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HACCP A practical Approach, 3rd Edition

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Abstract

HACCP: A Practical Approach, 3rd edition has been updated to include the current best practice and new developments in HACCP application since the last edition was published in 1998. This book is intended to be a compendium of up-to-date thinking and best practice approaches to the development, implementation, and maintenance of HACCP programs for food safety management. Introductory chapters set the scene and update the reader on developments on HACCP over the last 15 years. The preliminary stages of HACCP, including preparation and planning and system design, are covered first, followed by a consideration of food safety hazards and their control. Prerequisite program coverage has been significantly expanded in this new edition reflecting its development as a key support system for HACCP. The HACCP plan development and verification and maintenance chapters have also been substantially updated to reflect current practice and a new chapter on application within the food supply chain has been added. Appendices provide a new set of case studies of practical HACCP application plus two new case studies looking at lessons learned through food safety incident investigation. Pathogen profiles have also been updated by experts to provide an up-to-date summary of pathogen growth and survival characteristics that will be useful to HACCP teams. The book is written both for those who are developing HACCP systems for the first time and for those who need to update, refresh and strengthen their existing systems. New materials and new tools to assist the HACCP team have been provided and the current situation on issues that are still undergoing international debate, such as operational prerequisite programs. All tools such as decision trees and record-keeping formats are provided to be of assistance and are not obligatory to successful HACCP. Readers are guided to choose those that are relevant to their situations and which they find are helpful in their HACCP endeavors. © Sara Mortimore and Carol Wallace 1994, 1998, 2013 All rights reserved.

Chapters (8)

HACCP is the well-known acronym for the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point system. It has been frequently written about and talked about at conferences and within companies over the last 50 years but is still often misunderstood and poorly applied in real situations.
When the decision is taken to use HACCP within a company, there is often the inclination to charge ahead and start doing something without taking the time to consider the best approach for your company. It is important to have sufficient knowledge before getting started, i.e., to understand both the theory of HACCP and the practicalities of implementation. Therefore, if you are new to HACCP, you will want to read the remaining chapters of this book to gain an understanding of the entire process before planning your approach and preparing to get started. This chapter outlines the key stages in the HACCP process and considers both how to establish the current food safety status of the operation and plan the HACCP project.
This chapter is designed to give you a clearer understanding of different types of hazards and their significance in foods, along with the mechanisms that can be used for their control. This is not intended to be a complete source of information on all possible hazards; however, it will provide a valuable grounding to HACCP team members and can be used for familiarization/refamiliarization before a HACCP study or HACCP review. The information provided should not be used as a replacement for the correct blend of knowledge and experience within the HACCP team. Rather, it should be taken as suggestions for possible further investigation. There may be situations where HACCP team members do not have sufficient knowledge and experience to understand the implications of all the hazard information given here; in this case it will help to highlight areas where you may need to bring in specialist help to your HACCP Team. However, it should also be noted that the sector of the food industry will also be important in identification and analysis of hazards, i.e., some hazards will be more relevant in some specific sectors but not in others.
This is not a book that claims to describe the detail of prerequisite programs (PRPs) but we do need to look at the essential role of PRPs in the context of supporting HACCP for effective food safety management. It is important to understand that hazard analysis must consider how hazards are managed (by CCPs or PRPs) and that there is a need to understand both the product and the production environment in order to do this.
Whenever a company is designing a new food product it is important to ask if it is possible to manufacture it safely. Effective HACCP Systems will manage and control identified food safety issues on an ongoing basis but what they cannot do is make safe a fundamentally unsafe product. The most effective way to ensure safe food is to design out the likely hazards.
Having understood how to design safety into product formulations and process environments, we are ready to look at how to carry out the HACCP study. In this chapter we will be identifying and analyzing the potential hazards associated with products during processing and exploring the options for their control. In doing this, we will be looking at a number of useful techniques that will help the team to structure their approach. We will then move on to the identification of the Critical Control Points (CCPs) and start to build up the information required in the HACCP plan—critical limits, monitoring procedures, corrective action, and responsibility. This covers the requirements of HACCP principles 1–5. We will continue to use the fictitious example ice cream product and will look at the construction of a modular HACCP plan for an ice cream manufacturing business.
Now that we have seen how to apply HACCP principles to develop a HACCP plan, the next step is to implement it in your operation so that you have everyday control of food safety hazards in practice. You have made a commitment to use the HACCP system in order to effectively control all safety issues, and unless the HACCP plan is properly implemented, its real benefits will not be realized. This is a vital stage and yet the relief at having completed the HACCP studies can sometimes mean that businesses see the documentation as the end in itself. Now is not the time to breathe a sigh of relief and assume that you are using HACCP to manage food safety—the HACCP Study was completed at a point in time and if it is to remain as effective as it was on the day it was written it must be implemented in practice and following that, it must be routinely verified and maintained. Even more important is to utilize (24/7) the mindset of hazard identification and analysis as you go about your day-to-day activities. Also to ensure that all employees are thinking in this way, i.e., seeing their operation through a “HACCP lens.”
In the previous chapters we have looked at the theory and practicalities of applying HACCP principles as a cornerstone of food safety management systems within food businesses. This chapter aims to develop this further using input from companies operating in different parts of the food supply chain to illustrate real examples and experiences of HACCP application in practice.
... It is very important to identify the intended use of the product in advance, because it will be related to the level of complexity in determining the types of hazards and critical limits that will be further identified (Mortimore & Wallace, 2013). ...
... The purpose of a flow chart is to provide a clear, simple description of all the steps involved in processing. The steps for receiving and storing raw materials must be included (Mortimore & Wallace, 2013). The flow chart or flow chart that is made must contain all stages in the production operation (Wallace et al., 2018). ...
... Hazard is identified as a biological, chemical or physical agent or condition in food that has the potential to cause adverse health effects (Mortimore & Wallace, 2013). The food products produced by the nutrition unit are intended for high-risk populations, namely the sick. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: One of the government efforts in Indonesia to protect consumers and producers of healthy and safe food is to enforce the Republic of Indonesia's Law No. 23 of 1992 concerning Health (Part Four: Safety of Food and Beverages). Therefore, designing the HACCP design at the hospital is necessary to ensure food safety.Objective: This study aimed to find out how the design is appropriate for the food safety system with the HACCP Principles Approach in the Palumara Fish Soup Processing in the Nutrition Installation of the Kendari City Regional General Hospital, Indonesia.Methods: This study was descriptive with a qualitative approach conducted on 15-17 July 2019 with Palumara fish soup samples observed three times in the third menu cycle.Result: The critical points in the processing of Palumara fish soup include improper foodstuffs, washing of impurities in the tools and foodstuffs, boiling and stirring (the level of food maturity), stripping (i.e., the inedible part), and contamination from workers and containers.Conclusion: The nutrition installation at the Kendari City Regional General Hospital has not implemented Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) as a whole, both from manpower, buildings, sanitation facilities and equipment. In addition, the hospital has not implemented HACCP in the food processing process, from the reception to distribution stage, so there are risks and dangers in Palumara fish soup.
... Mortimore and Wallace (1998) referred that, HACCP is an abbreviation for ...
... The 1973 U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) canned food regulations represented the first regulatory use of HACCP principles to identify specified controls. This legislation was followed much later by FDA mandatory HACCP regulations for domestic and imported fish and fishery products in 1995/1996 and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) HACCP regulation covering domestic and imported meat and poultry products (Mortimore & Wallace, 1998 andMartyn & Mike, 2002). ...
... Availability of resources (adequate resources such as money, time, manpower, monitoring equipment and training aid); and iv. External pressures (government, customers, authorized officers and media) (Mortimore and Wallace, 1998). ...
Book
A lot of dangers are threatening human health; food may be a source of these risks e.g. food-borne. So food safety became a global concern especially by the consumers. The HACCP System is widely acknowledged as the best method of assuring product safety. So nowadays, HACCP is widely embraced by the food industry and by governmental regulatory agencies because it has proven to be a cost-effective means to prevent the occurrence of identifiable food-borne, biological, chemical and physical hazards and consequently maintains consumer confidence. Consequently, HACCP is becoming the "Food Passport" to the international market place. In addition, the HACCP System is one of the basic requirements of ISO 22000 certificate. This book presents the HACCP System evolution, identification, principles, guidelines and application cases.
... The Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) methodology is a systematic tool that identiies speciic potential hazards and establishes control systems to ensure the safety of food [30]. The principles preconized on the HACCP methodology are well known, and at food processing level, all the safety management systems were established from Codex Alimentarius or on Standards based on it [31,32]. The identiication of biological, chemical, and physical hazards in all materials and process steps is Principle 1. ...
... The determination of a CCP in a process should use the safety knowledge about edible insects, only for real and likely occurring hazards and where preventive measures are available for their control. The Decision Tree for raw materials and processing steps is an algorithm to help inding the adequate CCPs for each considered hazard [32]. Critical control points require strict monitoring, which implies costs. ...
... Critical limits must be associated with a measurable factor that can be routinely monitored according to a ixed schedule. These critical limits are established based on published data (scientiic literature, in-house and supplier records, and regulatory guidelines), experimental data, expert advice, and mathematical modeling [32] and designated to be monitored at CCPs. Monitoring procedures assure that they have been respected. ...
... The Campden BRI Guide G42 (Gaze & Campden BRI, 2009; expands on this tri-categorization to include food allergens as a fourth category. Mortimore and Wallace (1994;1998; use the CAC (2003) categories, and include allergens within the category of a chemical hazard Manning, 2017a). Further to the above definitions, BRC (2015, p. 112) has an evolved definition for a hazard as being an agent of any type with the potential to cause harm (usually, biological, chemical, physical, or radiological), thus no longer differentiating allergens as a separate category but including the new category of radiological hazards that is gaining wider industry attention. ...
... Over time, a more generic approach was used where products considered intrinsically to be highly similar to each other, and as a result deemed to have the same inherent food safety hazards, were grouped, for example, meat or seafood products. This "product-led approach" to HACCP, whether single products or generic groups of products, was then joined by a "process-led HACCP" approach whereby the hazard assessment is undertaken based on the specific process or processes that are employed in the manufacturing situation (Mortimore & Wallace, 1998). The process-led approach considers food safety hazards associated with the ingredients and the role of the process step itself in delivering food safety. ...
... In complex processing operations, typically most manufacturing situations, individual products are made via a combination of processes, for example, a prepared meal may consist of components that undergo different initial processes, sometimes in different manufacturing locations, and that are then combined before undergoing further processes. This means that the process-led "modular" approach is applied either to individual processes or alternatively to sets of processes that make up the overall product portfolio of an operation (Mortimore & Wallace, 1998. ...
Article
The aim of this paper is to review the development of food safety management systems (FSMS) from their origins in the 1950s to the present. The food safety challenges in modern food supply systems are explored and it is argued that there is a need for a more holistic thinking approach to food safety management. The narrative review highlights that while the transactional elements of how FSMS are developed, validated, implemented, monitored, and verified remains largely unchanged, how organizational culture frames the operation and efficacy of FSMS is becoming more important. The evolution of a wider academic and industry understanding of both the influence of food safety culture (FS‐culture) and also how such culture frames and enables, or conversely restricts the efficacy of the FSMS is crucial for consumer well‐being. Potential research gaps worthy of further study are identified as well as recommendations given for the application of the research findings within the food industry.
... To fully accumulate all food hazards; both intrinsic and extrinsic factors, it is best to display them under three categories; chemical, physical and microbiological hazards. (Mortimore & Wallace, 2013). ...
... Chemical hazards in food include toxic substances that may be produced naturally, added intentionally or unintentionally to foodstuffs. (Mortimore and Wallace, 2013). ...
... Some foodservice facilities will have detecting machinery while others realise the hazard after service. (Mortimore & Wallace, 2013). ...
Chapter
Food, hygiene, and safety are critical in healthcare institutions, especially those in which patients are vulnerable against diseases triggered by food prepared under improper conditions. In the United Kingdom, almost 400 healthcare institutions were found to need significant improvements to their food preparation standards (ITV News, 2016). Such institutions still rely on traditional pen and paper-based methods to record all food-related parameters. This often leads to intentional (or unintentional) breaching of food standards and increases the health endangerment of both the vulnerable patients and other visitors. The complexity of the food supply chain makes it difficult for stakeholders to be aware of food safety issues such as cross-contamination, time and temperature deviations, and improper storage or waste management, in real time. However, using the Internet of Things and wearable device concepts may resolve some of these issues by connecting the objects and stakeholders through a network. This chapter, therefore, explores the role and benefits of implementing these technologies to automate the process of collecting data on food product processing and development, as well as the use of these technologies for real-time food safety, in the hopes of eliminating food-related health risks in healthcare institutions. It will also demonstrate how Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point in food safety may be integrated into the food supply chain of the healthcare industry.
... Nowadays, the HACCP method is an internationally recognized systematic approach to food security that seeks to comply with the development and the realization of effective food safety practices [34]. It is based on seven principles that identify and control food safety hazards (Table 1) [34,35]. ...
... Nowadays, the HACCP method is an internationally recognized systematic approach to food security that seeks to comply with the development and the realization of effective food safety practices [34]. It is based on seven principles that identify and control food safety hazards (Table 1) [34,35]. In addition, HACCP ensures that appropriate corrective actions are taken, where necessary, and that a registration system is available for documentation [36]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Wine production has food safety hazards. A Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) system makes it possible to identify, evaluate, and control significant food safety hazards throughout the wine production process. The Prerequisites Programs (PPRs) and HACCP performance in Protected Denomination of Origin "Vinos de Madrid" wineries were analyzed. Winery performances were evaluated for every critical control point (CCPs) in each winemaking process stage, including their implementation of PPR and HACCP principles. This study was developed through a survey of 55 questions divided into 11 sections, and it was conducted on a sample of 21 wineries. The results revealed that the CCPs worst performance level are for the control of metals (Cd, Pb, As) in grapes and fungicides or pesticide control in the harvest reception. A total of 91.5% of the wineries had implemented a prerequisites program (PPRs), regardless of their annual wine production. However, there was variability in the type of prerequisite plans, training, level of knowledge of operators, and annual budget allocation. Three out of four wineries had an HACCP, although corrective action procedures and verification procedures had the lowest and the worst HACCP practical implementation. The significant barriers for HACCP performance in wineries are linked with a lack of food safety staff training, low involvement of all staff in food safety tasks, and poor application of CCP chemical and microbiologic control methods.
... & Seckin-Aday, 2020;Duda-Chodak et al., 2020;Chowdhury & Nandi, 2021;Djekic et al., 2021), una enfermedad de origen zoonótico cuyo primer brote ocurrió en Wuhan, China en diciembre de 2019 (Franco et al., 2020;Jyoti & Bhattacharya, 2021;Chowdhury & Nandi, 2021 (Gunia, 2020;Guzmán, 2021), para el caso de Chile una falsa noticia sobre trazas de este virus en empaques de cerezas causó la caída de los precios de estas en un 80%, considerando que el 90% de la producción se exporta a China se debió buscar nuevos mercados (ASOEX & FEDEFRUTA, 2021;Fernández, 2021b;Guzmán, 2021;La Discusión, 2021); otro efecto asociado a la pandemia COVID-19 es el incremento del fraude alimentario (food fraud) debido al aumento de demanda de comida y la disminución o suspensión de inspecciones o auditorías públicas o privadas (Brooks et al., 2021;Marti et al., 2021). (Izquierdo, 2021), destacándose en los últimos años las exportaciones de frutillas y arándanos congelados (Pefaur-Lepe, 2021) y en el caso de la Región de Ñuble en el periodo enero-junio de 2021 las frutillas congeladas se encuentran en la 5 ta posición según su valor exportado en millones de dólares (Fernández, 2021a Group, 2021) siendo el eje central la inocuidad del producto basándose en la prevención de distintos peligros (Forsythe & Hayes, 1998;OMS & FAO, 2009;INN, 2011;Mortimore & Wallace, 2013) que amenacen la salud del consumidor, la calidad, inocuidad y autenticidad del producto, la imagen de la empresa, las ganancias económicas, entre otros. ...
... Por parte de la industria alimentaria una forma de evitar la presencia del virus en alimentos o envases es adaptar las buenas prácticas de manufactura a una nueva realidad, para así evitar la propagación del virus en los productos manufacturados, como en los trabajadores (Franco et al., 2020;Gunia, 2020;Jyoti & Bhattacharya, 2021), además hay una línea de investigación de materiales poliméricos con actividad antibacteriana y antiviral los cuales pueden ser aplicados en la industria alimentaria (Mortimore & Wallace, 2013). ...
Thesis
El año 2020, fue declarada pandemia la enfermedad COVID-19, que afectó la vida de muchas personas y también la cadena de suministro de alimentos, en este sentido es importante revisar los sistemas de inocuidad alimentaria de las empresas, enfocándonos en los productos congelados, los cuales fueron mayormente afectados, tras el hallazgo de material genético del virus en envases y existir la posibilidad de su transmisión a través de estos. Los sistemas de inocuidad alimentaria han ido evolucionando a lo largo del tiempo para incluir nuevos peligros o riesgos para así asegurar la inocuidad de los alimentos que todos consumimos, comenzando desde la utilización de las Buenas Prácticas de Manufactura (BPM), pasando por la creación del sistema de Aseguramiento de calidad basa en el Análisis de Peligros y Puntos Críticos de Control (HACCP) y su modificación en base a un sistema de Análisis de Peligros y Controles Preventivos en Base en el Riesgo (HARPC) y los sistemas de gestión y certificaciones en inocuidad alimentaria como lo es el estándar British Retail Consortium (BRC). Para asegurar la inocuidad de alimentos, ante desafíos como el COVID-19 es importante el trabajo de investigación, se deben reforzar ciertas prácticas higiénicas tanto de los empleados, ambientes y superficies, así como del producto y sus envases. A pesar de lo común que son las pandemias aún no se incorporan como un riesgo potencial al cual enfrentar en los sistemas de inocuidad alimentaria, hecho que debería tenerse previsto para poder enfrentar un próximo evento con características similares.
... Nowadays, the HACCP method is an internationally recognized systematic approach to food security that seeks to comply with the development and the realization of effective food safety practices [34]. It is based on seven principles that identify and control food safety hazards (Table 1) [34,35]. ...
... Nowadays, the HACCP method is an internationally recognized systematic approach to food security that seeks to comply with the development and the realization of effective food safety practices [34]. It is based on seven principles that identify and control food safety hazards (Table 1) [34,35]. In addition, HACCP ensures that appropriate corrective actions are taken, where necessary, and that a registration system is available for documentation [36]. ...
Experiment Findings
Full-text available
A survey was conducted to the wineries sample in the last quarter of 2021. First section consisted of seven questions related to the annual red wine production and the PPRs implementation. First question identified the winery size according to its red wine annual production. Five groups were made according to PDO “Vinos de Madrid” wineries annual red wine production [31]. Other six questions were focused on PPRs application. These questions asked about how PPRs were drafted, communicated, and known by the winery staff, about how PPRs application evidence and compliance were generated as updated records; and about how PPRs are financed.
... However, this moisture does not eliminate a potential infestation of flour with insects, in the egg stage or with microorganisms in the form of spores. To these, a number of factors already mentioned in the literature are added as frequent sources of poor efficiency of food safety management systems, namely: poor attention paid to the verification process, insufficient support from top management, lack of workers involvement etc [12]. One of the key issues in the field, at least in Romania, is related to food fraud. ...
... The technological scheme for wheat processing in the mills (afterMortimore and Wallace, 2013) ...
Article
Full-text available
The present paper aims to analyze the concept of “food integrity” from the perspective of wheat processing, in order to obtain flour. The analysis approaches concepts such as: safety, quality, authenticity and nutritional value of the products obtained to the main technological stages of the grinding process, food fraud concerning grinding products and minimization of the milling industry impact on global warming. Our data showed that mycotoxin contamination (DON and Ochratoxin A) was the cause of most alerts recorded in Europe. In United States, the main products withdrawals were caused by microbiological contamination (E. coli and Salmonella). In the area of food fraud, the main observed practice was that of over-or under-evaluation of the flour mineral content. Our conclusion is that although preventive programs, designed to minimize the risks of wheat milling products to consumers, are well described and implemented, there is room for improvement, especially as regards the selection and evaluation of suppliers and the control of certain microbiological risks in mills.Most of the problemsare the causeof an inadequate description of the flow diagrams in the specific documentation of food management systems and ofthe underestimation of certain activities (e.g.rework), that are not treated as an integral part of the technological processes in mills. Most concerns to reduce the impact of wheat processing on global warming are compromised by a number of issues, such as large investments, in obtaining convenient and safer products (that require energy-intensive technologies and equipment), which are in contradiction with consumers' interest.
... Such an elimination diet will not be effective unless the person with a food allergy is reliably informed by food manufacturers about the allergens present in food [13]. In this regard, the legislation of a number of countries establishes a list of components, the use of which may cause allergic reactions or is contraindicated in certain types of diseases, as well as the requirement for mandatory information on the presence of such components in the labeling of food products [14]. ...
Article
From a public health point of view, the control of food allergens in enterprises is one of the main methods of food safety management required by national and international standards. The implementation results of measures for allergen control and identification of noncompliance are presented using the developed checklist, which includes 41 questions. The survey was conducted at meat processing plant in the Moscow region, which is certified for compliance with the requirements of ISO 22000:2018 “Food safety management systems — Requirements for any organization in the food chain” and FSSC22000 certification scheme. Compliance with the criteria included in the checklist was assessed by the method of interviewing employees at the enterprise and direct onsite observation. The highest level of noncompliance according to 7 groups of criteria established in the checklist was identified in the following sections; “Cleaning”, “Transport and storage” and “Hazard awareness”. Factors complicating the implementation of allergen control activities include available methods to assess cleaning effectiveness when removing specific allergens, experience in separating allergen-containing and allergen-free products and raw materials during transport and storage, and staff training in allergen control. At the same time, the PCR method was used to study 15 samples of meat products manufactured at the selected enterprise for the presence of legumes (soybeans), gluten, mustard, and peanuts. In six samples, undeclared allergens were detected in quantities hazardous to the health of the consumer. The results obtained indicated the need to develop and implement measures aimed at minimizing the risk of allergen transfer to the meat products during their production. Based on the results of the research, a procedure for allergen control has been developed, including additional measures for the control of food allergens.
... HACCP is a tool that can be used for reducing the risks of food safety failure. All types of possible hazards are consider as a part of HACCP system, these include Biological, Physical and Chemical hazards [5]. The HACCP program ensures safety of products because potential hazards that may occur at any stage of processing are anticipated, evaluated, controlled and prevented. ...
Article
Full-text available
Carbonated soft drinks are amongst the most consumable drinks around the world. The objective of this study was to design Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) plan for soft drink production plant based on real time conditions in the beverage industry located in Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan. The model was developed to ensure the food safety of whole plant using the seven principles of HACCP and other generic models of HACCP using different approaches. Eight-member HACCP team was involved and HACCP chart, verification procedures and record-keeping were initiated. Only one CCP was identified during the production of carbonated soft drink. This research didn't include the overview of production setup. Based on the results of this study, the authors recommend implementation of HACCP system in all food facilities.
... Sistem HACCP merupakan suatu konsep pendekatan sistematis untuk menilai bahaya dan menetapkan sistem pengendalian yang memfokuskan pada pencegahan daripada mengandalkan sebagian besar pengujian produk akhir (BSN, 1998). Apabila sistem ini dilaksanakan secara berkesinambungan, akan dapat menurunkan ketergantungan pada metode tradisional seperti inspeksi maupun pengujian produk akhir (Mortimore & Wallace, 2013). Review ini bertujuan untuk mengidentifikasi potensi bahaya pangan industri tahu skala rumah tangga dengan menggunakan pendekatan konsep Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) berdasarkan hasil penelusuran literatur-literatur yang relevan dengan gagasan penulisan review. ...
Article
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Extraordinary cases caused by food poisoning often occur in food producers at the home industry level. One of the household processed food products that are widely consumed by the community is tofu. This review discusses the process conditions and work practices, as well as identifies potential sources of danger at stages of tofu processing using the HACCP approach. Various articles that have been documented are then analyzed using the gap analysis method to compare the current condition of the tofu industry with ideal or proper conditions. Literature studies show that in every tofu processing process there are potential hazards, in the form of chemical, physical, and microbiological hazards. Critical control points (CCP) for tofu processing were found, including chemical hazards at the stage of receiving raw materials, microbiological hazards in the process of boiling tofu and clumping, as well as physical and microbiological contamination at the stage of packaging and temporary storage. Potential chemical hazards come from harmful non-food preservatives such as formalin and borax as well as from pesticide residues. Biological/microbiological hazards come from bacteria in water, soybeans, soybean pulp, cooked soybean juice, tofu lumps, and the final tofu product. Physical hazards in the form of twigs, soybean outer skin, sawdust, and gravel sourced from harvest residues, milling, drying, or from environmental factors where processing locations placement does not consider the potential hazard. ABSTRAK Kasus kejadian luar biasa (KLB) yang disebabkan oleh keracunan pangan banyak terjadi pada produsen pangan di tingkat industri rumah tangga. Salah satu produk pangan olahan rumah tangga yang banyak dikonsumsi oleh masyarakat adalah tahu. Review ini membahas terkait kondisi proses dan praktik kerja, serta mengidentifikasi potensi sumber bahaya pada tahapan pengolahan tahu menggunakan pendekatan HACCP. Berbagai literatur jurnal yang telah didokumentasikan, selanjutnya dianalisa dengan melakukan metode Gap Analysis, untuk membandingkan kondisi industri tahu saat ini dengan kondisi ideal atau semestinya. Studi literatur menunjukkan bahwa pada setiap proses pengolahan tahu terdapat potensi bahaya, berupa bahaya kimia, fisik, maupun mikrobiologis. Ditemukan titik kendali kritis (CCP) pengolahan tahu antara lain, bahaya kimia pada tahap penerimaan bahan baku, bahaya mikrobiologis pada proses perebusan tahu dan penggumpalan, serta kontaminasi fisik dan mikrobiologi pada tahap pengemasan dan penyimpanan sementara. Potensi bahaya kimia berasal dari pengawet non-pangan berbahaya seperti formalin dan borax maupun berasal dari residu pestisida. Bahaya mikrobiologi berasal dari bakteri pada air, kedelai, bubur kedelai, sari kedelai masak, gumpalan tahu dan tahu. Bahaya fisik berupa ranting, kulit luar kedelai, serbuk kayu, serta kerikil yang bersumber dari sisa panen, penggilingan, penjemuran, ataupun dari faktor lingkungan yang tidak memperhatikan penempatan lokasi pengolahan yang baik. Kata kunci: HACCP, industri rumah tangga pangan (IRTP) tahu, keamanan pangan
... Sistem HACCP merupakan suatu piranti untuk menilai bahaya dan menetapkan sistem pengendalian yang memfokuskan pada pencegahan daripada mengandalkan sebagian besar pengujian produk akhir (Triyanni, Purwanggono, & Pujitomo, 2017). Jika sistem ini dilakukan secara berkesinambungan maka akan dapat menurunkan ketergantungan pada metode tradisional seperti inspeksi dan pengujian produk akhir (Mortimore & Wallace, 2013). ...
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Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengetahui nkeuntungan dan kelayakann usaha produksi tahu di Kademangan Kabupaten Blitar. Metode pengolahan data dilakukan dengan nmenggunakan metode kualitatif dan kuantitatif. Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa (1) Total penerimaan sebesar Rp 3.180.975.000 per tahun dan total biaya sebesar Rp 2.958.744,600 per tahun. (2) Kelayakan agroindustri tahu layak untuk diusahakan, karena hasil dari analisis R/C Ratio yang didapat adalah 1,075 (R/C Ratio > 1) (3) Berdasarkan hasil analisis BEP produksi harus dapat memproduksi minimal 1.616.186,0465 potong dan 11,904,4 karung untuk mencapai titik impas, dan hasil produksi yang dihasilkan usaha industri tahu adalah 1.737.400 potong dan12.775 karung limbah / tahun. 4) Penerapan GMP (Good Manufacturing Practices) meliputi : lokasi, bangunan, fasilitas sanitasi, pengawasannproses, karyawan, nlabel atau keterangan produk, penyimpanan, pemeliharaan dan program sanitasi, dokumentasi dan pencatatan, npelatihan. 5) HACCP dan menganalisis usaha produksi tahu di Kademangan Blitar menetapkan titik kendali kritis CC. This study aims to determine the advantages and feasibility of tofu production business in Kademangan, Blitar Regency. The data processing method is qualitative and quantitative methods. The results of the study show that 1) Total revenue is Rp. 3,180,975,000 per year, total cost is Rp. 2,958,744,600 per year. 2) Feasibility of the tofu agroindustry is feasible, because the results of the R/C Ratio analysis obtained are 1.075 (R/C Ratio > 1) 3) Based on the results of the BEP analysis, production must be able to produce a minimum of 1,616,186.0465 pieces and 11,904.4 sacks to break even, and the production results of the tofu industry are 1,737,400 pieces and 12,775 sacks of waste/year. 4) The application of GMP (Good Manufacturing Practices) includes: location, building, sanitation facilities, process supervision, employees, product labeling or description, storage, maintenance and sanitation programs, documentation and recording, training. 5) HACCP and analyze the tofu production business in Kademangan Blitarn to determine the critical point of CC.
... Identifying hazards, understanding the significance of a risk, weighing its severity and the likelihood of its occurrence is not an easy task (Mortimore & Wallace, 1998). In this sense, unifying HACCP concepts based on SCM and the PAHO/WHO Five Keys to Safer Food can be a simple way to demonstrate the importance of management strategies in restaurants. ...
Article
This study aims to discuss the use of multiple layers of defence to prevent foodborne illness in restaurants. A defence model was developed based on Reason's Swiss Cheese Model. Reason's model was extended by adding the concept of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points, as well as Five Keys to Safer Food. The defence system was divided into seven layers of defence: 1) adequate facilities and 2) training as administrative controls; 3) safe ingredients and water; 4) environmental hygiene; 5) personal and food hygiene and 6) safe food temperature as behavioural controls; and 7) control and systems. The hypothesis was that the layers would act as barriers to prevent hazards from causing losses. To test the model, a dataset (secondary data) of food safety assessments from 1536 different restaurant establishments in Brazil was used. A checklist of 51 items was organised into seven layers of defence system. The model was tested with a Partial Least Square Structural Equation Model. Errors in administrative controls (facilities and training) led to errors in behavioural controls. A ‘cascade effect’ was observed where errors in distal behavioural controls (safe ingredients and water and environmental hygiene) impacted proximal controls (personal and food hygiene and; safe food temperature) and system controls. It was discussed how latent conditions and active failures can string together and cause a foodborne illness incident. The Swiss Cheese Model of food safety incidents is proposed as a new perspective for food safety. This model can be used for risk management and food safety education.
... Food Authorities: The food authorities, such as NSW Food Authority 1 , are mainly responsible to periodically perform regulatory inspections regarding the safety of the diary products, according to a particular safety and regulatory standard, e.g., HACCP [16]. ...
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Blockchain has the potential to enhance supply chain management systems by providing stronger assurance in transparency and traceability of traded commodities. However, blockchain does not overcome the inherent issues of data trust in IoT enabled supply chains. Recent proposals attempt to tackle these issues by incorporating generic trust and reputation management, which does not entirely address the complex challenges of supply chain operations and suffers from significant drawbacks. In this paper, we propose DeTRM, a decentralised trust and reputation management solution for supply chains, which considers complex supply chain operations, such as splitting or merging of product lots, to provide a coherent trust management solution. We resolve data trust by correlating empirical data from adjacent sensor nodes, using which the authenticity of data can be assessed. We design a consortium blockchain, where smart contracts play a significant role in quantifying trustworthiness as a numerical score from different perspectives. A proof-of-concept implementation in Hyperledger Fabric shows that DeTRM is feasible and only incurs relatively small overheads compared to the baseline.
... HACCP was standardized by C A C [2]. As a systematic preventive approach for food safety that controls significant hazards and detects each critical point that is important for food safety throughout the food production chain [5]. ...
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apply the (HACCP) system guidelines for the first time in a small processing unit of soft cheese production in a small-scale cheese plant
... The implementation of a good HACCP system in a production process can be carried out from receiving raw materials, processing, handling, storage, distribution, to after-sales service. This system is focused on food product safety and it can be maintained because HACCP is able to prevent deviation and avoid problems [11][12][13][14][15][16]. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct this research so that the resulting dairy products are safe for consumption and environmentally-friendly. ...
... HACCP aims to minimize risks to an acceptable limit as soon as the product arrives at the completion of the process. 18,19 The hazards that may appear during pharmaceutical product manufacturing can be minimized to a higher degree when HACCP is employed along with some other quality tools. These risks can be either chemical, biological or physical factors that, if not prevented, are capable of causing harm. ...
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For several years, quality risk management (QRM) has been such an integral component of healthcare as well as pharmaceutical product manufacturing. Effectual QRM can help companies make better informed and smarter choices, and furnish regulators with more prominent confirmation of an organization's capacity to manage possible dangers. In the pharmaceutical sector, the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP), a QRM tool is comparatively a new approach. It is a globally perceived management system that gives rules to the pharmaceutical and food industries. HACCP approach emphasizes the hazards, with the overarching goal of ensuring that drug products are safe to use because the production of drug products is prone to health together with safety concerns. The HACCP system offers guidance to a considerable extent for quality control, by detecting, assessing, monitoring, and validating the crucial procedures and operations in the manufacturing of pharmaceutical products. The presented review article provides HACCP as a risk assessment tool, which could be applied to various parts of drug quality so that it might promote and assist the adoption of quality practices by pharmaceutical industries with the objective of improving HACCP efficiency together with company performance. Keywords: HACCP, Hazards, QRM, Quality
... On the other hand, the good manufacturing practice (GMP) system ensures that products are consistently produced according to the outlined quality standards [154]. To produce safe and quality products, the members of the International Sprout Growers Association (ISGA) are required to adhere GMP guidelines [154][155][156]. Finally, in today's climate of consumer interest in food safety matters, sprout developers and regulatory authorities need to often communicate proactively with consumers about hazards related to sprouts and measures to avoid such risks [153]. ...
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The consumption of plant sprouts as part of human day-to-day diets is gradually increasing, and their health benefit is attracting interest across multiple disciplines. The purpose of this review was to (a) critically evaluate the phytochemicals in selected sprouts (alfalfa, buckwheat, broccoli, and red cabbage), (b) describe the health benefits of sprouts, (c) assess the recent advances in sprout production, (d) rigorously evaluate their safety, and (e) suggest directions that merit special consideration for further novel research on sprouts. Young shoots are characterized by high levels of health-benefitting phytochemicals. Their utility as functional ingredients have been extensively described. Tremendous advances in the production and safety of sprouts have been made over the recent past and numerous reports have appeared in mainstream scientific journals describing their nutritional and medicinal properties. However, subjects such as application of sprouted seed flours in processed products, utilizing sprouts as leads in the synthesis of nanoparticles, and assessing the dynamics of a relationship between sprouts and gut health require special attention for future clinical exploration. Sprouting is an effective strategy allowing manipulation of phytochemicals in seeds to improve their health benefits.
... Denote the left side of equation (20) by y 1 =ctgμ, and the right -through y 2 =μ/Bi. The intersection of the cotangensoid y1 with the line y2 gives us the value of the roots of the characteristic equation, i.e. μ (Fig. 4) [21]. ...
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This study was conducted to determine the impact of the HACCP management system on the safety of final products in baked goods production. The object of the study is two critical control points of the production of bakery products, which in turn affect the indicator of microbiological quality and safety of finished products. Using a mathematical model, the critical limits of critical control points (CCP) were determined – in the baking and cooling processes of baked goods. For the two CCPs, measures for continuous monitoring have been defined and critical limits have been developed. For CCT 1, a theoretical calculation using a mathematical model is given: the critical limit of the baking process (95.2–99.1 °C in the center of the crumb), by controlling this process, the company controls the biohazard factor, for CCP 2 the critical limit of cooling the finished product to a temperature of 22.84 °C in the center of the crumb for safe packing. The presentation of the results of the development of critical control limits and critical points of the production of bakery products using the construction of mathematical modeling is the theoretical beginning of further research. When compiling the model, the physical parameters of a specific dough with a certain geometric shape were used, from which the bakery product is baked. The use of a mathematical model allows predetermining the baking parameters for the dough of any initial concentration. The results can be used in the production of baked goods to better ensure the quality and safety of the final product
... Among the food safety issues highlighted in common food quality management systems such as the HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point) system is free from the risk of biological, chemical and physical hazards. According to Mortimore & Wallace (2013), there are three types of food safety hazards emphasized in food processing activities namely the presence of contamination of microorganisms on food products, the use of chemicals such as detergents or grease maintenance machines and physical contaminants such as stone, iron, glass, plastic, paper and such. This is one of the crucial elements to ensure the quality and level of food safety throughout the food supply chain. ...
Article
Food allergies are the effects of a detrimental reaction from the body's immuntive system on certain types of food that are considered harmful to the body. Food allergies are also considered a critical issue in food safety and food quality management systems. In fact, the issue of food allergy consumption is also discussed from the aspects of medical and food industry to prevent any risk of consuming food that is harmful to consumers. Generally, the implementation of the concept of ‘halalan tayyibban’ only focuses on the study of raw materials, food processing activities and storage of final ingredients from illegal, clean and safe to be eaten elements. However, this aspect of food allergy intake is not discussed comprehensively based on the perspective of ‘Halalan Tayyiban’. Therefore, this article uses a qualitative approach through document analysis to describe the importance of consuming allergic foods according to the perspective of ‘halalan tayyiban’ in-depth. In addition, the aspects of food allergy control and management through food quality management system are also discussed. This study also suggests that the assessment of risk analysis and food allergy management be discussed in more depth according to the Islamic perspective based on the sources of the Quran and hadith. Hence, this study will have a positive impact on improving the halal auditing process and strengthening the integrity of food product status in line with the concept of ‘halalan tayyiban.’
... To do this, first, the most consumed foods in the study area were identified in the form of a food pyramid. Then, by using the technique of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) the critical points in the production, preparation and storage of foods were determined (28). This stage took 30 times to review and reform critical points according to the food pyramid and local culture. ...
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Background: It is widely understood that most food-borne illness is associated with the inner home environment, and that therefore, the role of women in providing, storage and preparation of healthy food is very important. Given the lack of research on home food safety in Iran, this study focused on the knowledge and behavior towards food safety and its relationship with literacy among rural women. Methods: Data of this cross-sectional survey were collected through questionnaires. The validity of the questionnaire was evaluated by referring to university experts. The questionnaire reliability was evaluated by Cronbach's test (α=0.782). The study population consisted of rural women in the areas of Gonbad-e Kavous County in Golestan province, north of Iran. Using random cluster sampling, 385 women from 77 villages were studied. Descriptive statistics and t-test were used for analysis. Results: Knowledge and behavior of the studied rural women towards food safety could be assessed as good and fair respectively. There was no difference between literate and illiterate women in regard to food safety knowledge (t=1.72; P>0.05), but literate compared with illiterate rural women have in general better food safety behavior (t=2.16; P
... These faults may cause that the optimal processing strategies cannot be fully tracked, compromising the safety of the food product and leading to the rejection or reprocessing of the batch (Alonso et al., 2013). Hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) programs are designed to ensure safe production against such situations (Mortimore and Wallace, 2013). However, those that do not integrate statistical process control (SPC) (Lim et al., 2014), either because there is no online monitoring and/or predictability of process variations, cope with these faults by increasing process time to avoid batch rejection, which usually results into an unnecessary degradation of product quality, uniformity as well as an expensive energy consumption increment. ...
Article
Industrial canneries are subject to perturbations that may compromise food safety requirements. In such cases, plant operators typically increase the processing time, leading to undesirable large processing cycles and excessive quality degradation. In addition, differences among the items in a batch lead to variability in terms of quality and safety which, if not explicitly considered in the processing strategy, forces the use of conservative operation policies. In this work, we present an event-based dynamic optimization approach that combines available plant measurements and mathematical model predictions to anticipate the effect of plant perturbations on food safety. A safety software sensor is build upon an on-line predictive simulation and a previous food-variability characterization such that, if any perturbation during the sterilization compromises food safety, a new processing strategy that optimizes a trade off among quality, uniformity and processing time is recomputed and implemented. Such multi-objective dynamic optimization problem under food product variability is efficiently addressed by taking advantage of the monotonicity and convexity properties of the food quality/safety dynamics.
... ." Many businesses today address this through a series of manual tasks (e.g., temperature checks of perishable items using manual probes) and paper based record keeping following the procedures defined in their HACCP food safety management systems (Mortimore and Wallace, 2013). Such systems consist of three components: (awareness of) hazards, control measures, and critical control points. ...
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In this article, we discuss our experience of realizing a prototype IoT-based food safety monitoring solution which integrates inexpensive off-the-shelf open source IoT technology for monitoring food deliveries, semantic services for managing and reasoning about food safety provenance records, and private blockchain networks for persistent and secure storage of semantic provenance graphs. We describe how observation of real-world contexts was used to develop a prototype device, and the results of field trials deploying these prototypes as part of the food delivery process. Results indicate that continuous, context sensitive, trustworthy temperature measurement could provide benefits to multiple stakeholders across the delivery pathway. However, close attention has to be paid to the technology used—as cheap multi-functional IoT devices may produce low quality sensor observations which adversely affect the utility of the overall solution. Our experience also suggests that future food safety management systems may need to include machine-processable guidelines to support analysis of raw sensor data for food safety compliance.
... The current baking industry has already implemented HACCP in their plant. As training for employees is a prerequisite for HACCP certification (Mortimore and Wallace, 2013), they conducted several training programs before and after the HACCP certification. The positive outcomes of the training program can be seen in the section of HACCP knowledge of trained workers. ...
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In Bangladesh, with the mounting esteem of bakery products, food safety issues in bakery industries are a paramount concern nowadays. In this regard, this current study was performed to evaluate food safety knowledge, attitude, and self-reported practices of two groups (160 trained and 55 new untrained) of workers from two popular baking industries in Dhaka, Bangladesh. A self-administrated questionnaire was used to acquire the data during the study. On food safety knowledge, attitude, and self-reported practices, trained workers' scores (33.01 AE 0.09, 14.86 AE 0.03, 10.66 AE 0.25, respectively) were significantly higher than the scores (9.82 AE 0.23, 10.44 AE 0.26, 5.91 AE 0.33, respectively) of newly appointed untrained workers. The quality assurance department displayed better knowledge, attitude, and self-reported practices scores than the rest of the departments of the industries. However, compared to knowledge and attitude, the self-reported practice was not up to a satisfactory level. According to the study, training can be proved effective for improving knowledge and attitude but does not always translate those into self-reported practice and behaviors. The results also reinforce the importance of conducting training for untrained workers and suggest further behavior-based food safety training for all employees.
... Here introduces the Structure The HACCP [1] consists of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points to identify and analyze potential factors for food, and the central management department is managed to ensure the prevention, elimination and safety of such hazards. Hazard Analysis refers to "predicting a hazard in advance and identifying the risk factors in advance." ...
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Smart Factory has already become an irresistible entity in manufacturing, which has led to a much wider scope of existing manufacturing innovations and the achievement of qualitative improvements. Unsurpassed progress has been made in the manufacturing sector through the combination of professional know-how and advanced IT, and HACCP has already thoroughly managed all steps from raw materials for agricultural and livestock products to processing, packaging and distribution before digitalization. Sanitary issues in each country have now been raised to the level of national security under the influence of COVID-19. Although HACCP is already well-managed by country, we have looked at this discussion and detailed technological transformation from a digital data perspective, as it is now possible to collect, store, record and report data to government offices more smartly in line with technological advances in smart factories. The intersection of smart factories and HACCPs is consistent in terms of data collection, storage and utilization. Furthermore, the addition of Blockchain technology to strictly prevent data forgery is more interesting. Although the use of Blockchain in general factories has been relatively insignificant, it is expected that the use of Blockchain technology will be expanded through smart HACCP, which forms the interface between smart factory technology and HACCP, and that agricultural, livestock and household factories will introduce more smart factories.
... The main focus of HACCP is "prevention" [15], through identifying potential contaminants prior to its occurrences, and instituting of control measures to eliminate possible hazards in every step of the process [16]. Compared with traditional methods of inspection and quality control based on the analysis of finished products. ...
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Introduction The increase in human populations bring about the proliferation of more food manufacturing and dispensing establishments among which are fast food establishments and food vendors or street hawkers in Nigeria. Fast food establishment’s indiscriminate activities are often associated with frequent food poisoning in developing countries especially in Nigeria. This scenario could be due to the poor state of food safety and general hygiene in these countries. Consequently, large quantities of food produced and distributed get to the consumer in an unwholesome condition. This study evaluates the microbial load in some selected fast food establishments in Kaduna Metropolis, Kaduna state, Nigeria. Materials and methods A descriptive cross-sectional study using multistage sampling technique was adopted to select 174 fast food establishments. The premises were assessed on practice of personal hygiene and implementation of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) principles during their food preparations. Laboratory analyses were carried out on the samples for bacteriological analyses of 1g of food (Tuwon Shinkafa, Tuwon Masara, Stew, Rice, and Bread). Results Majority of the selected fast food establishments were observed to have Predominates bacterial isolates that includes Pseudomonas spp. (50%), Salmonella spp. (86.7%), Shigella dysenteries (68.7%), Escherichia coli (20.0%) and Staphylococcus aureus (97.3%) respectively. The total number of occurrence of bacteria in all the food sampled were 2,659 cfu/g with Bread having the highest number of 685 cfu/g followed by Tuwon Masara with 629 cfu/g. The study equally found out that Staphylococcus aureus is the appeared the highest in the samples with 700 cfu/g followed by Salmonella with 629 cfu/g. Conclusion The predominates occurrence of bacteria in the food samples is due to poor personal hygiene, environmental sanitation and general cleanliness of the eating utensils which was observed during the study. It is recommended that health education of the food handlers on personal hygiene and HACCP implementation be given more priority.
... The Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) approach was used to identify the hazards of chemical and microbiological risky pathways from farm to use. HACCP helps to determine the corrective measures for situations where critical control points are beyond control limits [32] Estimated daily intake (EDI) of pesticides from consumable Khat leaf was assessed by extrapolating pesticides database [33] and from previous studies conducted in Ethiopia on pesticide residues from Khat leaf. ...
... In the early 1990s, WHO developed the Ten Golden Rules for Safe Food Preparation and introduced the Five Keys to Safer Food in 2001. Recognizing the importance of safe food in human health WHO has selected the theme of Food Safety for the World Health Day 2015 with the objective of ensuring safety of food from farm to plate (Subba Rao GM et al., 2007) [46] . ...
... Par la suite, les différents points critiques sont identifiés en fonction des limites critiques définies. De plus, pour les points de contrôle critique retenus, la surveillance, les mesures correctives, les mesures préventives, les enregistrements et les vérifications sont établis via l'élaboration d'un plan de maîtrise et de contrôle des dangers au cours de la production de boisson gazeuse en bouteille PET (Quaye, 2018 ;Mortimore & Wallace, 2013). Ce plan de maîtrise a permis de décrire tous les contrôles à effectuer au cours du processus de production de la boisson gazeuse en bouteille PET. ...
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Food safety is an important aspect to be taken into account by food companies through a quality approach to ensure the safety of manufactured food products, and thus guarantee the health of consumers in Niger. The present work aims to highlight the development of a plan of control and developed control through the critical analysis of the manufacturing process of the soft drink bottling unit in a food industry in Niger. The results of this work provide practical solutions for the control and prevention of 16 critical control point (CCP) identified during the production of the soft drinks bottling of the company. Thus, a master plan of the CCP with six (6) control points was developed. Finally, implementing the HACCP system in such company can effectively ensure food quality and expand its market.
... There are also many gaps in food safety knowledge and practices that may result in foodborne diseases [24- 28] . On the other hand, from another perspective our result can support for the opinion that people of all ages seem to think they know how to handle food safely [29] . Overall, the results obtained from this study provide support for the need for in deep consumer-based nutrition education approaches to enhance consumers' awareness on diverse aspects of food safety analysis. ...
Article
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Aims: Food safety is a public health concern due to its great impact on the economy and health of the people in developing countries. Since food preparation is the final line of defense against foodborne diseases; women need to take extra precaution to reduce the chances of home prepared food contamination. This study examined the applicability of the trans-theoretical model of change to assess readiness to increase food safety among housewives’ women. Materials & Methods: The present cross-sectional study was carried out among 181 households’ women in 2017. Data were collected using a questionnaire consisted of food safety characteristics based on the stage of change. Data were analyzed by SPSS 24 for descriptive analysis, normality test, correlation, and multiple logistic regression analysis. Findings: Mean age (SD) of participants was 38.68±8.5 years old. 6.1% of participants were in the pre-contemplation stage, 21.0% in the contemplation stage, 23.2% in the preparation stage, 16.6% in the action stage, and 33.1% in the maintenance stage. Overall stage of change was not significant association with age, educational status and household income. Conclusions: Findings of this study may help in planning health intervention programs for housewives’ women for their improvement of knowledge, attitude and practice towards foodborne diseases and food safety. We suggested an intervention based on the Trans-theoretical Model for housewives’ women to promote food hygiene, at least in .
... Mortimore and Wallace (1998) in brief, HACCP is applied through taking a number of easy steps: ...
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Nowadays Hazard Analysis of Critical Control Points (HACCP) has become a prerequisite for transactions involving food products. Whereas the implementation of the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) system to chicken products is of great importance in order to produce microbiologically safe foods. Chicken sausage is one of the popular foodstuffs among products of chicken meat. Therefore a thorough HACCP analysis of this product has become an important issue for public health. This paper presenting guidelines for the application of HACCP and focuses on the flow diagrams based on the production line of manufacture chicken sausage in a small producing unite in Agriculture Research Center, and presents an analysis of the hazards and of the critical control points (CCP) and monitoring them then verification to confirm that the HACCP system is working effectively.
... The main focus of HACCP is "prevention" [15], through identifying potential contaminants prior to its occurrences, and instituting of control measures to eliminate possible hazards in every step of the process [16]. Compared with traditional methods of inspection and quality control based on the analysis of finished products. ...
Article
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Ensuring the chemical, physical, and microbial safety of food and ingredients underpins the international trade of food items and is integral to building consumer confidence. Achieving this requires effective systems to support the safety of food across the supply chain. Differing risk‐assessment approaches are utilized globally for establishing food safety systems, and bench marking these approaches against international food safety standards can assist in the development of country‐specific systems. This China–Australia collaborative review examined similarities and differences in the food safety risk‐assessment systems of China, Australia/New Zealand, Canada, and the United States, with the view to identify areas that could support improvements to the Chinese system. Key differences include the level of cohesiveness among stakeholders and the level to which each country promotes the international harmonization of standards. The evidence highlights a need for greater capacity‐building in risk assessment in China that may support greater stakeholders’ cohesion, improve hazard identification, and allow regulators to more readily keep abreast of changes to international standards. This review may help the Chinese food industry to replicate the same level of food safety risk assessment currently applied by other key countries, and reflects the determination, government prioritization, and active strengthening of China's National Centre for Food Safety Risk Assessment currently underway.
Chapter
To meet both market demands and regulations, stakeholders in global food supply chains are progressively increasing food safety management within their organisations and throughout the chains to demonstrate their abilities in controlling food safety hazards to ensure that food is safe at the time of human consumption (Mensah & Julien, 2011). Based on the main gaps addressed in Chapter 2 related to CSFs for FSMS, a set of CSFs related to the organisations, market, and environment affecting the success of FSMSFood safety management system (FSMS) is identified. In detail, the degree to which CSFs from multi-level environments interacting with FSMS are explored to quantify the impact and their relationship in the context of global supply chainsglobal supply chains.
Article
Purpose The study sets to summarise managerial requirements, analyse practices and tools to measure food safety management system (FSMS) implementation. Also, underpinned by critical success factors (CSFs) theory, the authors explore when food firms manage FSMS and which factors are critical to their implementation to identify promising research directions for researchers and suggestions for practitioners through a comprehensive analytical lens. Design/methodology/approach It is difficult to ensure food safety from farm to fork worldwide. The paper addresses this challenge from the angle of how firms measure and improve the implementation of the FSMS in global food supply chains by a systematic review combined with biological mapping analysis (VOS viewer) on 81 peer-reviewed papers published from 2005 to 2020. Findings Mandatory and voluntary regulations and standards are the most critical part of international requirements to assure integrated, proactive, risk-based approaches as well as continuous improvement in the FSMS in global food chains. To measure the FSMS, only a limited number of measurement tools for the FSMS have been identified. External and internal factors, and technology adoption that significantly impact the management of the FSMS implementation still require more future works. Research limitations/implications Several FSMS research gaps observed during the content analysis of selected papers within 15 years are presented along with ten future research questions. Practical implications A systematised list of published papers that have been studied and reported in this research could be a useful reference point for practitioners in the food industry. Originality/value This study set out to summarise managerial requirements for the FSMS from the existing research, analyse practices and tools to measure FSMS implementation, explore when food firms manage the FSMS, which factors are critical to their implementation, and identify promising research directions for researchers and useful suggestions for practitioners.
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This study proposes to adopt the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) approach and its seven principles to assist integrated flood management and transboundary cooperation in river basins, extending over more municipalities, regions, or states. Although HACCP was initially employed in the food production and processing industry to identify hazards and reduce risks throughout the production process, its principles have already been successfully applied to other sectors, such as water supply and wastewater treatment. The paper focuses (a) on the adaptation of the HACCP approach for integrated flood management, for example, for assessing the impact of planned upstream measures on downstream areas, and (b) on step 3 of the proposed Flood‐HACCP approach establishing critical limits for CCPs. For the demonstration purposes, the confluence of the Slovenian part of Drava River and its tributaries, Meža and Mislinja, is selected. Results indicate that keeping the Meža River discharge within the range of ±5% from its initial value would cause only minor local changes of flood situation within the selected case study area. On the other hand, variations to the Mislinja River discharge could change the flood situation to a greater extent and in a more diffuse way.
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Background: Aerofood ACS Surabaya as an international inflight catering service is required to have good food safety standards to ensure the quality of the products. The food safety system implemented by Aerofood ACS Surabaya on all its product is Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP), including the banana cake. HACCP needs to be applied to prevent the possibility of physical, chemical, and biological contamination on food product that can cause foodborne disease. Objectives: The purpose of this research is to identify the application of HACCP system to banana cake in Aerofood ACS Surabaya. Methode: The method of this research is a qualitative descriptive method including field observation, interviews, and analyzes HACCP documents of aerofood ACS Surabaya. Result: There are 18 steps to produce banana cake until it can distributed to airlines and can be consumed by consumers: receiving of eggs, receiving of banana, receiving of dry goods (flour, sugar, baking soda, and oil), eggs storage, banana storage, dry goods storage, egg cracking, flour sifting, weighing, mixing, baking, chilling, shaping, packaging, storage of banana cake, setting in the tray, holding room, and delivery to plane. From 18 steps to produce banana cake, there are six critical control points: receiving of eggs, eggs storage, baking, cooling, storage of banana cake, and holding room. Conclusions: Physical, chemical, and biological contamination on banana cake can be prevented by paying attention to each steps, especially the critical control point. Aerofood ACS Surabaya has implemented the HACCP system properly and accordance with the established HACCP plan. Keywords: HACCP, food safety, airlines catering service, foodborne disease ABSTRAK Latar Belakang: Aerofood ACS Surabaya sebagai perusahaan jasa boga penerbangan bertaraf internasional diharuskan memiliki standar keamanan pangan yang baik untuk menjamin mutu produk yang dihasilkan. Sistem keamanan pangan yang diterapkan oleh Aerofood ACS Surabaya pada semua produknya adalah Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP), termasuk pada banana cake. HACCP perlu diterapkan untuk mencegah kemungkinan kontaminasi fisik, kimia, dan biologi pada produk pangan yang dapat menyebabkan foodborne disease. Tujuan: Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengidentifikasi penerapan sistem HACCP pada produk banana cake di Aerofood ACS Surabaya. Metode: Metode dari penelitian ini adalah metode deskriptif kualitatif yang meliputi observasi lapangan, wawancara, dan menganalisis dokumen HACCP Aerofood ACS Surabaya. Hasil: Terdapat 18 tahap produksi banana cake hingga produk dapat didistribusikan ke peswat dan dapat dinikmati oleh konsumen, yaitu penerimaan telur, penerimaan buah pisang, penerimaan bahan baku kering (tepung, gula, baking soda, dan minyak), penyimpanan telur, penyimpanan buah pisang, penyimpanan bahan baku kering, pemecahan telur, pengayakan tepung, penimbangan, mixing, baking, pendinginan, pembentukan, pengemasan, penyimpanan banana cake, penataan pada tray, penyimpanan pada holding room, dan delivery ke pesawat. Dari 18 tahap produksi banana cake, terdapat enam titik kritis yaitu penerimaan telur, penyimpanan telur, baking, pendinginan, penyimpanan banana cake, dan penyimpanan pada holding room. Kesimpulan: Kontaminasi fisik, kimia, dan biologi pada produk banana cake dapat dicegah dengan memerhatikan setiap langkah terutama titik kritis. Aerofood ACS Surabaya telah melaksanakan sistem HACCP dengan baik dan sesuai dengan HACCP plan yang telah ditetapkan. Kata Kunci: HACCP, keamanan pangan, jasa boga penerbangan, foodborne disease
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