Article

Four Parmeliaceae species excluded from Bulbothrix

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Abstract

Four species previously included in the genus Bulbothrix are shown not to form bulbate cilia and are combined into alternative genera as Hypotrachyna tuskiformis, Parmelinopsis pinguiacida, P. subinflata, and Parmotrema yunnanum. All species are described in detail and a lectotype is selected for Bulbothrix tuskiformis.

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... Rather he interpreted them as pycnidia (Hale 1975, 1976, Hale & Kurokawa 1964), an interpretation followed also by some later authors (Moralez-Méndez et al. 1995, Marcano et al. 1996). While bulbs have been misinterpreted by some authors, others (e.g., Elix 1997, Hale 1965, Louwhoff & Elix 2000, Wang et al. 2000) did recognize the partially enlarged cilia or rhizinae bases of some species and placed them in Bulbothrix Hale, although with the method explained here these structures proved to be not truly bulbate, as recently demonstrated by Benatti and Marcelli (2010). An example of true bulbs on a species thought to have enlarged bases (Hale 1972) was demonstrated by Krog (1993). ...
... Based on my experience, rhizinae are harder to photograph than cilia, especially the bulbate ones, as bulbs normally occur on ramified or thick rhizinae. An image of the rhizinae from Hypotrachyna tuskiformis (Elix) Benatti & Marcelli can be seen in Benatti & Marcelli (2010). Despite the inherent difficulty in obtaining photographs for publication, this process makes it easy to observe bulbs through a light microscope. ...
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Many authors have had difficulty recognizing true bulbate cilia and rhizinae, the main characteristics for the diagnosis of two genera of small ciliate Parmeliaceae: Bulbothrix and Relicina. Here it is shown that a simple method of clearing with sodium hypochlorite may be used to solve this problem. This method allows researchers to clear samples of small portions of the thallus margins containing cilia or transverse sections containing rhizinae, without damaging the structures, to reveal important anatomical details necessary for routine identification.
... All of the members of the genus have cilia with hollow basal bulbs, which contain differentiated (round) cells and a characteristic oily substance (Hale 1975, Feuerer & Marth 1997, Benatti 2011a). The first part of my revision concerned new combinations for four species that had been placed in Bulbothrix but had to be excluded due to the lack of true bulbate cilia (Benatti & Marcelli 2010). The subsequent parts treated the species containing norstictic and protocetraric acids in the medulla (Benatti 2012b), those with salazinic acid that do not form isidia, soredia, lacinulae or pustulae (Benatti 2012d), those with salazinic acid that form isidia, soredia or pustulae (Benatti 2013a), those with fatty acids or no substances in the medulla (Benatti 2013b), and those containing gyrophoric/lecanoric/lobaric acids that do not reproduce by vegetative propagules (Benatti 2013c). ...
... After having revised all of the species of Bulbothrix in groups according their reproductive mode and chemistry (Benatti 2011a-b, 2012a-d, 2013a-c, Benatti & Marcelli 2010, Benatti & Elix 2012, Bungartz et al. 2013 and herein) I compiled a key to the genus, which is also presented here. This key is based on the considerable amount of new data obtained from type and additional specimens, as well as from recent publications that were not directly part of my revision (Benatti 2011a-b, 2012a-d, 2013a-c, Benatti & Elix 2012, Benatti & Marcelli 2010, Marcelli et al. 2011, Bungartz et al. 2013. It is hoped that this key, which synthesizes the available literature and my research to date, will facilitate the identification of Bulbothrix specimens and stimulate further study. ...
Article
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This study is a taxonomic review of the species of Bulbothrix (Parmeliaceae, lichenized fungi) containing gyrophoric, lecanoric or lobaric acid in the medulla (Bulbothrix apophysata, B. fungicola, B. laevigatula, B. leprieurii, B. oliveirae, B. papyrina, B. pseudofungicola, B. pseudocoronata, B. scortela, B. sipmanii, B. subdissecta and B. thomasiana) that reproduce by lichenized diaspores (isidia, lacinulae, pustules, or soredia). Some of these species (B. bulbillosa, B. papyrina, B. pseudocoronata, B. pseudofungicola, B. scortella, B. subdissecta, and B. thomasiana) have been separately treated on previous papers as novelties, new combinations or resurrected valid names. The current species delimitations are confirmed. New characters are detailed (for B. laevigatula, B. leprieurii, B. oliveirae, and B. sipmanii), and range extensions are given (for B. apophysata, B. fungicola, B. laevigatula, and B. leprieurii). Two names (B. suffixa and Parmelia appressa) are respectively considered as a nomen dubium and nomen illegitimum and the problems relative to them are also discussed. A key covering all 59 accepted species of Bulbothrix is provided. A lectotype is designated for B. fungicola. An index for all names related to the genus, with their current statuses, is also given.
... Seven species of Bulbothrix have been reported from China: B. goebelii, B. isidiza (Wang et al. 2000;Chen et al. 2009;Zhang et al. 2014). However, Bulbothrix yunnana was transferred to Parmotrema as P. yunnanum (Sheng L. Wang et al.) Marcelli & Benatti because the cilia have an enlarged base instead of being truly bulbate (Benatti & Marcelli 2010). ...
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The morphology, chemistry and phylogenetic relationships of Chinese populations of Bulbothrix are described. Nine species, including two new species B. mammillaria Y. Y. Zhang & Li S. Wang sp. nov. and B. lacinia Y. Y. Zhang & Li S. Wang sp. nov., and two newly recorded for the flora, B. scortella and B. meizospora , are reported. Bulbothrix mammillaria can be recognized by the sparse cilia that are reduced to a bulbate structure and the broad lobes (3–11 mm). Bulbothrix lacinia differs from other species of the genus by dark brown, spherical to short-cylindrical isidia and common lacinulae on the upper surface. Phylogenetic relationships of currently known ITS sequences from Bulbothrix were inferred to assess the affinities of the new species. A key to all known species from China is presented.
... Hale were segregated from Parmelia Ach. by Hale (1974) on the basis of their marginal bulbate cilia. These cilia are hollow with a colorless fluid (Benatti 2011a;Benatti & Marcelli 2010;Hale 1975). The two genera differ in the chemistry of their upper cortex, with Bulbothrix having atranorin and Relicina having usnic acid (Hale 1974). ...
Article
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Bulbothrix asiatica Y. Y. Zhang & Li S. Wang sp. nov. is proposed to accommodate specimens with a black lower surface, an emaculate and cracked upper surface and salazinic acid in the medulla. The species is currently known only from Cambodia and southwestern China. Other Parmeliaceae with bulbate cilia here newly reported from Cambodia are: Bulbothrix lyngei, B. subscortea, Relicina abstrusa and R. circumnodata. Phylogenetic trees for Bulbothrix are established to assess the affinities of the new species and test for a differentiation of saxicolous and epiphytic populations of B. subscortea. A key to these species is presented.
... These species are mainly characterized by having cilia with hollow basal bulbs, which contain differentiated (round) cells and an oily substance (Benatti 2011a, Feuerer & Marth 1997, Hale 1975). The first contribution toward this revision concerned new combinations for four species that had been placed in Bulbothrix (Benatti & Marcelli 2010) but which needed to be excluded due to the lack of true bulbate cilia. Subsequent contributions treated 1) the species containing medullary norstictic and protocetraric acids (Benatti 2012a), 2) those with medullary salazinic acid that do not form isidia, soredia, lacinulae or pustules (Benatti 2012b), 3) the species with medullary salazinic acid that form isidia, soredia or pustules (Benatti 2013a), and 4) the the species that contain medullary fatty acids or no medullary substances (Benatti 2013b) and a special treatment on the B. goebelii group (Benatti & Elix 2012). ...
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This study is a taxonomic review of nine species of Bulbothrix (Parmeliaceae, lichenized fungi) containing gyrophoric, lecanoric or lobaric acids and whose thalli do not form isidia, soredia or pustules. The current species delimitations are confirmed. New characteristics are detailed, some synonyms are rejected, others confirmed, and range extensions are given. Lectotypes are selected for Parmelia coronata (= B. coronata) and P. glandulifera (= B. coronata).
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This paper presents a taxonomic treatment of Bulbothrix and Relicina lichens (Ascomycota, Parmeliaceae) collected in the Philippines, two genera characterized by the presence of bulbate cilia. A total of five species of Bulbothrix and fifteen species of Relicina were identified, with one new record for each genus. The Philippines is a major center of diversity for Relicina.
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This study is a taxonomic review of ten Bulbothrix (Parmeliaceae, Lichenized Fungi) species containing salazinic acid in the medulla that reproduce by vegetative propagation or form pustules that erode into coarse granules. The current species delimitations are confirmed. New characteristics are detailed, some synonyms are rejected, others confirmed, and range extensions are added.
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