Content uploaded by Weiwei Cui

Author content

All content in this area was uploaded by Weiwei Cui on Jun 19, 2015

Content may be subject to copyright.

Micromachines 2015, 6, 778-789; doi:10.3390/mi6060778

micromachines

ISSN 2072-666X

www.mdpi.com/journal/micromachines

Article

Dynamics of Electrowetting Droplet Motion in Digital

Microfluidics Systems: From Dynamic Saturation to

Device Physics

Weiwei Cui, Menglun Zhang, Xuexin Duan, Wei Pang *, Daihua Zhang and Hao Zhang *

State Key Laboratory of Precision Measuring Technology and Instruments, Tianjin University,

Tianjin 300072, China; E-Mails: weiweitsui@tju.edu.cn (W.C.); zml@tju.edu.cn (M.Z.);

xduan@tju.edu.cn (X.D.); weipang@tju.edu.cn (W.P.); dhzhang@tju.edu.cn (D.Z.)

* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed; E-Mails: weipang@tju.edu.cn (W.P.);

haozhang@tju.edju.cn (H.Z.); Tel.: +86-22-2740-1248 (H.Z.).

Academic Editors: Andrew deMello and Xavier Casadevall i Solvas

Received: 5 May 2015 / Accepted: 16 June 2015 / Published: 19 June 2015

Abstract: A quantitative description of the dynamics of droplet motion has been a

long-standing concern in electrowetting research. Although many static and dynamic models

focusing on droplet motion induced by electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWOD) already exist,

some dynamic features do not fit these models well, especially the dynamic saturation

phenomenon. In this paper, a dynamic saturation model of droplet motion on the single-plate

EWOD device is presented. The phenomenon that droplet velocity is limited by a dynamic

saturation effect is precisely predicted. Based on this model, the relationship between droplet

motion and device physics is extensively discussed. The static saturation phenomenon is

treated with a double-layer capacitance electric model, and it is demonstrated as one critical

factor determining the dynamics of droplet motion. This work presents the relationship

between dynamics of electrowetting induced droplet motion and device physics including

device structure, surface material and interface electronics, which helps to better understand

electrowetting induced droplet motions and physics of digital microfluidics systems.

Keywords: droplet motion; dynamic saturation; electrowetting; digital microfluidics; device

physics; contact angle saturation

OPEN ACCESS

Micromachines 2015, 6 779

1. Introduction

As one of the most promising droplet-actuation technologies, electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWOD),

is considered one of most promising tools to realize lab-on-a-chip (LOC) devices by building digital

microfluidics platforms for chemical and biological detections. EWOD actuation is induced by the

electrowetting phenomenon that wetting can be effectively controlled by an electric field [1–3]. The

wetting is generally characterized by contact angle, and from its change the electrowetting force is born,

as shown in Figure 1a,b. Figure 1c indicates the driving force on a droplet generated by the surface

tension on the contact line. The traditional scheme of EWOD implies a droplet lying on a metal substrate,

covered by dielectric material and Teflon hydrophobic surface, and inserted with a metal line on the top,

as shown in Figure 1b.

Recently, a rapid growth in EWOD-based microfluidic systems has been seen with many biological

applications, such as DNA enrichment [4] and ligation [5], enzyme assays [6–8], cell-based assays [9],

polymerase chain reaction (PCR) [10], and proteomics [11–14]. At the same time, the fundamentals

of electrowetting have remained not fully understood. Figure 1d represents the contact angle

saturation phenomenon and pinning effect, and the explanations of them are very different and highly

debatable [15–17]. The dynamic saturation phenomenon, that droplet velocity would be limited by a

saturated value, is still imperfectly explained [18,19]. The developed dynamic models, represented by

Brochard’s theoretical model, cannot predict the dynamic saturation phenomenon (Figure 2). In the

present paper, a dynamic saturation model of droplets transported on a single-plate EWOD device, from

the common-sense electrowetting theories, such as Lippmann equation and three-contact-line theory,

is derived.

Additionally, the contact angle saturation is treated with a double-layer capacitance-based electric

circuit to further understand the dynamic saturation phenomenon.

Figure 1. Schematics of (a) surface tensions on the tri-line interface of droplet on an

electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWOD) device; (b) the electrowetting principle; (c) driving

force derived from integration of the surface tension in contacting line; and (d) static effects

on the droplet including the contact angle saturation (CAS) effect and pinning effect. The

surface tensions in (c) represent the component in the driving direction. Furthermore, θS in

(d) stands for the saturated contact angle when the applied voltage is large enough.

Micromachines 2015, 6 780

Figure 2. Comparison of curves induced by Brochard’s theoretical model (solid line) and

the saturation phenomenon found in experiments (dashed one), which indicates that the

dynamic saturation effect cannot be predicted by Brochard’s model.

2. Dynamic Saturation Model of Droplet Motion on the Open DMF Chip

The derivation of this model is based on the analysis of the kinetic equilibrium between driving force

and damp effects, and droplet deformation, t, is taken into account. The influences of pining effect and

errors caused by the droplet deformation, contact line length variation, and velocity measuring method

have been carefully considered. The modeling process and details are presented in the supplement.

Equation (1) presents the mathematical expression of the velocity of electrowetting droplet motion on

the open digital microfluidics (DMF) chip.

2

0

2

0

1

8

2(2)

2

r

r

cV

lVf

d

Ul

K

KC R V

d

εε ⋅−⋅Δ

=εε

πμ+⋅

(1)

where d is the thickness of the dielectric layer. εr and ε are the relative permittivity of the dielectric and

the vacuum permittivity, respectively. The hysteresis effect [20,21] in the EWOD surface should be

taken into account, which is assumed to be a constant ∆f. l represents the effective contact line length,

and R is the droplet radium. K1, Kc, and CV, respectively, stand for the factor induced by the droplet

acceleration and deceleration process, the pinning effect in the triangle region, and the viscous damp

from the area on the chip the droplet covers. This model indicates the relationship between droplet

motion dynamics and the device physics including device structure properties (d, εr, and l), hydrophobic

surface (γ, ∆f, and CV), and interface electronics (Kc). The consideration of these properties is presented

in the supplementary information.

Figure 3 shows the droplet velocity curve plotted based on the dynamic saturation model. Wherein,

the black dots represent the reported experimental data from reference [19]. The validity of the dynamic

model is limited to a certain value of the system parameters, which is influenced by the device properties.

The mismatch at low voltages mainly comes from the difficulty of estimating the parameters of the DMF

chip used in reference, especially ones related to the hydrophobic surface properties.

Micromachines 2015, 6 781

Figure 3. Comparison between the dynamic saturation model (line) and experiment results

in reference [20] (plots). The red curve is induced by Equation (1) and its modification,

taking the radium variation into account, is represented by the blue curve.

Compared with the conventional dynamic model of electrowetting droplet motion, Equation (1)

represents a novel expression of the dynamic properties of droplets motion on DMF chips. It is clear that

the role of 2

0

2

rVεε could be neglected when the applied voltage is high enough. Thus, the droplet velocity

is independent from the voltage. In other words, the saturated velocity of the droplet is determined by

the parameters of the DMF system, including the EWOD device and the droplet itself. Furthermore, it

suggests the importance of designing the EWOD device and controlling the droplet carefully to obtain

the optimized actuation effect.

Finally, the dynamic model developed in this paper provides one explanation of the dynamic

saturation phenomenon. The basic view of this model can be summarized as the following. The

electrowetting force increases with the applied voltage, and at the same time the damping force will get

larger as a result of the enlargement of the wetted surface. Both of these inverse effects are generated by

the electrowetting force; finally, the dynamic saturation occurs as a compromise between them.

3. Influence of Device Physics on the Dynamics of Droplet Motion

For a better understanding of the dynamic saturation model, the parameters in the model are discussed

in the following. In the discussion, the role of the electrowetting number is redefined. The influence of

structure parameters, such as dielectric thickness, permittivity and contact angle are presented in detail

from the view of device physics. The hydrophobic surface properties and interface electronics in the

triple line are also concluded. All the above discussions are based on Equation (1), neglecting the droplet

radium variation for simplicity.

3.1. Electrowetting Number, M

The relationship between droplet velocity and the applied voltage is plotted in Figure 4. For a better

understanding, the dynamic process is divided into linear, transition, and saturation regions, according

to the applicability of the traditional Lippmann static laws. Especially, the electrowetting number

Micromachines 2015, 6 782

2

0

2

rl

M

V

d

εε

=⋅

γ is redefined as the measure of the dynamic saturation model. The calculated velocity of the

droplet as a function of M is plotted in Figure 5a. When M is very small, the dynamic properties keep

consistent with the Lippmann static laws. However, when M is great enough, the dynamic properties fit

with the saturation region. The process between the linear and saturation is the transition region, where

the saturation effect comes to influence the velocity curve. The relationship between the electrowetting

number and the applied voltage is presented in Figure 5b. For thinner dielectric layers, M is larger with

the same voltage and thus the electrowetting process is more effective. In this way, the sensitivity of M

to applied voltage determines the EWOD actuation efficiency.

Figure 4. Calculated droplet velocity as a function of the applied voltage, according to

Equation (1). The parameters used in the calculation are summarized in Table S2 in the

supplementary information.

Figure 5. (a) Velocity of droplet motion as a function of the electrowetting number, M; and

(b) the electrowetting number varies with the applied voltage.

3.2. Dielectric Thickness, t, Permittivity, ε, and Contact Line l

An EWOD device consisting of a dielectric layer of thinner thickness and high permittivity is

preferred. The relationship between the droplet velocity and the dielectric thickness and permittivity are,

respectively, presented in Figure 6a,b. Obviously, the saturated velocity is independent of the dielectric

Micromachines 2015, 6 783

characters in the saturation region. However, the advantages of thinner thickness and higher permittivity

become attractive in the linear and transition regions. Both thinner thickness and higher permittivity

contribute to lower threshold voltage and more effective actuation. The droplet actuation efficiency is

defined by the value of dU/dV, i.e., the slope of the U–V curve. Many attempts to improve EWOD

devices have concentrated on utilizing these features, and, at the same time, lower actuation voltages

and better dynamics have been achieved [22–24]. Moon et al. reported an EWOD with driving voltage

as low as 12 V by reducing the dielectric layer to the nanometer scale [22]. However, a thin dielectric

layer is prone to dielectric breakdown. Chang et al. presented an EWOD with Al2O3 of 127 nm as the

dielectric layer. The high permittivity and the ultrathin thickness of the Al2O3 layer reduced the EWOD

driving voltage to 3 V [23]. In addition, the Al2O3 film formed by atomic layer deposition (ALD) is

dense, with little pinholes, and the surface is very flat and smooth, which are critical to avoid dielectric

breakdown and enhance the dynamic performance of the EWOD device.

The connection part configuration of the two adjacent electrodes is of importance to the droplet

dynamic properties on EWOD device. This factor is treated by using an average contact line length in

the modeling (see Figure S2 in Supplementary Information). Meanwhile, the droplet velocity varies with

its positions on the EWOD following a function determined by the adjacent electrodes connecting

configure. This factor is critical in the EWOD device design, and many works have considered it

carefully [24–26].

Figure 6. Influence of (a) dielectric layer thickness and (b) relative permittivity on the

velocity of the droplet according to Equation (1), with the parameters in Table S2, as

presented in the supplementary information.

3.3. Super-Hydrophobic Surface

As much attention focuses on the improvement of the hydrophobic surface, different materials with

super-hydrophobic features have been utilized to replace traditional hydrophobic materials [27–30]. For

the purpose of droplet operations, the super-hydrophobic surface should satisfy the Cassie state, wherein

the damp force and hysteresis effect are reduced dramatically. Experiments of super-hydrophobic

materials have been presented to satisfy the condition for improved electrowetting applications [27,31–33].

Therefore, the model of super-hydrophobic surface discussed here is only suitable for the Cassie case.

Micromachines 2015, 6 784

To adjust the analysis of these applications, the initial contact angle is treated to be variable in the

modeling. Following the same modeling process, the relationship between initial contact angle θ0 and

droplet velocity U is obtained:

0

2

0

1

4(cos 1)

1

2

2

V

r

l

UCRd

dV

=⋅ θ+

πμ +

γεε

(2)

where, ∆f is neglected due to the very low hysteresis effect of the super-hydrophobic surface.

The droplet velocity U, as a function of the initial contact angle from 120° to 180°, is plotted in Figure 7.

For the same applied voltage, the droplet velocity increases with larger initial contact angles, i.e., with

more hydrophobic surfaces. Especially in the region from 150° to 165°, the droplet velocity changes

violently with applied voltage. This region is “the most effective area”, as Figure 7 shows, where a

narrow voltage range can be used to achieve the same modulation of the droplet velocity. The different

curves in Figure 7 converge to the same point, which indicates that the saturation droplet velocity is

independent of the initial contact angle.

Figure 7. Effect of a droplet’s initial contact angle on velocity, according to Equation (2).

The initial contact angle is determined by the surface property of the EWOD device. The

applied voltages, respectively, are 10, 20, 30, 50, 70, and 160 V from bottom to top. For the

range from 150° to 165°, the velocity increases more rapidly with the applied voltage;

therefore, this range is “the most effective area” to convert electric energy into droplet kinetic

energy. When the applied voltage is greater than 160 V, the saturation velocity is

independent with the initial contact angle.

3.4. Influence of Interface Electronics and Contact Angle Saturation Effect

The above works are carried out based on the dynamic equilibrium between electrowetting force and

the damping force on the droplet. By taking into account the droplet deformation, a dynamic model of

droplet motion on a single-plate EWOD device was induced, which fits well with the dynamic saturation

phenomenon. Contact angle saturation is thought to be one cause of dynamic saturation, but it has not

been considered during this modeling due to the difficulty of describing it mathematically. Many models

or hypotheses have been proposed to explain the contact angle saturation, as reviewed by Mugele [34],

Micromachines 2015, 6 785

Chevalliot et al. [15], Koopal [16] and Sedev [35], as well as, more recently, by Chevalliot et al. [15].

These theories or hypotheses can be briefly summarized as dielectric breakdown, zero interfacial tension,

contact line instability, gas ionization or insulating fluid charging, minimization of the electrostatic

energy, and Tailor cone. At present, the formation of contact angle saturation remains unclear and it is

difficult to describe it quantitatively. In reference [15], it has been experimentally demonstrated that

contact angle saturation is invariant with numerous variables, including dielectric thickness, interfacial

tension, and the chemical properties of the droplet, such as pH, ion type/size, and solute/solvent

interaction. Here, a trial is made to treat this well-known but not well-understood effect as one factor

and discuss its influence on this model.

A generalized Lippmann Equation was derived from the first principles as the following [36]:

2

1()

cos ( ) cos (0) 24

VdCS

Vra

adr

θ=θ+ =

πγ (3)

where C is the capacitance of the Helmholtz double layer at the interface between droplet and EWOD

substrate. S is the wetted solid area, and 2

Sa=π . a is the radium of the wetted area.

As discussed in reference [34], the well-known Lippmann equation is a particular case of

electrowetting when the radial derivative of the capacitance of the double layer is constant. This is similar

to the situation where the Lippmann static law is applicable only when the applied voltage is low. This

work has demonstrated that the contact angle of electrowetting depends on the gradient of capacitance

of the double layer in the vicinity of the triple line, which is thought to be dependent on the distribution

of the accumulated charges [16], as shown in Figure 8a.

Figure 8. (a) Charges distribution on the liquid–solid interface and (b) the equivalent electric

circuit of the triangle line region. C1 is the capacitance of dielectric layer, and C2 is the

capacitance of the double layer that is determined by the accumulated charges distribution.

For a better description of the capacitance distribution in the triple line, an equilibrium electric model

is built, as shown in Figure 8b.

When the voltage is applied, the capacitances are charged. More charges will accumulate in the triple line

area due to its spiky shape, resulting in a stronger capacitance in this location than other wetted areas [1].

The fact that the triple line is usually de-pinned in the electrowetting and EWOD actuation experiments

is evidence of this [2]. By analyzing the electric model in Figure 8b, the effective voltage applied on the

triple line is obtained:

1

12

eff

C

VV

CC

=⋅

+ (4)

Micromachines 2015, 6 786

The electric energy working on the triple line region is:

2

22

21

2

12

11

22

eff eff

CC

ECV V

CC

== ⋅

+ (5)

With the applied voltage increasing, more charges accumulate in the triple line region. Furthermore,

the value of C2 would get larger due to the fact that the double layer would get thinner. While the

capacitance, C1, induced by the dielectric layer remains constant. Thus, the increase of effective voltage

cannot keep pace with the applied voltage due to the decrease of the transfer coefficient. There should

exist one point beyond which the effective voltage becomes independent of the applied voltage. At this

time, the voltage working on the electrowetting system keeps constant. From Equation (5), the effective

electric energy working on the triple line region varies in a similar way. As the applied voltage increases

and the transfer coefficient decreases, the value of E would become invariable when the well-known

contact angle saturation occurs. Meanwhile, the accumulated charges in the triple line region would

probably enhance the pinning effect, which helps to increase the damp force on the droplet.

Contact angle saturation effect is another crucial cause of the dynamic saturation, as a limited electric

energy effectively works on the triple line region. When the effective electric energy in the triple line

region is limited, the electrowetting force will be limited, and the droplet deformation induced by the

electric field will be suspended. Thus, it can be thought that the contact angle saturation accelerates the

dynamic saturation in the transition region and, finally, ends the dynamic process by limiting the

electrowetting force.

4. Conclusions

In summary, a dynamic saturation model of electrowetting droplet motion on the open DMF system

is presented in this work. On the basis of the present analysis, the dynamic saturation phenomenon is

primarily a consequence of dynamic equilibrium between driving force and damp effects, and the contact

angle saturation effect. Among them, dynamic equilibrium forms the configuration of the velocity curve

as a function of applied voltage. Meanwhile, contact angle saturation accelerates the saturation process by

limiting the electrowetting force with a finite value, which confines the translation of the electronic energy

to the mechanical energy of the droplet. The influence of device physics, including electrode formation,

dielectric layer, hydrophobic surface and interface conditions, have been discussed based on this model,

which fit well with reported methods to improve electrowetting induced droplet motions. Specifically,

the saturated velocity is independent of the dielectric thickness, as well as the permittivity. Meanwhile,

a dielectric layer of thinner thickness and higher permittivity contributes to more effective actuation and

lower threshold voltage. The “most effective area” of initial contact angle using super-hydrophobic

surface materials or structures helps to optimize the hydrophobic surface. This study helps to deeper

understand electrowetting, and shows practical value for further optimizing EWOD devices.

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC No. 51375341), the

Program of Introducing Talents of Discipline to Universities (111 project No. B07014) and the National

High Technology Research and Development Program of China (863 Program No.2015AA042603).

Micromachines 2015, 6 787

Author Contributions

Weiwei Cui, Hao Zhang and Wei Pang proposed the idea; Weiwei Cui and Menglun Zhang performed

the model derivation; Weiwei Cui and Hao Zhang prepared the manuscript; Xuexin Duan and

Daihua Zhang contributed to the discussion and gave valuable suggestions on the manuscript revision

according to the referee report.

Supplementary Materials

Supplementary materials can be accessed at: http://www.mdpi.com/2072-666X/6/6/778/s1.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

References

1. Lippmann, G. Relations entre les phénomènes électriques et capillaires. Ann. Chim. Phys. 1875,

5, 494.

2. Hayes, R.A.; Feenstra, B.J. Video-speed electronic paper based on electrowetting. Nature 2003,

425, 383–385.

3. Mugele, F.; Baret, J.C. Electrowetting: From basics to applications. J. Phys. Condens. Matter 2005,

17, R705.

4. Abdelgawad, M.; Freire, S.L.S.; Yang, H.; Wheeler, A.R. All-terrain droplet actuation. Lab Chip

2008, 8, 672–677.

5. Liu, Y.J.; Yao, D.J.; Lin, H.C.; Chang, W.-Y.; Chang, H.-Y. DNA ligation of ultramicro volume using

an EWOD microfluidic system with coplanar electrodes. J. Micromech. Microeng. 2008, 18, 045017.

6. Srinivasan, V.; Pamula, V.K.; Fair, R.B. An integrated digital microfluidic lab-on-a-chip for clinical

diagnostics on human physiological fluids. Lab Chip 2004, 4, 310–315.

7. Taniguchi, T.; Torii, T.; Higuchi, T. Chemical reactions in microdroplets by electrostatic

manipulation of droplets in liquid media. Lab Chip 2002, 2, 19–23.

8. Miller, E.M.; Wheeler, A.R. A digital microfluidic approach to homogeneous enzyme assays.

Anal. Chem. 2008, 80, 1614–1619.

9. Barbulovic-Nad, I.; Yang, H.; Park, P.S.; Wheeler, A.R. Digital microfluidics for cell-based assays.

Lab Chip 2008, 8, 519–526.

10. Chang, Y.H.; Lee, G.B.; Huang, F.C.; Chen, Y.Y.; Lin, J.L. Integrated polymerase chain reaction

chips utilizing digital microfluidics. Biomed. Microdevices 2006, 8, 215–225.

11. Moon, H.; Wheeler, A.R.; Garrell, R.L.; Loo, J.A.; Kim, C.J. An integrated digital microfluidic chip

for multiplexed proteomic sample preparation and analysis by MALDI-MS. Lab Chip 2006, 6,

1213–1219.

12. Wheeler, A.R.; Moon, H.; Bird, C.A.; Loo, R.R.; Kim, C.J.; Loo, J.A.; Garrell, R.L. Digital

microfluidics with in-line sample purification for proteomics analyses with MALDI-MS. Anal.

Chem. 2005, 77, 534–540.

Micromachines 2015, 6 788

13. Wheeler, A.R.; Moon, H.; Kim, C.J.; Loo, J.A.; Garrell, R.L. Electrowetting-based microfluidics

for analysis of peptides and proteins by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.

Anal. Chem. 2004, 76, 4833–4838.

14. Luk, V.N.; Mo, G.C.H.; Wheeler, A.R. Pluronic additives: A solution to sticky problems in digital

microfluidics. Langmuir 2008, 24, 6382–6389.

15. Chevalliot, S.; Kuiper, S.; Heikenfeld, J. Experimental validation of the invariance of electrowetting

contact angle saturation. J. Adhes. Sci. Technol. 2012, 26, 1909–1930.

16. Koopal, L.K. Wetting of solid surfaces: Fundamentals and charge effects. Adv. Colloid Interface Sci.

2012, 179, 29–42.

17. Chen, L.; Bonaccurso, E. Electrowetting—From statics to dynamics. Adv. Colloid Interface Sci.

2014, 210, 2–12.

18. Wang, K.L.; Jones, T.B. Saturation effects in dynamic electrowetting. Appl. Phys. Lett. 2005,

86, 054104.

19. Bavière, R.; Boutet, J.; Fouillet, Y. Dynamics of droplet transport induced by electrowetting

actuation. Microfluid. Nanofluid. 2008, 4, 287–294.

20. Yeo, L.Y.; Chang, H.C. Static and spontaneous electrowetting. Mod. Phys. Lett. B 2005, 19,

549–569.

21. Gupta, R.; Sheth, D.M.; Boone, T.K.; Sevilla, A.B.; Fréchette, J. Impact of pinning of the triple

contact line on electrowetting performance. Langmuir 2011, 27, 14923–14929.

22. Moon, H.; Cho, S.K.; Garrell, R.L. Low voltage electrowetting-on-dielectric. J. Appl. Phys. 2002,

92, 4080–4087.

23. Chang, J.; Choi, D.Y.; Han, S.; Pak, J.J. Driving characteristics of the electrowetting-on-dielectric

device using atomic-layer-deposited aluminum oxide as the dielectric. Microfluidi. Nanofluid. 2010,

8, 269–273.

24. Berthier, J.; Peponnet, C. A model for the determination of the dimensions of dents for jagged

electrodes in electrowetting on dielectric microsystems. Biomicrofluidics 2007, 1, 014104.

25. Chen, J.; Yu, Y.; Li, J.; Lai, Y.; Zhou, J. Size-variable droplet actuation by interdigitated

electrowetting electrode. Appl. Phys. Lett. 2012, 101, 234102.

26. Pyne, D.G.; Salman, W.M.; Abdelgawad, M.; Sun, Y. Partially filled electrodes for digital

microfluidic devices. Appl. Phys. Lett. 2013, 103, 024103.

27. Accardo, A.; Mecarini, F.; Leoncini, M.; Brandi, F.; Di Cola, E.; Burghammer, M.; Riekel, C.;

Di Fabrizio, E. Fast, active droplet interaction: Coalescence and reactive mixing controlled by

electrowetting on a superhydrophobic surface. Lab Chip 2013, 13, 332–335.

28. Hill, R.M. Superhydrophobic surfaces. Curr. Opin. Colloid Interface Sci. 2006, 11, 193–202.

29. Vasudev, A.; Jagtiani, A.; Du, L.; Zhe, J. A low-voltage droplet microgripper for micro-object

manipulation. J. Micromech. Microeng. 2009, 19, 075005.

30. Sen, P.; Kim, C.J. Capillary spreading dynamics of electrowetted sessile droplets in air. Langmuir

2009, 25, 4302–4305.

31. Verplanck, N.; Coffinier, Y.; Thomy, V.; Boukherroub, R. Wettability switching techniques on

superhydrophobic surfaces. Nanoscale Res. Lett. 2007, 2, 577–596.

Micromachines 2015, 6 789

32. Li, Y.; Parkes, W.; Haworth, L.I.; Ross, A.; Stevenson, J.; Walton, A.J. Room-temperature

fabrication of anodic tantalum pentoxide for low-voltage electrowetting on dielectric (EWOD).

J. Microelectromech. Syst. 2008, 17, 1481–1488.

33. Jönsson-Niedziółka, M.; Lapierre, F.; Coffinier, Y.; Parry, S.J.; Zoueshtiagh, F.; Foat, T.; Thomy, V.;

Boukherroub, R. EWOD driven cleaning of bioparticles on hydrophobic and superhydrophobic

surfaces. Lab Chip 2011, 11, 490–496.

34. Mugele, F. Fundamental challenges in electrowetting: From equilibrium shapes to contact angle

saturation and drop dynamics. Soft Matter 2009, 5, 3377–3384.

35. Sedev, R. Electrowetting: Electrocapillarity, saturation, and dynamics. Eur. Phys. J. Spec. Top.

2011, 197, 307–319.

36. Bormashenko, E.; Gendelman, O. A generalized electrowetting equation: Its derivation and

consequences. Chem. Phys. Lett. 2014, 599, 139–141.

© 2015 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article

distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license

(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).