methods × quantity interactions were the most significant factors on yield (%). The sample, methods, and quantity × sample interaction were significant for antioxidant activity. EO yields were between 0.35 and 1.27 (% w/w), and the highest value was obtained by the HYDRO method using 50 g of whole sage leaves. The antioxidant activity values were in the range of 2.35 to 3.44 mg Trolox equivalent/g. Camphor, limonene, camphene, and caryophyllene were the main compounds identified. Micrographs of sage leaves showed relevant changes in the structure after extraction. The antibacterial activity was confirmed with the inhibition diameter and inhibition percentage of all bacteria, and P. aeruginosa was the most resistant bacteria. Finally, S. officinalis EO potentials can be considered an alternative natural preservative for the food and pharmaceutical industries.
... The essential oil content of rosemary pruning waste was lower than the respective sample from pre-packaging, that consisted of sprigs at the young stage. Anyway, both the values were high enough, even if the plants were not collected at the optimum stage, as it was reported in literature (Elamrani et al., 2000;Baydar et al., 2009). In fact, it is well known that essential oils content and composition are influenced by several factors such as vegetative stage and part of the plant organ used (Senatore, 2000;De Falco et al., 2013a, b). ...
Article
In the last few years, the aromatic plant market for fresh consumption has been growing, especially packaged herbs for Mass Market Retailers. Pruning and selection of aromatic plants during packaging leads to the accumulation of a large amounts of plant residues with consequent disposal costs. In a circular economy perspective, the aim of this study was to recover residues of three aromatic plants (Ocimum basilicum L., Rosmarinus officinalis L. and Salvia officinalis L.) by extracting essential oil and aromatic water and, subsequently, reusing oil-free biomasses for composting. In fact, these by-products are currently considered very interesting and sustainable. The essential oils are natural products that have a wide range of biological activities useful for pharmaceutical, medical, veterinary and agriculture innovative purposes. Hydrolates have a much softer scent than the corresponding essential oils. The compost can be successfully applied for the restoration and maintenance of soil fertility. Results of this study showed that yields of essential oils obtained from plant residues, were sufficiently higher, especially for sage and rosemary, also if they were collected well far from plant balsamic period. Analysis of composition of essential oils confirmed the presence of characteristic compounds for each species. The aromatic waters were found to be an easily usable product due to the favourable physicochemical characteristics and, in particular, the aromatic waters of basil showed high antioxidant activity. About compost, the main physicochemical (humidity, pH, electrical conductivity) and biological (basal respiration and hydrolase activity) properties, were considered. Phytotoxicity tests indicated that composts derived from the three species can be used in agriculture. This research demonstrates that it is possible to eliminate completely plant residues and recover new products from aromatic species, supporting the effectiveness of an eco-friendly model to recover and reuse all fresh aromatic plant residues.
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Rosmarinus officinalis L. is an imperative herb used in pharmaceutical yet knowledge on chemical and activity profile of essential oil (EO) to harvest seasons and accessions from the Himalayan region is limited. Thus, accessions were evaluated to determine the EO content, compositional, antimicrobial, and cytotoxic potential of rosemary in different harvest seasons during 2018‒2019. EO content was 30.5% higher in IHBT/RMAc-1 compared with IHBT/RMAc-2 accession while 27.9% and 41.6% higher in the autumn as compared with summer and rainy season, respectively. Major EO compound was 1,8-cineole; ranged from 32.50‒51.79% during harvest seasons and 38.70‒42.20% in accessions. EO was active against both the tested Gram-positive bacteria (Micrococcus luteus MTCC 2470 and Staphylococcus aureus MTCC 96). EOs showed inhibition of Gram-negative bacteria (Salmonella typhi MTCC 733), while Klebsiella pneumoniae MTCC 109 was found to be resistant. The rosemary EO of T1 (Rainy season IHBT/RMAc-1) was most effective against S. aureus MTCC 96 with the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 4% (v/v). In vitro cytotoxicity evaluation showed no potential anti-proliferative activity of EO. The rosemary EO profile in the western Himalayan region was influenced by harvesting seasons and genetic variability within the accessions; furthermore, a promising antibacterial agent in pharmaceutical and flavour industries.
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The Mediterranean region, including 24 countries at the crossroads of Europe, Africa, and Asia, has a strong culinary tradition shaped through the rich Mediterranean biological and cultural diversity. In this chapter, the variety of culinary aromatic herb species used in the region, their geographical distribution, morphology, essential oils, and culinary applications in Mediterranean countries are documented. The most commonly used aromatic herbs in Mediterranean cookery are parsley, mint, laurel, oregano, thyme, rosemary, coriander, dill, basil, tarragon, chives, sage, marjoram, fennel, and chervil, most of them members of the Lamiaceae and Apiaceae families. Mint, sage, pennyroyal, mountain tea, and several oregano and thyme species are popular herbal teas. Mint, basil, lavender, rosemary, and laurel are sometimes used to aromatize sweet-flavored dishes. Historical uses of culinary herbs in the Mediterranean (ancient Egypt, Greece, Rome) are also discussed. Besides their local culinary importance, Mediterranean aromatic herbs are also part of the international herb trade. Several to numerous botanical species with different essential oil characteristics (and thus different aroma, taste, and biological activity) underlie the commercial names oregano, thyme, mountain tea, mint, and sage. It is suggested that herbal products traded under these names are botanically identified and characterized about their main essential oil compounds so that quality standards are kept. Controlling overharvesting and systematizing the cultivation of wild-collected species will help prevent overexploitation of local plant resources.
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Rosemary oil was extracted by both steam and hydrodistillations then analysed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. The effect of time of extraction enabled us to follow the evolution of the yield and oil composition obtained by both processes. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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