Conference PaperPDF Available

A Long-Term View on Learning to Argue in Facebook: The Effects of Group Awareness Tools and Argumentation Scripts.


Abstract and Figures

Social networking sites pose a new arena for argumentative practices and may provide an opportunity to facilitate, and understand argumentative processes in large scale over longer periods of time. Through apps, group awareness tools and argumentation scripts can be implemented in social networking sites, to provide additional, graphically visualized information, and prompt learners to formulate or review sound arguments. This 2×2 field study (N=105) examines how Facebook can be harnessed for argumentative learning through group awareness tools and argumentation scripts. We measure domain-specific knowledge outcomes, the process of argumentative knowledge construction and attitude change. The results show a main effect for both conditions on domain-specific knowledge and argumentative knowledge construction, but no difference to the control group on attitude change. The epistemic quality and formal quality increased for the groups with argumentation script. All observed changes become substantial after the fourth week of interactions.
Content may be subject to copyright.
A Long-Term View on Learning to Argue in Facebook: The Effects
of Group Awareness Tools and Argumentation Scripts
Thomas Puhl, Dimitra Tsovaltzi and Armin Weinberger,,
Saarland University
Abstract: Social networking sites pose a new arena for argumentative practices and may
provide an opportunity to facilitate, and understand argumentative processes in large scale
over longer periods of time. Through apps, group awareness tools and argumentation scripts
can be implemented in social networking sites, to provide additional, graphically visualized
information, and prompt learners to formulate or review sound arguments. This 2×2 field
study (N=105) examines how Facebook can be harnessed for argumentative learning through
group awareness tools and argumentation scripts. We measure domain-specific knowledge
outcomes, the process of argumentative knowledge construction and attitude change. The
results show a main effect for both conditions on domain-specific knowledge and
argumentative knowledge construction, but no difference to the control group on attitude
change. The epistemic quality and formal quality increased for the groups with argumentation
script. All observed changes become substantial after the fourth week of interactions.
Keywords: argumentation, group awareness, scripts, social networking sites, long-term study
Argumentative Knowledge Construction in Social Networking Sites
Social networking sites (SNS) afford collaborative processes that may be harnessed for learning (Greenhow,
2008; Greenhow & Robelia, 2009). SNS may offer a rich argumentative context that can pronounce processes of
argumentative knowledge construction (AKC). AKC is the deliberate practice of elaborating learning material
and discussion topics by constructing formally and semantically sound arguments with the goal of gaining
argumentative and domain-specific knowledge (Andriessen, 2006). With SNS being prone to trivial talk, AKC
in SNS may greatly benefit from instructional approaches of CSCL (Tsovaltzi, Puhl, Judele & Weinberger,
2014; Tsovaltzi, Judele, Puhl & Weinberger, in review). Moreover, recent research has revealed that while
argumentation skills can be fostered by controlled short-term technology-enhanced instructional approaches, no
substantial effects on domain-specific knowledge can be attained with these approaches (Wecker & Fischer,
2014). One reason could be that complex and meaningful learning such as argumentative learning takes time
(Reimann, Utz, Unterberger & Halb, 2014). Long-term interventions have been suggested before to successfully
foster argumentation skills with young adolescents (Kuhn & Crowell, 2011). However, existing approaches
have often been too coercive for learners to actively regulate their individual or group AKC processes
(Dillenbourg, 2002), and others might be too subtle to have an effect on learners' self-regulation or the co-
regulation of the group (Phielix, Prins & Kirschner, 2010). Can SNS, like Facebook, productively host
argumentative knowledge construction? How can the combination of rather coercive scripts, and less coercive
group awareness tools (GATs), foster the development of learners’ AKC?
Argumentation Scripts
Argumentation scripts are a prominent approach to foster AKC in CSCL environments (Noroozi, Weinberger,
Biemans, Mulder, & Chizari, 2012). Scripts are socio-cognitive structures that specify learners interactions in
collaborative learning scenarios, aiming to either activate existing internal scripts, organize, or re-organize
internally represented pieces of information, mostly declarative, that may constitute new elements of scripts
(Fischer, Kollar, Stegmann & Wecker, 2013). Internal scripts are already represented in the learners’ cognitive
system that are prone to change and adaptation. External scripts suggest collaborative processes and can change
the learners’ behavior over time through internalization (Kollar, Fischer & Slotta, 2007). In terms of
collaborative argumentation processes, the internalization of an external script can guide learners to structure,
discuss about, and reflect on their arguments, which can foster knowledge co-construction, argumentative and
domain-specific knowledge (Weinberger, Stegmann & Fischer, 2010), and structure students’ discussion of
conflicting opinions (Jermann & Dillenbourg, 1999; Felton & Kuhn, 2001). In the ArgueGraph script (Jermann
& Dillenbourg, 1999 & 2002; Kobbe, Weinberger, Dillenbourg, Harrer, Hämäläinen, Häkkinen & Fischer,
2007), differences in opinions on seminar topics where represented to the students in order to increase socio-
cognitive conflict. Students were then asked to resolve these differences in dyads and reach an agreement by
writing arguments derived for their learning materials. Discourse analysis showed that students often provided
conditional responses, in accordance with the high-order learning goal of the course.
Group Awareness Tools
GATs are used in CSCL scenarios to enhance collaboration processes and also to foster domain-specific
knowledge by giving students information about other learners, such as individual knowledge (Janssen &
Bodemer, 2013). GATs can reveal inconsistent knowledge or differences of views and thus enhance
controversial CSCL discussions, and impact group processes, like socio-emotional and motivational processes
that are meant to support AKC (Buder & Bodemer, 2008). GATs also make group processes or attitudes
explicit, for instance by visualizing how learners evaluate their own and the group’s cognitive and social
interactions (Phielix, Prins, Kirschner, Erkens, & Jaspers, 2011). Group awareness of knowledge distribution in
the group has been shown to counteract negative effects of overly high levels of both mutual trust and mutual
skepticism (Engelmann, Kolodziej, & Hesse, 2014). Moreover, GATs have been shown to enable group
processes that may support knowledge co-construction, like mutual modelling, (Sangin, Molinari, Nüssli &
Dillenbourg, 2011), and group conflict (Phielix, Prins & Kirschner, 2010). There are first indications of positive
effects of GATs on learning gains (Sangin et al., 2011). In particular, GATs that visualized cognitive conflict in
the form of discrepancies in the group solutions (Bodemer, 2011) or of summary of anonymous opinions (Buder
& Bodemer, 2008) have been found to enable collaborative discussion of conflicting perspectives, foster
individual learning gains, and increase critical argument elaboration during collaboration, as well as individual
and group attitude change. GATs are positively related to performance and process satisfaction (Phielix et al,
2010) and can prove particularly useful for learning in SNS such as Facebook to help group members consider
the distribution of knowledge and attitudes, spot their own positions in relation to other members. Such group
awareness may foster socio-cognitive conflict, in the sense of social tensions (e. g., why is my position different
to others?) and personal dissonance (e. g., how can I bridge two contradicting views?).
Attitude Change
Attitude change has been investigated in the context of argumentative knowledge construction in young students
(Kuhn, Shaw,&Felton, 1997), showing a tendency to more stable positions with increasing age, and in
computer-mediated communication, revealing lack of readiness to consider alternative perspectives when
attitude markers are salient (Sassenberg & Boos, 2003). Argumentative processes, like taking into account
multiple perspectives and resolving conflicting opinions appear to facilitate attitude change (Eagly & Chaiken,
1995; Erber, Hodges, & Wilson, 1993) and may ultimately lead learners to re-consider initial standpoints
(Tsovaltzi et al., 2013). Moreover, vocational training includes practicing attitude and communication at the
work place (Nasir, 2002), e.g. for medical doctors (Caralis & Hammond, 1992) and teachers (Ihmeideh & Al-
omari, 2010). Theory on attitude change supports that change is the result of dissonance that can be caused by
cognitive conflict between different attitudes of the same person (Eagly & Chaiken, 1995; Erber, Hodges, &
Wilson, 1993). Such conflicts could potentially be made salient with GATs and productively resolved with
scripts. GATs may contribute to making learners’ ideas, misconceptions, and contradictions accessible to
scrutiny (Nussbaum, 2008). Scripts have been found to effectively specify and support how learners jointly
argue to address conflicts (Weinberger et al., 2010).
We investigate the effects of a GAT and argumentation script on domain-specific learning outcomes,
learning processes, and attitude change. We conjecture that the GAT will induce socio-cognitive conflict and
will translate into argumentative processes. We also conjecture that the argumentation script will foster the
quality of arguments in the discussion. Therefore, they will both increase the domain-specific learning gains.
The combination of both factors will interact in a positive way. We also hypothesize a positive effect of the
GAT on attitude change.
We conducted a 2×2 quasi-experimental field-study with German teacher trainees (N=105) and factors GAT and
argumentation script. Participants were taking part in a seminar on “Communication and Interaction”. In the
intervention, all participants attended weekly seminars where a new theory on communication was presented
and discussed. After the seminar, the students had to fill out a questionnaire about their communication attitude.
Seminar groups were accompanied by Facebook groups, where students weekly received a theory-related task
that required them to interact and discuss online within five days. The study was part of the seminar and lasted
the whole semester. Students had to fill out the communication attitude questionnaire on nine sessions and were
instructed to reflect on the seminar theories while filling in the questionnaire. On eight sessions, an
argumentation script was given as feedback to the quality of the written arguments.
Before the intervention all participants took a knowledge pre-test, and filled in a questionnaire on
socio-demographic data, subjective knowledge in the domain “Communication and Interaction”, computer and
Facebook use behavior. In addition they filled in a communication attitude questionnaire and the experimental
conditions were familiarized with the GAT. Similarly, after the intervention at the end of the semester, all
participants took a knowledge post-test and filled in another questionnaire on their subjective learning gains and
their acceptance of the learning environment.
Group Awareness Tool
Figure 1. Group Awareness Tool in Facebook.
Students receiving GAT-based support reflected on their hypothetical personal communication attitude as a
teacher by answering a case-based communication questionnaire with cases from every-day social interactions
in the school. Every scenario was followed by four Likert-scaled answers, focusing on how a teacher may reflect
on and behave in the situation. Moreover, the questions differed with respect to whether the emphasis was on
multi-perspective / flexible attitudes vs. goal-oriented / structured attitudes, following Buder & Bodemer (2008)
and Jermann & Dillenbourg (1999, 2002), both rated on a scale from 0 to 6. The result of the questionnaire was
presented to the experimental groups with a GAT implemented as a Facebook app. The app graphically
visualized the position of a student with respect to communication attitude in relation to other students. The
position in the graphic is represented as relative to the position of the whole seminar group (I vs. the others).
The GAT also gave them the opportunity to identify the person behind a position by moving the mouse over the
point on the graphic to see the name and a photo of the person (Figure 1), so the discussions were not
anonymous. The design of the GAT is oriented on the ArgueGraph script (Jermann & Dillenbourg, 1999) and
aims at increasing socio-cognitive conflict. ArgueGraph was adjusted to the Facebook learning environment.
That is, considering the Facebook dynamic, which means frequent interactions in the large group and less
discursive discussions compared to a small group CSCL scenario, we used a less coercive instruction and did
not force the students to reach an agreement.
Argumentation script
Students in the condition with script-based support received a weekly argumentation script in the form of
feedback to arguments posted in the Facebook group discussion. They had to read all arguments of the
discussion and “like” the best argument in their own opinion. Feedback was given to every group for the most
liked argument and also for the best argument in the opinion of the teacher. The feedback to these two
arguments evaluated the epistemic (theoretical concepts and relations) and the formal (reasoning and evidence)
quality of arguments for the two selected arguments. It also indicated whether an important part of the argument
was missing or illustrated how a sound argument should look like. While the structure and the ontology of the
script were standardized, it was also important to adapt the script to the different weekly tasks and the different
arguments from each group.
Domain-specific knowledge was assessed by a course exam at the end of the semester containing definitions,
facts, and higher order discursive processes like theory-based interpretations and argumentations. The
knowledge test included 10 multiple choice items and 13 open questions with a high inter-rater reliability k=.88,
p=000. The internal consistency of the knowledge test was good (α = .69).
Process analysis was based on Weinberger & Fischer (2006) on multi-level analysis of AKC processes
and on an adapted version for argumentation in Facebook (Tsovaltzi, Judele, Puhl & Weinberger, 2014). We
measured epistemic and formal quality of arguments. The formal quality of arguments (k=.80, p=000) was
measured by the correct formal structure of the argument (e.g. if justifications were used for every argument),
the quality of the justification and the quality of the reference. We evaluated the quality of justifications by
giving a score of three points for references to scientific results, two points for examples that may be used to
explain the content of an argument, and one point for every-day knowledge that provides some potential insight
but without scientific evidence. The actual citation of references was evaluated in addition to the justification.
The quality of references was rated with two for a scientific reference (e.g. journal paper) and one for a link to a
relevant internet site (e.g. wikipedia). The epistemic quality (k=.76, p=000) was measured by the quality of the
used concepts or theories and the relations between them. We evaluated the quality of theories advocated in the
arguments by giving a score of three points for a related theory to the discussed topic, which is the
theory/theories of the week, two for using the theory of the current week, and one for subjective theories that
have no scientific background. A relation drawn between current and other theories was also rated with three
and added to the overall score for epistemic quality. The posts from the second seminar sessions in the Facebook
group were not analyzed because of a different weekly task. The students were given a task to reflect on non-
verbal communication and post a personal experience they had in this week. Therefore there was no discussion
in this week and no arguments to analyze.
Communication attitude change was measured using the results of the communication questionnaire.
The questionnaire was based on the situation assessment test for consulting (Keller, Bruder & Schmitz, 2010)
and used scenarios to assess the communication attitudes of the participants. Contrary to the elaborated
scenarios in the consulting questionnaire, the scenarios in the communication attitude questionnaire are concise
for students to fill in on a weekly basis. Students were asked to reflect on the communication situations in the
questionnaire and indicate how they would behave as teachers in the sketched situations. For example, a
scenario presented the situation in which most of the students failed in a test. The teacher could either handle
this situation by simply ascertaining that they did not study enough, or by discussing with them what they
thought was the problem. Furthermore the teacher could offer to repeat the test, or discuss different possibilities
with the students such as repeating the test or talking about the situation with the school principle. There are no
correct answers to the questionnaire, but different theories from the ones taught in the seminar could support the
different options (Puhl, Tsovaltzi & Weinberger, in press). Students expressed their attitude by indicating their
agreement on the Likert scale described in the Section Group Awareness Tool.
There were no significant differences in the socio-demographic data, the Facebook use and the knowledge test
prior to the intervention. Log data confirmed that all participants spent time looking at the graph as an indication
of reflecting upon it.
Process Analysis
Using an ANOVA with repeated measures (sessions 1 and 3-8), the process analysis showed a significant effect
for the interaction between time and epistemic quality, F(6;606)=3.81; p<.001; ηp2=.10, and between time and
formal quality, F(6;606)=1.88; p=.015; ηp2=.053. Descriptive statistics also show that the epistemic quality did
not change in the control group throughout the semester but increased for both groups with argumentation script.
The formal quality also only increased for argumentation script and decreased for the control group (Figure 2).
Figure 2. Epistemic and formal quality of arguments.
To identify when the argumentative processes took shifted, we did simple contrasts comparing each
session from the 3rd to the 8th time with the first session. On the epistemic dimension we found a decrease for
three groups from the first time of measurement to the third. Only the experimental group with argumentation
script increased the epistemic quality of their arguments. Until the fifth time of measurement all groups are close
together and simple contrasts were not significant. Substantial and significant changes occurred from the first to
the sixth time of measurement, F(3;101)=5.70; p=.001; ηp2=.15, and all contrasts are significant until the end of
the interventions. A similar process was observed on the formal quality of arguments. Descriptive statistics
show that all groups are close until the fourth time of measurement, after that they diverged and simple contrasts
are only significant between the first and the last time of measurement, F(3;101)=5.98; p=.001; ηp2=.15.
Figure 3. Multi-perspective and goal-oriented communication attitudes.
Using an ANOVA with repeated measures, we found significant main effects on communication
attitude change over the seminar period for both multi-perspective, F(8;800)=2.98; p=.003; ηp2=.03 and goal-
oriented dimensions, F(8;800)=14.2; p<.001; ηp2=.12, but no significant effect for the interaction between time
and group. Descriptive statistics also showed that attitudes increase on the multi-perspective dimension for the
experimental groups and independent from the groups. Simple contrasts showed a significant main effect for the
factor time from the first date of measurement to the second, F(3;100)=4.33; p=.04; ηp2=.04, and also the
changes from date one to eight and one to nine are significant, F(3;100)=5.38; p=.004; ηp2=.08 (Figure 3). The
attitudes decrease on the goal-oriented dimension for all groups and simple contrasts are significant for the
factor time as of the fifth time of measurement until the last date, F(3;100)=16.58; p=.000; ηp2=.25.
Knowledge outcomes
We found a significant effect for the experimental groups in domain-specific learning gains, F(3;102)=11.11;
p<.001; ηp2=.25. Three participants did not take part in the final exam. The descriptive statistics show an
increase in learning gains from the control group to the experimental groups (Table 1).
Table 1: Domain-specific knowledge, mean and standard deviation
M (SD)
34.08 (6.53)
39.81 (5.42)
41.34 (4.38)
42.52 (4.33)
Besides significant main effects for the two factors (GAT: F(1;98)=11.24, p=.001, ηp2=.10;
Argumentation script: F(1;98)=23.44, p=.000, ηp2=.19), we also found a significant effect for the interaction
between GAT and argumentation script, F(3;102)=4.89; p=.029; ηp2=.05. The factor argumentation script shows
higher learning gains (Figure 4).
Figure 4. Domain-specific knowledge.
The epistemic quality of arguments from the last time interval correlates with domain-specific
knowledge r(102)=.24, p<.05, and formal quality of arguments also correlates with domain-specific knowledge
r(102)=.29, p<.01. Correlations between communication attitudes and learning outcomes are not significant.
Conclusions and implications
As hypothesized, the GAT and the script guided learners to acquire more domain-specific knowledge and
improved learners' quality of arguments. The argumentation script seems to outperform the GAT with respect to
both of these variables. The combination of both instructional approaches shows the best results on all variables.
Notably, the effect of GAT and script on the quality of arguments seems to set in only after 4-5 weeks of the
seminar, indicating that it takes time to develop strategies for building high quality arguments and respective
knowledge. By the same token, it may be very difficult in short-term interventions to raise quality of arguments
and even more difficult to increase domain-specific knowledge (Wecker & Fischer, 2014). It has been argued
that learners are overwhelmed in short-term learning environments to consider both, the quality of arguments
and acquire domain-specific knowledge. Long-term interventions, in contrast, can realize AKC that facilitates
both, argumentative and domain knowledge. Consequently, the relation between AKC processes and outcomes
appears to develop over time.
Learners' attitudes shifted on the multi-perspective dimension after the first seminar week from the
baseline to the second measurement time. Since the first intervention took place after the second measurement
time, the change from first to second time cannot depend on the two factors, but rather on the content of the
seminar. The communication theories from the first session specifically address the multi-perceptivity of
understanding messages and the students were always instructed to reflect on the seminar theories while filling
out the communication attitude questionnaire. Over the entire seminar period, all experimental groups incl.
no Argumentation
control group developed on the multi-perspective dimension. All groups declined on the goal-oriented
dimension over time. While these attitude changes may derive from the seminar theories independent of GAT or
script, it goes to show that learning and attitude change are not linear processes. Over the seminar period there
were no significant differences between the groups, which is contrary to prior findings showing that groups with
higher coercion awareness tools surpassed groups with lower coercion awareness tools (Puhl et al., in review).
This potentially means that interventions of group awareness and higher coercion (e.g. scripts that prompt
learner’s to reflect on the visualized group awareness revealing conflictual ideas and attitudes) can rather
influence attitudes.
This study extended CSCL research on scripts and group awareness tools to SNS. It thus provided
insights into long-term effects of these instructional approaches of CSCL. While these approaches do not
produce the expected short-term effects on domain-specific knowledge (Wecker & Fischer, 2014), this study
shows that such effects can still emerge in the long run.
In contrast to popular views, SNS can serve as a platform for argumentation and learning. The results
in this study reveal that learning to argue may take a social environment, in which groups develop shared
argumentative practices over time. SNS may offer themselves as such an environment. Two main directions
may be taken from here. First, SNS can host long-term studies that can contribute to understanding and
facilitating argumentative learning in social communities. Second, massively used online fora like SNS offer the
possibility for technological interventions such as the ones investigated here. SNS may be leveraged to develop
practices of argumentation on a large scale.
Andriessen, J. E. B. (2006). Arguing to learn. In K. Sawyer (Ed.), (Tran.), Handbook of the Learning Sciences
(443-459). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Bodemer, D. (2011). Tacit guidance for collaborative multimedia learning. Computers in Human Behavior,
27(3), 10791086. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2010.05.016
Buder, J., & Bodemer, D. (2008). Supporting controversial CSCL discussions with augmented group awareness
tools. International Journal of Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning, 3(2), 123139.
Caralis, P.V., Hammond, J.S. (1992). Attitudes of medical students, housestaff, and faculty physicians toward
euthanasia and termination of life-sustaining treatment. Critical Medical Care, 20(5):683-90.
Dillenbourg, P. (2002). Over-scripting CSCL. In P. A. Kirschner (Ed.), Three worlds of CSCL: Can we support
CSCL (pp. 61-91). Heerlen: Open University of the Netherlands.
Eagly, A., & Chaiken, S. (1995). Attitude strength, attitude structure and resistance to change. In R. Petty and J.
Kosnik (Eds.), Attitude Strength. (pp. 413432). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Engelmann, T., Kolodziej, R., & Hesse, F. W. (2014). Preventing undesirable effects of mutual trust and the
development of skepticism in virtual groups by applying the knowledge and information awareness
approach. International Journal of Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning, 9(2), 211235.
Erber, M. W., Hodges, S. D., & Wilson, T. D. (1995). Attitude strength, attitude stability, and the effects of
analyzing reasons. In R. Petty and J. Kosnik (Eds.), Attitude Strength. (pp. 433454). Mahwah, NJ:
Felton, M., & Kuhn, D. (2001). The development of argumentive discourse skill. Discourse Processes, 32(2),
135153. doi:10.1207/S15326950DP3202&3_03
Fischer, F., Kollar, I., Stegmann, K., & Wecker, C. (2013). Toward a script theory of guidance in computer-
supported collaborative learning. Educational psychologist, 48(1), 56-66.
Greenhow, C. (2008). Connecting informal and formal learning experiences in the age of participatory media:
Commentary on Bull et al. Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, 8, 187194.
Greenhow, C., & Robelia, B. (2009). Informal learning and identity formation in online social networks.
Learning, Media and Technology, 34(2), 119140. doi:10.1080/17439880902923580
Ihmeideh, F. M., & Al-omari, A. A. (2010). Attitudes toward Communication Skills among Students’ -
Teachers’ in Jordanian Public Universities, 35(4).
Janssen, J., & Bodemer, D. (2013). Coordinated computer-supported collaborative learning: Awareness and
awareness tools. Educational Psychologist, 48:1, 40-55
Jermann, P. & Dillenbourg, P. (2002). Elaborating new arguments through a CSCL script. In Andriessen, J.,
Baker, M., Suthers, D. (eds.), Arguing to Learn: Confronting Cognitions in Computer-Supported
Collaborative Learning environments, 16. Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands.
Jermann, P., & Dillenbourg, P. (1999). An analysis of learner arguments in a collective learning environment.
Proceedings of the 1999 conference on Computer support for collaborative learning - CSCL ’99, 265-
Karpinski, A. C., Kirschner, P. a., Ozer, I., Mellott, J. a., & Ochwo, P. (2013). An exploration of social
networking site use, multitasking, and academic performance among United States and European
university students. Computers in Human Behavior, 29(3), 11821192. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2012.10.011
Keller, S., Bruder, S., & Schmitz, B. (2010). Lernberatungskompetenz situativ messen Validierung eines
Situationsbeurteilungstests. Vortrag auf der 74. Tagung der AEPF (Arbeitsgruppe für Empirische
Pädagogische Forschung), Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Jena.
Kirschner, P. a., & Karpinski, A. C. (2010). Facebook® and academic performance. Computers in Human
Behavior, 26(6), 12371245. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2010.03.024
Kobbe, L., Weinberger, A., Dillenbourg, P., Harrer, A., Hämäläinen, R., Häkkinen, P., & Fischer, F. (2007).
Specifying computer-supported collaboration scripts. International Journal of Computer-Supported
Collaborative Learning, 2(2-3), 211224. doi:10.1007/s11412-007-9014-4
Kollar, I., Fischer, F., & Slotta, J. D. (2007). Internal and external scripts in computer-supported collaborative
inquiry learning. Learning & Instruction, 17(6), 708-721.
Kuhn, D., & Crowell, A. (2011). Dialogic argumentation as a vehicle for developing young adolescents’
thinking. Psychological Science, 22, 545-552.
Nasir, N.S. (2002). Identity, goals, and learning: Mathematics in cultural practice. Mathematical Thinking and
Learning, 4, 213248.
Noroozi, O., Weinberger, A., Biemans, H. J. A., Mulder, M., & Chizari, M. (2012). Argumentation-Based
Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (ABCSCL): A synthesis of 15 years of research.
Educational Research Review, 7(2), 79-106. doi: 10.1016/j.edurev.2011.11.006
Nussbaum, M. E. (2008). Collaborative discourse, argumentation, and learning: Preface and literature review.
Contemporary Educational Psychology, 33(3), 345359. doi:10.1016/j.cedpsych.2008.06.001
Phielix, C., Prins, F. J., & Kirschner, P. A. (2010). Awareness of group performance in a CSCL-environment:
Effects of peer feedback and reflection. Computers in Human Behavior, 26, 151161.
Phielix, C., Prins, F. J., Kirschner, P. a., Erkens, G., & Jaspers, J. (2011). Group awareness of social and
cognitive performance in a CSCL environment: Effects of a peer feedback and reflection tool.
Computers in Human Behavior, 27(3), 10871102. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2010.06.024
Puhl, T., Tsovaltzi, D. & Weinberger, A. (in review). Blending Facebook into seminars for practicing
argumentation: a long-term perspective on the effects of group awareness tools and scripts. Computers
in Human Behavior.
Reimann, P., Utz, W., Unterberger, R., Halb, W. (2014). Capturing Learning over Time for Supporting
Pedagogical Decision Making: A Process Modeling Approach. In Elena Barbera, Peter Reimann (Eds.),
Assessment and Evaluation of Time Factors in Online Teaching and Learning, (pp. 264-293). Hershey,
PA: Information Science Reference.
Sangin, M., Molinari, G., Nüssli, M.-A., & Dillenbourg, P. (2011). Facilitating peer knowledge modeling:
Effects of a knowledge awareness tool on collaborative learning outcomes and processes. Computers in
Human Behavior, 27(3), 10591067. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2010.05.032
Sassenberg, K., & Boos, M. (2003). Attitude change in computer-mediated communication: Effects of
anonymity and category norms. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 6(4), 405422.
Tsovaltzi, D., Judele, R., Puhl, T., & Weinberger, A. (in review). Scripts and Group Awareness Support in the
Service of Learning in Facebook: How does CSCL compare to Social Networking Sites? Computers in
Human Behavior.
Tsovaltzi, D., Puhl, T., Judele, R. & Weinberger, A. (2014). Group Awareness Support and Argumentation
Scripts for Individual Preparation of Arguments in Facebook. Computers & Education, 76, 108-
Wecker, C. & Fischer , F. (2014). Where is the evidence? A meta-analysis on the role of argumentation for the
acquisition of domain-specific knowledge in computer-supported collaborative learning. Computers &
Education 75, 218-228.
Weinberger, A. & Fischer, F. (2006). A framework to analyse argumentative knowledge construction in
computer-supported collaborative learning. Computers & Education, 46, 71-95.
Weinberger, A., Stegmann, K., Fischer, F. (2010). Learning to argue online: Scripted groups surpass individuals
(unscripted groups do not). Computers in Human Behavior, 26(4), 506515.
... Múltiples estudios se han enfocado en las posibilidades del uso de Facebook como herramienta de aprendizaje informal a través de los "Grupos Facebook" (Tsovaltzi et al., 2016) (Gómez et al., 2012) (Puhl et al., 2015) (Chun & Sheng, 2015) (Cunha et al, 2016). Sin embargo, múltiples autores aluden las dificultades de utilizar una herramienta que no fue concebida con fines educativos en el entorno académico (Kirschner & Karpinski, 2010) (Junco, 2012) (Yunus & Salehi, 2012) (Kirschner, 2015). ...
... En un trabajo previo, a partir de las ventajas del uso de los grupos Facebook señaladas por algunos autores (Tsovaltzi et al., 2016) (Gómez et al., 2012) (Oklar, 2012) (Junco, 2012) (Yunus & Salehi, 2012) (Pérez & de la Cruz, 2014) (Gordon, 2014) (Puhl et al., 2015) (Michikyan et al., 2015) (Cunha et al, 2016) y las desventajas señaladas por estos mismos autores y por otros (Kirschner & Karpinski, 2010) (Junco, 2011) (Junco, 2012) (Yunus & Salehi, 2012) (Gómez et al., 2012) (Abdulahi et al., 2014) (Kirschner, 2015), construimos un repositorio digital académico como aplicación Facebook que se utiliza actualmente para compartir recursos educativos entre estudiantes de la Universidad Técnica de Ambato. ...
... La mayoría de los estudios consultados relacionados con el uso de Facebook en la academia se refieren a análisis cualitativos cuyo resultado se avala por el procesamiento estadístico de las encuestas realizadas (Kirschner & Karpinski, 2010) (Tsovaltzi et al., 2016) (Junco, 2011) (Junco, 2012) (Yunus & Salehi, 2012) (Gómez et al., 2012) (Oklar, 2012) (Abdulahi et al., 2014) (Puhl et al., 2015) (Junco, 2015) (Michikyan et al., 2015). Solo Chun, Kitto y Tsovaltzi explotan, de alguna manera, la capacidad de la plataforma Facebook para recuperar información de la actividad de sus usuarios y llevar a cabo un análisis cuantitativo del comportamiento de los mismos (Chun & Sheng, 2015) (Kitto et al., 2015) (Tsovaltzi et al., 2016). ...
Full-text available
El estudio del impacto de Facebook en el ámbito educativo ha estado basado, mayoritariamente, en el análisis cualitativo de los resultados de aprendizaje y de motivación de los estudiantes. El presente trabajo toma como punto de partida el uso de la aplicación Facebook Sigma por parte de estudiantes de la Universidad Técnica de Ambato, la que les permite compartir recursos educativos, en lo que constituye un proceso de aprendizaje informal que está teniendo lugar. Nos hemos propuesto construir Gamma, una herramienta para generar estadísticas y gráficos que ilustren el impacto de la red social en este proceso de aprendizaje. En el presente trabajo se presentan los resultados del estudio de cómo aquellos que aprenden de forma informal, valoran el uso de Gamma. Se comprobó que la aplicación 1) sirve de retroalimentación a los usuarios de la comunidad educativa con relación al valor de los recursos educativos y de las acciones sociales que tienen lugar y que 2) permite evaluar cuantitativamente el impacto del uso de Facebook en el proceso de formación informal. Como valor agregado, Gamma garantiza la comunicación entre usuarios adeptos y detractores del uso de Facebook en el ámbito educativo.
... Within this context, Facebook groups have been widely studied because of their potential impact to the argumentative capacity [5], to the engagement of students [3] and because of the attitude change they can generate [5]. The use of Facebook groups has been actually characterised as positive predictive of arousing interest and motivation, and recognised as a enhancing tool for collaborative work in different studies [6] [1] [5] [3]. ...
... Within this context, Facebook groups have been widely studied because of their potential impact to the argumentative capacity [5], to the engagement of students [3] and because of the attitude change they can generate [5]. The use of Facebook groups has been actually characterised as positive predictive of arousing interest and motivation, and recognised as a enhancing tool for collaborative work in different studies [6] [1] [5] [3]. ...
... Within this context, Facebook groups have been widely studied because of their potential impact to the argumentative capacity [5], to the engagement of students [3] and because of the attitude change they can generate [5]. The use of Facebook groups has been actually characterised as positive predictive of arousing interest and motivation, and recognised as a enhancing tool for collaborative work in different studies [6] [1] [5] [3]. Nevertheless, we see that Facebook groups do not provide any service for searching shared resources based on the impact of social actions of the members of the group. ...
... Vor allem dient das Social Web mit seinem partizipativen Anspruch als Austauschmedium: Studierende tauschen sich über die Vorlesung/das Seminar via Twitter aus oder nutzen Etherpads, um Fragen zu stellen. Dozierende können die gleichen Tools nutzen, um die Diskussionskompetenzen Studierender zu entwickeln, was auch bildungstechnologisch untersucht wird (z.B.Puhl, Tsovaltzi & Weinberger, 2015). Die Entscheidung für das Social Web ist damit aber eine formal geplante: Das didaktische Problem (Motivation und Beteiligung der Studierenden, Förderung kritischen Denkens etc.) wird mit dem Einsatz von digitalen Medien gelöst. ...
Full-text available
1. Prolog Vor zwei-drei Jahren wurden digitale Medien und das Internet erst erfunden, oder? Zumindest für Debatten in der Bildungslandschaft scheint das zu gelten. In nahezu allen Zeitungen und Zeitschriften ist jüngst von digitaler Bildung, Lernen 4.0 oder der digitalen Transformation der Hochschulen zu lesen. Wie bei jedem Medienwandel sind mit der Wende „vom Analogen zum Digitalen“ zunächst große Sorgen verbunden: So beschäftigen Bildungspolitik und Presse unter anderem, was und wie in Zeiten des digitalen Wandels gelernt wird. Gerade die nächste Generation, lauten die allseits geäußerten Bedenken, werde nicht angemessen vorbereitet auf die Anforderungen einer digitalen Gesellschaft und Arbeitswelt. Darüber hinaus werden bisherige Strukturen und Formate für Bildung und Wissensvermittlung auf den Prüfstand gestellt: Bildungseinrichtungen sollten digitaler werden und nicht bloß antiquierte Ideen von Lernen und Wissenserwerb verfolgen. Summa summarum hat Deutschland die digitale Transformation verschlafen, kann man den Tenor über die meisten Gazetten hinweg zusammenfassen. Angesichts dessen, dass das WWW bereits vor über 25 Jahren von Tim Berners-Lee erfunden wurde, allmählich aber erst über digitale Transformationsprozesse diskutiert wird, kann man dieser öffentlichen Feststellung gewissen Gehalt zusprechen. Auch die aktuellen Fördermaßnahmen von Bund und Ländern deuten darauf hin, dass Deutschland in Bezug auf den digitalen Wandel beträchtlichen Nachholbedarf hat. Der 10-Punkte-Plan der Bundesregierung zur Digitalisierung steht hierfür stellvertretend. So münden die extern attribuierten Erwartungen an Hochschulen und andere Bildungseinrichtungen einmal mehr in landes- und bundesweite Fördermittel sowie öffentliche Diskussionsrunden. Hochrangig besetzte Digitalisierungsgremien beleuchten beispielsweise, wie es um die digitale Lehre an Deutschlands Hochschulen bestellt ist, welche strategischen Handlungsfelder sich dadurch ergeben oder wie Studierende endlich mit digitalen Werkzeugen besser lernen. Die Ziele jeglicher Initiativen sind klar: Deutschland muss unter ökonomischen Gesichtspunkten so schnell wie möglich Anschluss finden an internationale Entwicklungen der Digitalisierung. Insbesondere die USA und die dort verbreiteten technologischen Entwicklungen, die von einem Innovationsdorf unter Palmen (Paolo Alto) ausgehen, gelten hierbei als Benchmark. Diesen Entwicklungsstand gilt es endlich zu erreichen. Der Erfolg der jüngsten Initiativen ist nicht zuletzt deshalb erstaunlich, weil es ähnlich gelagerte Förderinitiativen und -programme seit den 2000er Jahren gibt (z.B. BLK-/BMBF-Programme). Entsprechend breit sind Erfahrungen mit E-Learning- oder Blended Learning-Szenarien an Hochschulen und in anderen Bildungseinrichtungen. Wobei: Praktisch wurden in vielen (Hoch-)Schulen lediglich Learning Management-Systeme (LMS) eingeführt. Fragen Sie doch einmal, was Ihre Kolleg*innen oder Studierende – ohne lange nachzudenken – unter dem Begriff „E-Learning“ verstehen. Wir für unseren Teil sind uns sicher, dass die Antwort darauf größtenteils identisch sein wird mit dem in Ihrer Hochschule genutzten LMS. LMS werden so zu Stellvertretern des E-Learning, ohne umfassender (z.B. mittels E-Learning-Strategie) über Ziele, Einsatz und Auswirkungen nachzudenken. Für Bachmann und Kolleginnen (2009) ist nicht nur deshalb der E-Learning-Begriff seit Jahren ersatzlos zu streichen. 25 Jahre nach Erfindung des WWW ist es daher – sagen wir – schade, dass sich die Diskussionen nach wie vor primär darum ranken, welche Technologien formalen Lern- und Bildungsprozessen besonders nützen. Denn die Potenziale digitaler Werkzeuge, z.B. Zeit- und Ortsunabhängigkeit, sind längst bekannt. Sie ändern sich trotz sich wandelnder Technologien nicht (mehr) fundamental. Es wäre daher angebracht, sich viel stärker der pädagogischen/didaktischen Perspektive auf Medien und Technologie(n) zu widmen. Doch unterschiedliche Kräfte wirken darauf ein, wie digitale Medien in der Lehr- und Forschungspraxis tatsächlich zum Einsatz kommen und mitunter eindimensional betrachtet werden.
... Vor allem dient das Social Web mit seinem partizipativen Anspruch als Austauschmedium: Studierende tauschen sich über die Vorlesung/das Seminar via Twitter aus oder nutzen Etherpads, um Fragen zu stellen. Dozierende können die gleichen Tools nutzen, um die Diskussionskompetenzen Studierender zu entwickeln, was auch bildungstechnologisch untersucht wird (z.B.Puhl, Tsovaltzi & Weinberger, 2015). Die Entscheidung für das Social Web ist damit aber eine formal geplante: Das didaktische Problem (Motivation und Beteiligung der Studierenden, Förderung kritischen Denkens etc.) wird mit dem Einsatz von digitalen Medien gelöst. ...
Vor zwei-drei Jahren wurden digitale Medien und das Internet erst erfunden, oder? Zumindest für Debatten in der Bildungslandschaft scheint das zu gelten. In nahezu allen Zeitungen und Zeitschriften ist jüngst von digitaler Bildung, Lernen 4.0 oder der digitalen Transformation der Hochschulen zu lesen.
... Patrício & Gonçalves (2010)(Greenhow & Robelia, 2009;Puhl, Dimitra, & Weinberge, 2015). ...
Full-text available
This paper was written within the Empower Eportfolio Process project financed by ERASMUS+ KA2, whose objective is to promote the development of good practices in Higher Education, stimulating cooperation and sharing between teachers and researchers from different European countries. The work that has been developed in the project allowed to systematize some reflections about the students’ perspective regarding the use of digital portfolios as a learning and evaluation tool. Among these interim conclusions, we highlight the students perspectives about the role of peers in the learning process. This analisys was done by the Portuguese working group that promoted three interviews with students from different courses. A first analysis of the collected data allowed to realize that the interaction between peers plays a very important role in the learning process of the students and that, for that reason, must be stimulated.
Full-text available
Cada vez el uso de dispositivos móviles para realizar pagos se ha ido incrementando. Día a día son más las organizaciones que adoptan sistemas que incluyen algún sistema de pagos móvil, por ello es necesario contar con sistemas rápidos y ágiles que permitan garantizar la seguridad y confiabilidad, tanto para el operador como para el mismo usuario, a fin de que los usuarios obtengan un servicio de calidad basado en las tecnologías móviles. En éste trabajo se realiza un análisis de la tecnología NFC tomando en cuenta una propuesta de desarrollo de un sistema de medios de pago electrónicos, aplicable al Metro de Quito, para asegurar el tiempo de respuesta y la seguridad transaccional, se adopta la solución de sistemas en la Nube.
Social Network Sites (SNS) like Facebook bear potential for collaboration through rich social interactions, but the shared arguments are often poorly elaborated, and lack epistemic quality. In a controlled 2 × 2 study (N = 128), we investigated how individual preparation and argumentation scripts can support argumentative knowledge co-construction in Facebook. Individual preparation has been shown to motivate participants, activate prior knowledge, reduce process losses and promote unbiased arguments. Argumentation scripts can support quality of argumentative discussions and evidence-based argumentation. Their combination may, thus, enhance the argumentation quality in SNS interactions and facilitate domain knowledge acquisition. We found negative effects of individual preparation, ascribable to lack of knowledge co-construction and knowledge convergence, that point to knowledge consolidation. Scripting argumentation has some positive effects, but not in combination with individual preparation. We identify possibilities and risks of applying standard collaborative learning instructions in the context of SNS, and discuss theoretical consequences.
Full-text available
Many people think that arguing interferes with learning, and that’s true for a certain type of oppositional argument that is increasingly prevalent in our media culture. Tannen (1998) analyzed the aggressive types of argument that are frequently seen on talk shows and in the political sphere, where representatives of two opposed viewpoints spout talking points at each other. In these forms of argument, the goal is not to work together toward a common position, but simply to score points. All teachers and parents have seen children engaged in this type of argumentation, and most would probably agree that it has little to contribute to education. The learning sciences is studying a different kind of argumentation, which we call collaborative argumentation. For example, collaborative argumentation plays a central role in science; science advances not by the accumulation of facts, but by debate and argumentation (Osborne, 2010). Even when two scientists disagree, they still share the common values of science and both of them are interested in achieving the same goals (determining what claim should be upheld). Argumentation in science should not be primarily oppositional and aggressive; it is a form of collaborative discussion in which both parties are working together to resolve an issue, and in which both scientists aim to reach agreement. Engagement in collaborative argumentation can help students learn to think critically and independently about important issues and contested values. Before students can successfully engage in collaborative argumentation, they must overcome the traditional and deep-seated opposition between reason and emotion (Baker, Andriessen, & Järvelä, 2013; Picard et al., 2004), stop being aggressively opposed to others, and instead orient their positive motivations and emotions toward the question being discussed and others’ views on it.
Full-text available
The CSCL community faces two main challenges with respect to learning and argumentation. The scientific challenge is to understand how argumentation produces learning, that is to discover which cognitive mechanisms, triggered by argumentative interactions, generate new knowledge and in which conditions. The engineering challenge is to determine how to trigger productive argumentation among students. These two challenges are often investigated in parallel, but this contribution focuses on the latter. There are two ways to favour the emergence of argumentation, either pro-actively, by structuring collaboration, or retroactively, by regulating interactions (e.g. a tutor monitors the pair dialogues). Structuring collaboration either means scripting collaborative activities or designing a dedicated communication tool. The features of such argumentation tools constitute a central concern of this book. This contribution addresses both forms of structuring. (
Full-text available
This study investigates how group awareness support and argumentation scripts influence learning in social networking sites like Facebook, which may be conducive to informal learning, but often lacks argumentative quality. Supporting participants’ group awareness about the visibility of the arguments they construct and about prospective future debate with peers in order to promote argument quality may be particularly suited for learning in Social Networking Sites. Additional argumentation scripts may directly foster argumentative knowledge construction. In a 2 × 2 study (N = 81), we isolated and investigated the effects of group awareness support and argumentation scripts during individual preparation in a Facebook app on domain and argumentative knowledge. Our results reveal that group awareness support of upcoming argumentative processes can be counterproductive for learning in Social Networking Sites. Argumentation scripts in Facebook may remedy possible negative effects of such awareness. Process analysis showed that group awareness support promotes individual argument elaboration but reduces broad analysis of the domain.
Full-text available
The present study was carried out to determine the positive and negative attitudes among 289 students of class teachers and childhood teachers' disciplines using the communication skills attitude scale (CSAS) in Jordanian public universities. GPA, year level of students were recorded. Overall results of study revealed that the mean of positive attitude score was 4.03. The mean of negative attitude scale score was 3.63. There were no significant differences between class teachers and childhood teachers students in their positive and negative attitudes toward communication skills. Students with grade point averages 2 and more have positive attitudes toward communication skills than students with grade point average less than 2. Senior students have high positive and less negative attitudes toward communication skills than sophomore and junior students.
This chapter aims for a methodological contribution to online learning research and to the practical use of temporal information for pedagogical decision making. The authors address two interconnected concerns: how to describe the temporal features of teaching/learning activities and how to capture learning activities across learning applications and time. The main argument is that the analysis of temporal processes based on student data that can be automatically captured (in log files and through other means) will benefit from an explicit modeling of the teaching process, because in this way, some of the problems associated with a purely inductive approach to process and sequence mining can be overcome. In terms of advancing the state of the art, the authors suggest an approach that is grounded in meta-model architectures for process modeling and demonstrate its advantages with respect to tracking and monitoring students' learning activities across learning applications. After providing some background on long-term learning, the chapter describes the conceptual as well as several of the implementation solutions developed in the EC-funded NEXT-TELL project.
This article investigates the influence of scripts, individual preparation and group awareness support on argumentative learning in Facebook, three instructional approaches known from standard CSCL, but yet quite unexplored for learning in social networks. Social networks already afford a social component that is beneficial for interaction, which can be enhanced in a subtle way by group awareness support. However, a missing element in social networks that might be necessary for learning is structure. Individual preparation and argumentation scripts may offer structure to improve argumentation quality and complement group awareness support. We investigate the potential interactions of scripts, individual preparation and group awareness support in social networking sites on individual and group learning outcomes. We present the combined results of three studies. Contrary to previous CSCL results, we present negative results of individual preparation and group awareness support in this socially defined platform. Positive effects are found for argumentation scripts, which however cannot counterbalance the negative effects of group awareness support or individual preparation when combined with either of them. We discuss the results and their implications for leveraging Facebook’s social impact and ‘native’ interactions for learning and point out benefits and risks of using CSCL instructions in this context.
Social media like Facebook can blend classroom work with collaborative online learning. Different instructional approaches may support such online learning phases. Group awareness tools provide collaborating learners with additional information about the processes and the knowledge in the group and how these are distributed within a group to support the regulation of learning. Scripts are a form of external regulation of collaborative learning processes. Scripts may complement group awareness tools and promote active processing of the additional group information. In a 1 3 (group awareness tool with script vs. without script, and control group) quasi-experimental field study (N = 63) we observed long-term effects of a group awareness tool and its combination with a script on processes and outcomes of argumentative learning in a seminar accompanied by Facebook discussions. In addition to domain specific learning outcomes, this study explores attitude change as a potential outcome of prolonged periods of argumentative knowledge construction. Results showed a main effect of group awareness tools on declarative knowledge, but no significant effects on argumentative knowledge. Participants with group awareness tool (with script vs. without) attained an attitude which aligned with the learning goals. This attitude change partly correlates with the significantly higher learning outcomes on declarative knowledge.
Empirical studies have proven the effectiveness of the knowledge and information awareness approach of Engelmann and colleagues for improving collaboration and collaborative problem-solving performance of spatially distributed group members. This approach informs group members about both their collaborators’ knowledge structures and their collaborators’ information. In the current study, we investigated whether this implicit approach reduces undesirable effects of mutual trust and mutual skepticism. Trust is an important influencing factor with regard to behavior and performance of groups. High mutual trust can have a negative impact on group effectiveness because it reduces mutual control and, as a result, the detection of the others’ mistakes. In an empirical study, 20 triads collaborating with the knowledge and information awareness approach were compared with 20 triads collaborating without this approach. The members of a triad were spatially distributed and participated in a computer-supported collaboration. The results demonstrated that the availability of the knowledge and information awareness approach overrides the negative impact of too much mutual trust and counteracts the development of mutual skepticism. This study contributes to further clarifying the impact of trust on effectiveness and efficiency of virtual groups depending upon different situational contexts.
This meta-analysis investigated the role of the quality of argumentation for domain-specific knowledge gains in computer-supported collaborative learning settings. Given the scarcity of primary studies that report correlations between these two variables, a meta-regression approach was used that uses interventions’ effects on argumentation to predict their effects on domain-specific knowledge. Effect sizes for 17 comparisons extracted from 12 studies were included in the analysis using a random-effects model. Moderator analyses concerning type of argumentation measure, type of knowledge test, and type of intervention were conducted. The interventions had a statistically significant small to moderate mean effect (d = 0.39) on argumentation, which varied as a function of the type of argumentation measure employed. The mean effect of the interventions on domain-specific knowledge appeared to be non-existent (d = 0.00) on the basis of the whole sample of studies, and small at best after the exclusion of three outlying effect sizes from one study (d = 0.22). With respect to the relation of the studies’ effects on argumentation to their effects on domain-specific knowledge, no unequivocal picture emerges: After the exclusion of the three outliers, the regression coefficient for predicting the studies’ effects on domain-specific knowledge on the basis of their effects on argumentation was b = –0.08 and statistically not significant. These findings constitute a challenge for the broadly shared theoretical assumption that argumentation mediates the effects of interventions on domain-specific knowledge. A set of recommendations for strengthening future research on the topic is presented.