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Toward an Expansion of Resource Exchange Theory: A Facet Approach

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Abstract

Part II addresses conceptual and theoretical developments via seven chapters concerned with further extensions and elaborations of the original version of SRT. Clara Sabbagh and Schlomit Levy build on insights from facet theory in Chap. 4 and refine the exchange rationale underlying the similarities and differences among resource classes by means of facet theory’s mapping sentence. They suggest specifically that resource exchange is structured by a wide range of behaviors that can be classified via various facets. This facet analysis is based on the identification of seven facets (i.e., comparison targets, type of motive, mode of resource transmission, resource availability, modality, resource valence, and social realm) in addition to the particularism and concreteness facets suggested by SRT. On the basis of these theoretical distinctions, the authors finally show how Foa and Foa’s theory can be systematically expanded from a circle (circumplex) to a more complex structure.
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Conceived by Professor Louis E. Guttman, Facet Theory is a comprehensive research strategy for the social and behavioral sciences with important applications in organizational studies. As a metatheory, it offers a systematic framework for coordinating theory and research. It integrates the formal design of empirical observations expressed in a mapping sentence to holistically define the measurement space with intrinsic data analysis procedures. The discovery of lawfulness in structures characterizing qualitative areas enhances both rigor and the practical usefulness of research. The methodology of Facet Theory has been applied in a variety of disciplines with contributions to theory construction and cumulative research. As a metatheory for the behavioral sciences, it can help integrate research efforts among scholars in diverse disciplines and domains of relevance to the study of individuals, groups, and organizations. The five articles included in this issue on Facet Theory provide detailed descriptions of the methodology and examples of applications in organizational and strategy research. This should spark new ideas and connections, advancing and invigorating Facet Theory applications for collaborative multilevel research on organizational phenomena.
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In an era marked by changing business models and evolving networks, a leadership challenge entails the successful management of processes towards learning, value generation, and organizational renewal. This article applies facet theory as the means of integrating two diverse, contemporary management orientations: process-oriented innovations and organizational learning. Both approaches advocate comparable principles, organically societal structures, and mindsets that challenge existing ways of thinking and acting in business and governance. Reframing through facet theory contributes nuanced insights into the multidimensionality and dynamic complexity of interactions between organizational learning and process-oriented innovations. The essence of intersections between the two approaches helps define the facets of a mapping sentence expressing the study's research design. Facet definitions and specifications lead to configurational hypotheses regarding profiles differentially contributing to improved practices. By testing the ensuing model, future research can provide valuable prescriptions for practice and offer new insights into how business enterprises and organizations learn through ongoing process-oriented innovations.
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This study is based on distributive justice theory and research that it has produced as well as on accumulated knowledge about sociocultural reality in Israel. It demonstrates a situation in which different groups are excluded to varying degrees from the Israeli moral community as a consequence of the prevailing Jewish pioneering ethos of distributive justice. A sample of Jewish and Arab Israeli teachers was used. Out of the seven groups defined a priori, the Jewish subsample recognized five and ordered them along the anticipated social-exclusion dimension, from least to most excluded, as follows: (1) Ashkenazi/Mizrahi; (2) Haredi/Ole; (3) Druze; (4) Arabs; and (5) Foreign workers. In contrast, the distinction made by Arab respondents was dichotomous, between the Jews and the Arabs/Foreign workers, and not clear-cut at that. Furthermore, the Arab subsample ranked their “ingroup” as the most strongly entitled to social rights. The results obtained are attributed to the bifurcation of the Israeli citizenship discourse, which comprises, as an alternative to the Western egalitarian civil normative framework, an ethnorepublican discourse that implicitly promotes inequality (Shafir and Peled 2002 Shafir, Gershon, and Yoav Peled. 2002. Being Israeli: The Dynamics of Multiple Citizenship. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]).
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This book contains essays in honour of Melvin J. Lerner, a pioneer in the psychological study of justice. The contributors to this volume are internationally renowned scholars from psychology, business, and law. They examine the role of justice motivation in a wide variety of contexts, including workplace violence, affirmative action programs, helping or harming innocent victims and how people react to their own fate. Contributors explore fundamental issues such as whether people's interest in justice is motivated by self-interest or a genuine concern for the welfare of others, when and why people feel a need to punish transgressors, how a concern for justice emerges during the development of societies and individuals, and the relation of justice motivation to moral motivation. How an understanding of justice motivation can contribute to the amelioration of major social problems is also examined.
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The topic of prosocial behavior (e.g. fairness, solidarity, and altruism) has recently shifted back into the center of attention in a variety of disciplines, ranging from economics across sociology and psychology towards biology. It is now a well-accepted fact in all human sciences that human behavior is not always governed by egotism and selfish motives. Unfortunately, this does not explain why humans also act blatantly selfish and are blind to the suffering of others. This book is a response to the quandary. It brings together leading researchers in sociology and psychology to explain human egotism and altruism using not only their area of study but also bringing in research from economics and biology. Since this work brings together the research of many different disciplines, a complete account of solidarity and prosocial behavior is presented.
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This chapter is an attempt to summarize some major substantive fruits for the social sciences of the systematic theory construction built on the foundations and continuing developments made by Louis Guttman, with whom I have been privileged to study and work for over a decade. The present chapter surveys results attained to date which, stimulated and guided by the facet-analytic approach, have led to substantive theory construction and the recognition of some laws of human behavior. The class of theories to be discussed is that based on regional hypotheses, where the space to be analyzed portrays a set of variables and their intercorrelations. A brief summary of these and other theories is given in Guttman (1980) as well, of course, as being dealt with in various ways in all of the other contributions to this volume.
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At the marketplace, interpersonal behavior has been traditionally conceptualized as exchange of resources. In a barter society commodities were literally exchanged for one another. Later on, one commodity—money—became standardized and widely accepted; the money-merchandise exchange was then born, and to this day it has maintained the pride of place in economic practice and thinking. But money is also exchanged with services when we pay the plumber for repairing the pipes and the gardener for improving the landscape. Information is exchanged with money when we buy a newspaper or register for a course. Only recently, economists have turned their attention to the exchange of money with services and with information. However, these areas of investigation are still regarded with suspicion, since they fail to lend themselves easily to the elegant formulations of the money—commodities exchange.
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The process of exchange is almost continual in human interactions, and appears to have characteristics peculiar to itself, and to generate affect, motivation, and behavior that cannot be predicted unless exchange processes are understood. This chapter describes two major concepts relating to the perception of justice and injustice; the concept of relative deprivation and the complementary concept of relative gratification. All dissatisfaction and low morale are related to a person's suffering injustice in social exchanges. However, a significant portion of cases can be usefully explained by invoking injustice as an explanatory concept. In the theory of inequity, both the antecedents and consequences of perceived injustice have been stated in terms that permit quite specific predictions to be made about the behavior of persons entering social exchanges. Relative deprivation and distributive justice, as theoretical concepts, specify some of the conditions that arouse perceptions of injustice and complementarily, the conditions that lead men to feel that their relations with others are just. The need for much additional research notwithstanding, the theoretical analyses that have been made of injustice in social exchanges should result not only in a better general understanding of the phenomenon, but should lead to a degree of social control not previously possible. The experience of injustice need not be an accepted fact of life.