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The Chameleon Effect: The Perception-Behavior Link and Social Interaction

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Abstract

The chameleon effect refers to nonconscious mimicry of the postures, mannerisms, facial expressions, and other behaviors of one's interaction partners, such that one's behavior passively rind unintentionally changes to match that of others in one's current social environment. The authors suggest that the mechanism involved is the perception-behavior link, the recently documented finding (e.g., J. A. Bargh, M. Chen, & L. Burrows, 1996) that the mere perception of another' s behavior automatically increases the likelihood of engaging in that behavior oneself Experiment 1 showed that the motor behavior of participants unintentionally matched that of strangers with whom they worked on a task. Experiment 2 had confederates mimic the posture and movements of participants and showed that mimicry facilitates the smoothness of interactions and increases liking between interaction partners. Experiment 3 showed that dispositionally empathic individuals exhibit the chameleon effect to a greater extent than do other people.

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... While the examples from social media and contagion in a treatment setting describe explicit, intentional processes of imitation, implicit processes of mimicry have been associated with pro-social behaviors and increased affiliation among typically developing individuals. Prior research on mimicry by Chartrand and Bargh [9] found that engaging in similar behavior creates feelings of empathy and rapport between interactants. Additional research by Maurer and Tindall [10] found that when counselors mimicked the body positions of their clients, the clients perceived a greater level of expressed empathy on the part of the counselor. ...
... also on a 7-point scale (1 = extremely awkward to 7 = extremely smoothly). These dependent variables, likable and smoothness ratings, were adapted from Chartrand and Bargh [9]. ...
... After completing the initial online screening survey, participants were invited to the lab for the experimental session. The lab portion incorporated a modified version of the procedure from Chartrand and Bargh's Experiment 2 [9]. Participants from both groups (HC and ED-His) completed an "image analysis" task with a hypothesis-blind confederate who was acting as another participant. ...
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Background People unknowingly mimic the behaviors of others, a process that results in feelings of affiliation. However, some individuals with eating disorders describe feeling “triggered” when mimicked. This study explores the effects of implicit non-verbal mimicry on individuals with a history of an eating disorder (ED-His) compared to healthy controls (HCs). Method Women ( N = 118, n ED-His = 31; M age = 21 years) participated in a laboratory task with a confederate trained to either discreetly mimic (Mimicry condition) or not mimic (No-Mimicry condition) the mannerisms of the participant. Participants rated the likability of the confederate and the smoothness of the interaction. Results Participants in the No-Mimicry condition rated the confederate as significantly more likable than in the Mimicry condition, and ED-His rated the confederate as more likable than HCs. ED-His in the Mimicry condition rated the interaction as less smooth than HCs, whereas this pattern was not found in the No-Mimicry condition. Among ED-His, longer disorder duration (≥ 3.87 years) was associated with less liking of a confederate who mimicked and more liking of a confederate who did not mimic. Conclusions We discuss the implications of these findings for interpersonal therapeutic processes and group treatment settings for eating disorders. Plain English summary Our study on subtle, nonverbal mimicry revealed differences in social behavior for women with a history of an eating disorder compared to healthy women. For participants with an eating disorder history, a longer duration of illness was associated with a worse pattern of affiliation, reflected in lower liking of a mimicker. Further research on how diverging processes of affiliation may function to perpetuate the chronicity of eating disorders and implications for treatment is needed.
... In prior research on social mimicry, behavioral influence sometimes occurred regardless of conscious reception of influence (Chartrand & van Baaren, 2009). For example, participants in some studies rubbed their face or shook their foot when a partner did so, but later, during a funnel debriefing, did not spontaneously mention that their partners performed these actions (Chartrand & Bargh, 1999).Thus, motor mimicry may reflect an automatic process whereby observing others' behavior creates a direct tendency to behave in similar ways oneself. 7 Conscious processes may similarly play a minimal role in habits resistance. ...
... Study 1 8 Study 1 tested whether strong habits attenuate mimicry of another person's water drinking. Pitting habit against mimicry in this design provided a powerful test of our hypotheses, given that mimicry is also largely automatic (Chartrand & Bargh, 1999). The study was conducted as an interview in a university dining hall in which both the interviewer and the participant were given a glass of water. ...
... When directly queried, participants were aware of the interviewer's drinking behavior, despite that some prior mimicry studies failed to find such awareness using indirect, funnel-debriefing procedures (Chartrand & Bargh, 1999. Our findings are thus consistent with appraisal and embodiment analyses of mimicry in suggesting that people often have some conscious awareness of others' responses in mimicry contexts (Palagi et al., 2020). ...
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This research tests a novel source of resistance to social influence—the automatic repetition of habit. In three experiments, participants with strong habits failed to align their behavior with others. Specifically, participants with strong habits to drink water in a dining hall (Study 1) or snack while working (Study 2) did not mimic others’ drinking or eating, whereas those with weak habits conformed. Similarly, participants with strong habits did not shift their behavioral expectations in line with descriptive norms, whereas those with weak habits did (Study 3). This habit resistance was not due to a failure to perceive influence: Both strong and weak habit participants’ recalled others’ behavior accurately (Studies 1-3), and it was readily accessible (Study 2). Furthermore, strong habit participants shifted their normative beliefs but not behavior in line with descriptive norms (Study 3). Thus, habits can create behavioral resistance despite people’s recognition and acceptance of social influence.
... One study found that extraversion was positively related to increased behavioral mimicry in adults, but only among those who had a social affiliation goal (Duffy & Chartrand, 2015b). Earlier work with adults found that higher levels of self-reported cognitive empathy (i.e., perspective taking) were related to a greater propensity to mimic a confederate's face touching and foot shaking in the laboratory (Chartrand & Bargh, 1999), and more recent work with young children found that higher parent-reported social understanding was related to greater mimicry of an experimenter's face rubbing (Van Schaik & Hunnius, 2018). Chartrand and Bargh (1999) have argued that one theory for understanding and predicting mimicry is a perception-behavior framework. ...
... Earlier work with adults found that higher levels of self-reported cognitive empathy (i.e., perspective taking) were related to a greater propensity to mimic a confederate's face touching and foot shaking in the laboratory (Chartrand & Bargh, 1999), and more recent work with young children found that higher parent-reported social understanding was related to greater mimicry of an experimenter's face rubbing (Van Schaik & Hunnius, 2018). Chartrand and Bargh (1999) have argued that one theory for understanding and predicting mimicry is a perception-behavior framework. According to this framework, allocating more attention towards an interaction partner will lead to greater observation of their actions, and thus is necessary for one to mimic (Chartrand & Bargh, 1999). ...
... Chartrand and Bargh (1999) have argued that one theory for understanding and predicting mimicry is a perception-behavior framework. According to this framework, allocating more attention towards an interaction partner will lead to greater observation of their actions, and thus is necessary for one to mimic (Chartrand & Bargh, 1999). For some individuals, this may be a relatively automatic process in social situations due to self-monitoring Estow et al., 2007), self-other overlap (Cooke et al., 2018;Peng et al., 2021), or traits that allow for the recognition of another's action (Chartrand & Bargh, 1999;Van Schaik & Hunnius, 2018). ...
Article
Behavioral mimicry is the copying of another person’s actions and serves interpersonal functions such as facilitating social reciprocity. Although behavioral mimicry is a ubiquitous phenomenon, there are individual differences in the susceptibility to mimic. Participants engaged in an online interaction with an experimenter who performed planned target behaviors. We coded participants’ mimicking behavior, and participants self-reported their trait shyness and focus of attention during the interaction. We found an indirect effect of shyness predicting behavioral mimicry through self-focused attention. Specifically, higher shyness predicted heightened self-focused attention, which in turn was related to a lower likelihood of mimicking. We speculate that shy individuals may experience internally-focused attention during interactions which may impede their likelihood of perceiving and mimicking their partner’s behavior.
... Interpersonal motor synchrony refers to the coordinated timing of partners' movements in social interactions (Bernieri & Rosenthal, 1991). Based on theoretical advances in embodied cognition and social development, the coordinated body states may be linked to connected mental states, which facilitates social understanding and contributes to attachment security (Chartrand & Bargh, 1999;Stern, 1985). Anthropological research has reported that social relationships are embodied by synchronized body movements (Fiske, 2004). ...
... Anthropological research has reported that social relationships are embodied by synchronized body movements (Fiske, 2004). Empirically, motor synchrony has also been found to be associated with critical aspects of successful social interactions, including feelings of rapport (Bernieri et al., 1994;Chartrand & Bargh, 1999), the formation of a social unit (Lakens, 2010), affiliation (Hove & Risen, 2009), and cooperation (Wiltermuth & Heath, 2009). In addition, the motor synchrony breaks down during interactions involving persons with social pathologies, such as schizophrenia (Varlet et al., 2012). ...
... For the sub-category of the AQ scores, we found an association between the synchrony of the head and upper body and social skills. These results are consistent with existing findings of the link between motor synchrony and the goal to affiliate (Lakin & Chartrand, 2003), feelings of like and rapport (Chartrand & Bargh, 1999), relationship quality (Ramseyer & Tschacher, 2011), and theory of mind Romero et al., 2018). We also found that the ES of the head was related to the scores of the communication subscale of AQ. ...
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Characteristics of interpersonal motor synchrony in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have been investigated only in older children and adolescents, which calls for investigations in younger samples. The interpersonal motor synchrony was compared between preschool-aged children with (n = 23) and without ASD (n = 24) during free plays with familiar teachers. Children with ASD exhibited reduced synchrony of the upper body and trunk compared with typically developing (TD) children. Moreover, the degree of synchrony in ASD group was not above than chance. For autistic children, interpersonal motor synchrony was negatively correlated with aspects of autistic traits. The results suggest that the impairment of interpersonal motor synchrony has an onset earlier than school age and is a potential pathway for understanding autistic traits.
... A large body of literature has shown a positive relationship between the quality of social interaction and synchronization of movements 5-8 . For example, when individuals interacted with others who mimicked their body language or when the participants are explicitly instructed to coordinate their movements, synchronization of movements was shown to increase liking 6,8,9 , affiliation 10 , rapport 11 , trust 5,12 and collaboration 13 . Synchronization is so fundamental in humans' interactions that even when people are instructed to ignore their partner, they get in sync anyway 14 . ...
... A large body of literature has shown a positive relationship between the quality of social interaction and synchronization of movements [5][6][7][8] . For example, when individuals interacted with others who mimicked their body language or when the participants are explicitly instructed to coordinate their movements, synchronization of movements was shown to increase liking 6,8,9 , affiliation 10 , rapport 11 , trust 5,12 and collaboration 13 . Synchronization is so fundamental in humans' interactions that even when people are instructed to ignore their partner, they get in sync anyway 14 . ...
... A model that included only the synchronization level predicted 7.8% of variance in liking, F(1, 98) = 8.28, P = 0.005, permuted P = 0.005, R 2 = 0.078, BF 10 = 7.67 (see Fig. 4 and Supplementary Material Fig. 2a). This result is in line with previous studies 6,8,9 , showing the linkage between synchronization and liking. Including complexity level into the model significantly improved it, explaining almost twice the variance of the former model. ...
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Synchronization has been identified as a key aspect in social bonding. While synchronization could be maximized by increasing the predictability of an interaction, such predictability is in tension with individuals’ level of interest, which is tied to the interaction’s complexity and novelty. In this study, we tested the interplay between synchronization and interest. We asked 104 female dyads to play the Mirror Game, in which they had to move their hands as coordinately as possible, and then report how much they liked each other. Utilizing information theory and video processing tools, we found that a combination of movement synchronization and complexity explained liking almost two times better than movement synchronization alone. Moreover, we found that people initiated novel and challenging interactions, even though they paid a price—being less synchronized. Examining the interactions’ dynamics, we found that people who liked each other moved in a more synchronized, complex, and novel manner during most of the interaction. This suggests that in addition to synchronization, maintaining interest may be critical for positive social bonding. Thus, we propose a new framework in which balancing synchronization and interest, rather than merely maximizing synchronization, optimizes the interaction quality.
... Social learning theory has emphasized that "most of the intricate responses people display are learned, either deliberately or inadvertently, through the influence of example" (Bandura, 1973: 44). Researchers have indeed shown that individuals may mimic social contacts' behaviors unintentionally and subconsciously (Chartrand & Bargh, 1999). Therefore, a team leader may become increasingly abusive as a result of the frequent exposure to an abusive department leader, even without the team leader's full awareness. ...
... Nonetheless, the perceived injury initiation motives may not lead individuals to completely avoid abusing subordinates. As pointed out early, both social learning theory and empirical studies have shown that people imitate others' behaviors both consciously and unconsciously (Bandura, 1973;Chartrand & Bargh, 1999). In other words, team leaders may learn from abusive department leaders and in turn, abuse team members without being fully aware of this social learning effect. ...
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Organizations are constantly searching for new pathways to ensure survival and sustainability in a highly dynamic and competitive environment. Against this background, the present study aims to propose a strategic framework considering the crucial role of small businesses and entrepreneurship for sustainable economic, social, and environmental development. This paper employed a selective-intensive literature review technique to review and evaluate extant sustainability orientation (SO) literature from multiple strategic orientation paradigm. In addition, drawing from the theoretical underpinnings of resource complementarity and configuration perspective, this study proposes a configuration of sustainability orientation (SO), entrepreneurial orientation (EO), and market orientation (MO) in the era of sustainable development. The key finding of this paper is the development of a higher-order dynamic capability, that is, Entrepreneurial Responsible Orientation (ERO). ERO is proposed as an entrepreneurial strategic framework that integrates three distinct but complementary elements (i.e., sustainability, entrepreneurial, and marketing) under the umbrella of strategic orientation that drives superior sustainable firm performance. Moreover, we put forward the future research agenda by developing several potential research questions, thus, the findings of this study will serve as a springboard to extend the knowledge base in this field of research. This paper provides an integrated framework in the contexts of small businesses and entrepreneurship by utilizing the combination of the theoretical and conceptual development approaches. The proposed framework, if implemented successfully, has the potential to drive sustainable performance of the small firms particularly, and sustainable development of the country, generally.
... La synchronisation est un concept omniprésent qui concerne un grand nombre de systèmes physiques (Nicolis & Prigogine, 1971), biologiques (Iacoboni, 2009;Rodriguez et al., 1999) et sociaux (Chartrand & Bargh, 1999;Chartrand & Lakin, 2013;Salvatore & Tschacher, 2012;Schmidt & Fitzpatrick, 2016 ...
... Il aurait même des effets sur la contagion émotionnelle et la convergence des attitudes (Chartrand & Lakin, 2013). Dans le domaine de la psychologie sociale, la synchronie des mouvements non verbaux a très majoritairement été étudiée en tant qu'imitation comportementale encore appelée effet caméléon (Chartrand & Bargh, 1999). ...
Thesis
Le Clignement Spontané des yeux (CS) se distingue du clignement volontaire et du clignement reflexe. Les variations du taux de CS (TCS) ne sont pas expliquées par la seule nécessité de lubrifier la cornée. Des baisses de TCS ont été corrélées avec l’attention, la concentration et la perception visuelle, des hausses de TCS avec la mémorisation et la parole. L’augmentation du TCS observée durant la conversation, a été attribuée à un mécanisme méta-langagier destiné à organiser les échanges et ponctuer le discours entre partenaires. La présente thèse relativise le rôle du CS dans la communication humaine. En effet nos deux premières études (Article 1 et 2) montrent que les variations du CS entre partenaires (des mères avec leur nourrisson) ne sont pas mimétiques ni même l’effet d’un entrainement entre partenaires. Au contraire nous montrons (Article 3, Expérience 1) que le CS dépendrait d’abord d’un mécanisme individuel de traitement de l’information. La fonction interpersonnelle de communication du CS serait donc subsidiaire (Article 3, Expérience2) ; le CS serait essentiellement relié à des processus cognitifs individuels (unilatéraux), utiles à la communication mais dédiés à une fonction plus générale de gestion d’information. Pour confirmer cette hypothèse, nous avons testé (de manière inédite) la variation des CS lors du traitement d’informations haptiques, avec ou sans la vision (Article 4, Expérience1). Nous montrons (Article 4, Expérience 2) que le CS émerge prioritairement de l’activation co-occurrente de processus top down (représentation mentale et intention) et bottom up (sensorialité). A l’issue de ces résultats, nous soutenons que le CS est un phénomène qui accompagne le traitement attentionnel des informations. Le CS serait le marqueur du traitement conscient des informations internes (réflexives) ou externe (sensorielles) que nous tentons d’expliquer par le modèle énactif.
... Additionally, such behavior is typically evident when working on a mutual, goal-directed task [Marsh, et al., 2006]. Presently, these shared behaviors have been referred to as entrainment [De Looze, Scherer, Vaughn & Campbell, 2014;Schmidt & O'Brien, 1998], mimicry [Chartrand & Bargh, 1999;Lakin & Chartrand, 2003], and even action-matching [Bernieri & Rodenthal, 1991;Henning, Boucsein & Gil, 2001]; however, the specific term used typically refers to the underlying theoretical cause for the phenomenon. ...
... There has been evidence to suggest that various forms of entrainment, as introduced above and potentially characterized through RQA [Eckmann, et al., 1987], can occur in humans. These can range from body postures to facial expressions (both negative and positive emotions; [Chartrand et al., 1999;Dimberg, 1982]), heartbeat [Levenson & Gottman, 1983], and even verbal patterns emerge when individuals engage with familiar 'in-group' members rather than 'out-group' strangers [Hess & Fischer, 2013;Norscia & Palagi, 2011;Reed, Randall, Post & Butler, 2013]. Prior work has shown that perceptions of 'in-group' or 'out-group' team members are important, as our tendency to trust a team is more efficient and reliable when individuals in a team are considered 'in-group' members [Balliet, Wu & De Dreu, 2014;Cikara, Bruneau, Van Bavel & Saxe, 2014]. ...
Article
The rise in artificial intelligence capabilities in autonomy-enabled systems and robotics has pushed research to address the unique nature of human-autonomy team collaboration. The goal of these advanced technologies is to enable rapid decision making, enhance situation awareness, promote shared understanding, and improve team dynamics. Simultaneously, use of these technologies is expected to reduce risk to those who collaborate with these systems. Yet, for appropriate human- autonomy teaming to take place, especially as we move beyond dyadic partnerships, proper calibration of team trust is needed to effectively coordinate interactions during high-risk operations. But to meet this end, critical measures of team trust for this new dynamic of human-autonomy teams are needed. This paper seeks to expand on trust measurement principles and the foundation of human-autonomy teaming to propose a “toolkit” of novel methods that support the development, maintenance and calibration of trust in human-autonomy teams operating within uncertain, risky, and dynamic environments.
... At home, participants filled out several questionnaires. In particular, given that previous studies reported that trait empathy could influence behavioural responses to emotional expressions (Bauser et al., 2012;Chartrand & Bargh, 1999;Coll et al., 2012;Gery et al., 2009;Wang et al., 2016;Yamada & Decety, 2009), we administered the Interpersonal Reactivity Inventory (Davis, 1980). In addition, we included also the Beck Depression Inventory (Beck et al., 1961) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (Spielberger et al., 1983) to assess respectively their level of depression and stable aspects of anxiety, and the Rejection Sensitivity Questionnaire (Downey & Feldman, 1996) to measure sensitivity to the rejection of significant others. ...
... Up to now, we found that the post-lockdown group displayed both lower empathic concern scores (from IRI questionnaire) and lower ability to recognise others' pain from facial expressions (classification task). Critically, previous studies found that behavioural responses to the processing affective expressions (including pain and disgust) could be influenced by trait empathy as measures by IRI (Bauser et al., 2012;Chartrand & Bargh, 1999;Coll et al., 2012;Gery et al., 2009;Wang et al., 2016;Yamada & Decety, 2009), including empathic concern scores (Wang et al., 2016). As such, we do not know whether the group effect associated with the classification task underlies a direct effect of the lockdown, or rather an indirect effect of the empathic concern which differed between pre-and post-lockdown cohorts. ...
Article
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In the last two years, governments of many countries imposed heavy social restrictions to contain the spread of the COVID-19 virus, with consequent increase of bad mood, distress, or depression for the people involved. Few studies investigated the impact of these restrictive measures on individual social proficiency, and specifically the processing of emotional facial information, leading to mixed results. The present research aimed at investigating systematically whether, and to which extent, social isolation influences the processing of facial expressions. To this end, we manipulated the social exclusion experimentally through the well-known Cyberball game (within-subject factor), and we exploited the occurrence of the lockdown for the Swiss COVID-19 first wave by recruiting participants before and after being restricted at home (grouping factor). We then tested whether either form of social segregation influenced the processing of pain, disgust or neutral expressions, across multiple tasks probing access to different components of affective facial responses (state-specific, shared across states). We found that the lockdown (but not game-induced exclusion) affected negatively the processing of pain-specific information, without influencing other components of the affective facial response related to disgust or broad unpleasantness. In addition, participants recruited after the confinement reported lower scores in both empathy questionnaires and affective assessments of Cyberball co-players. These results suggest that social isolation affected negatively individual sensitivity to other people’s affect and, with specific reference to the processing of facial expressions, the processing of pain-diagnostic information.
... Indeed, successful conversations rely on a coordinated dance between the speaker and the listener in which the two signal to each other that they are communicating with one another and not with anyone else [41]. This chameleon effect [12] of nonverbal mimicry during conversation results in smoother interactions, increases the liking between interaction partners, establishes rapport [43], and may even predict the long term outcome of psychotherapy [56]. Interestingly, nonverbal feedback from a listener, such as head movement is more central to keeping a conversation flowing than content-based replies [11]. ...
... Our goal is to model the conversational dynamics between a speaker and a listener. To test whether our model captures the subtleties of face-to-face communication, we synthesize the interactional motion responses of the listener, which are known to be essential to the flow of conversation [12,41,43]. Figure 2. Overview: We predict a distribution over future listener motion conditioned on multimodal inputs from a speaker. ...
Preprint
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We present a framework for modeling interactional communication in dyadic conversations: given multimodal inputs of a speaker, we autoregressively output multiple possibilities of corresponding listener motion. We combine the motion and speech audio of the speaker using a motion-audio cross attention transformer. Furthermore, we enable non-deterministic prediction by learning a discrete latent representation of realistic listener motion with a novel motion-encoding VQ-VAE. Our method organically captures the multimodal and non-deterministic nature of nonverbal dyadic interactions. Moreover, it produces realistic 3D listener facial motion synchronous with the speaker (see video). We demonstrate that our method outperforms baselines qualitatively and quantitatively via a rich suite of experiments. To facilitate this line of research, we introduce a novel and large in-the-wild dataset of dyadic conversations. Code, data, and videos available at https://evonneng.github.io/learning2listen/.
... Entrainment is defined as the repetition of structures, for instance lexical and syntactic structures between interlocutors in a conversation, but it can also include visual aspects such as body posture, facial expression and accent (Chartrand & Bargh, 1999;Chartrand & Lakin, 2013;Duran et al., 2019;Healey et al., 2014;Louwerse et al., 2012;Rasenberg et al., 2020;Scheflen, 1964;Shockley et al., 2003 In the above example, the lexical forms "I" and "have" uttered by speaker A are repeated by speaker B constituting a case of lexical entrainment. ...
Preprint
Establishing and maintaining mutual understanding in everyday conversations is crucial. To do so people employ a variety of conversational devices, such as backchannels, repair and linguistic entrainment. Here we explore whether speakers of different languages use conversational devices in the same way, or whether their use might be modulated by differences in properties of the languages. We compare two unusually well-matched languages (Danish and Norwegian) differing in their sound structure: Danish is more opaque due to, e.g., phonetic reduction in pronunciation. Across systematically manipulated conversational contexts, we find that processes supporting mutual understanding in conversations vary with external constraints: across different contexts, and, crucially, across languages. According to our predictions, linguistic entrainment was overall higher in Danish than Norwegian, while backchannels and repairs presented a more nuanced pattern. These findings suggest that native speakers of Danish compensate for the opaque sound structure by adopting a top-down strategy of building more conversational redundancy through entrainment, which also reduces the need for repairs. By creating a context in which linguistic items and structures are continuously repeated, native speakers of Danish might be bypassing the challenges posed by their pronounced phonetic reduction. These results suggest that linguistic differences might give rise to systematic changes in language processing and use and pave the way for larger cross-linguistic investigations. The findings are highly relevant for the study of conversational exchanges in many applied domains, from the design of language-based human-computer interfaces to the development of measures of social functioning in neuropsychiatric conditions.
... These affective rewards, which include feelings of solidarity, rapport, affiliation and interpersonal liking, as well as prosocial and cooperative motivation, are associated with different types of synchrony among the interacting agents. Examples include synchronised motor representations (Rizzolatti and Craighero 2004), body postures and gaze patterns (Shockley et al. 2009), speech patterns (Fowler et al. 2008), facial expressions (Chartrand and Bargh 1999) and heart rate (Vikhoff et al. 2013). Moreover, synchrony yields affective rewards even when it is accidental rather than purposeful, such as when individuals walk, tap their fingers, rock chairs, and so on, or perceive figures or sounds (e.g., Hove and Risen 2009;Miles et al. 2009). ...
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This paper contributes to the interdisciplinary theory of collective affective niche construction, which extends the extended mind (ExM) thesis from cognitive to affective phenomena. Although theoretically innovative, the theory lacks a detailed psychological account of how collective affectivity is scaffolded. It has also been criticized for its uncritical assumption of the subject qua the autonomous user of the affective scaffolding as disposable resources, abstracting away from embedded subjectivity in particular techno-political arrangements. We propose that the social motivation hypothesis, an account grounded in recent empirical and theoretical developments in psychology as well as in the classic theory of moral sentiments, will address the former criticism by explicating the basic mechanisms of human social orientation at work in collective affective niche construction. We also begin to address the latter normative criticism in mobilizing a so-called we-mode approach to collective emotion. To make these theoretical dialectics salient, we study social media as a case of collective affective niches, focusing on the impact on subjective well-being. Finally, we briefly identify promising future directions in building a normative theory of affective niche construction on the collective level.
... OSB'li çocuklar yüze yönelmede sınırlılıklar sergilemelerinin yanı sıra, insan yüzüne yöneldiklerinde de duygu ifadelerini anlamada önemli rol oynadığı kabul edilen gözlere yönelmede (Pavlova vd., 2017) ve vokal olarak sunulan ifadeler ile yüz ifadelerini eşlemede de sınırlılıklar sergilemektedirler (Boucher, Lewis & Collis, 2000). NG'li çocuklar, diğer insanlarla sosyal etkileşim sırasında etkileşime girdikleri kişilerin yüz ifadelerini otomatik ve istemsiz olarak taklit ederken (Chartrand & Bargh, 1999), OSB'li çocuklar spontan olarak diğerlerinin yüz ifadelerini taklit etmede de sınırlılıklar sergilemektedirler (Jiménez, Lorda & Méndez, 2014;Sevlever & Gillis, 2010). Bununla birlikte yürütülen pek çok araştırmada OSB'li çocukların duygusal ifadelerini diğerleri ile daha az spontan olarak paylaştıkları (Bieberich & Morgan, 2004) ve sosyal durumlara tepki olarak daha az güldükleri de (Reddy, Williams & Vaughan, 2002) rapor edilmektedir. ...
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Z Bu araştırmada OSB'li çocuğu olan ebeveynlerin, çocuklarının kendi duygularını ve ebeveynlerinin duyularını anlama ve ifade etme becerilerine ilişkin görüşlerinin incelenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Araştırma kapsamında OSB'li çocuğa sahip birincil bakım veren durumundaki 16 ebeveyn ile yarı-yapılandırılmış görüşmeler gerçekleştirilmiştir. Ebeveyn görüşleri görüşmelerin yazıya dökülmesi ile ebeveyn görüşlerini yansıtan ön temaların oluşturulması sonrası oluşturulan temalar üzerinden yapılan betimsel analizler sonucunda belirlenmiştir. Araştırmaya katılan ebeveynlerden elde edilen bilgiler arasından dikkat çekici sonuçlar, ebeveynlerin çoğunlukla, çocuklarının en çok istediklerini elde edemediğinde üzüldüklerini; üzgün olduklarını ağlayarak ifade ettiklerini; en çok istedikleri, sevdikleri bir şeyi yaptıkları ya da elde ettikleri durumlarda mutlu olduklerını; mutluluklarını genelde gülerek, heyecanlı davranışlar sergileyerek ya da sözel olarak ifade ettiklerini, ebeveynlerin kendileri mutlu olduklarında çocuklarının da duygu durumlarına davranışları ile uyumlu olarak eşlik ettiklerini, üzgün olduklarında ise çocuklarının anne babalarının üzüntülerinin nedenini sorguladıklarını ve onları teselli ettiklerini bildirmişlerdir. Bu araştırmada ilgili temalar altında derinlemesine elde edilen ebeveyn görüşleri tartışılmış ve gelecekte yapılacak araştırmalara yönelik önerilere yer verilmiştir. Anahtar Kelimeler: Otizm spektrum bozukluğu, duygu durumları, duyguları ifade etme, empati. ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of parents of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) about their childrens' emotion expressions and their reactions to their parents' emotions. In this study, semi structured interviews were conducted with a total of 16 parents who were the primary caregivers of children with ASD. Perceptions of parents were initially transcribed without making any corrections and study themes emerged in the interviews were analyzed. Parents' perceptions indicated * Bu çalışma ELMIS 2016 Kongresi'nde sözlü bildiri olarak sunulmuştur.
... Les auteurs ont montré que les bébés du groupe « mimicry » avaient de meilleures performances à la tâche d'imitation de l'utilisation d'outils que ceux du groupe « non-mimicry » ou des groupes contrôles. Ce résultat peut s'expliquer par les effets connus du mimicry comportemental, qui correspond à l'imitation simultanée des actions d'un individu par un autre, notamment d'augmenter la sympathie pour l'imitateur et de fluidifier l'interaction sociale (Chartrand et Bargh 1999), d'améliorer le sentiment d'affiliation Ces effets s'expliquent notamment par l'induction d'émotions positives, ce qui a pu être observé directement chez les bébés du groupe « mimicry », qui souriaient davantage et semblaient être dans un état émotionnel plus positif que ceux des autres groupes (Somogyi et al. 2014). Pour revenir à la comparaison avec l'étude d 'Esseily et al. (2015), pour laquelle la condition humoristique avait généré quasiment 100 % d'imitation chez les bébés qui riaient, l'effet observé dans le groupe « mimicry » n'était toutefois pas aussi fort, ce qui laisse suggérer que l'induction d'émotions positives et/ou l'augmentation de l'affiliation sociale pour le démonstrateur ne suffiraient pas à expliquer cet effet massif de l'humour à 18 mois (Esseily et al. 2015). ...
Chapter
Les processus émotionnels sont de plus en plus étudiés en psychologie, que ce soit à travers leurs modalités d’expression ou à travers leur effet sur les processus cognitifs.Si la théorisation du lien entre processus émotionnels et processus cognitifs a varié au cours des siècles, l’impact des émotions sur les fonctions cognitives est aujourd’hui indéniable et étayé par des arguments expérimentaux. Les processus psychologiques sont actuellement considérés comme étant nécessaires à l’émergence des émotions, ou influencés par celles-ci. Les apprentissages étant au coeur du développement de l’individu et faisant intervenir différents processus cognitifs, l’étude des processus émotionnels en situation d’apprentissage n’est bien sûr pas en reste.Processus émotionnels en situation d’apprentissage présente les apports de différentes disciplines de la psychologie dans la compréhension du rôle des processus émotionnels en situation d’apprentissage, dans une perspective développementale et vie-entière.
... A feeling of isolation intensifies individuals' desire to search for social connections. Mimicry, an unconscious behavior that boosts interpersonal rapport (Chartrand and Bargh, 1999), naturally increases toward an ingroup member after feeling isolated (Lakin et al., 2008). Prior research shows that isolated individuals are more likely to conform to the opinions of others (Williams et al., 2000), as the feeling of isolation impacts individuals' psychological and physiological functioning. ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate how consumers’ luxury purchase behavior has been affected by COVID-19. A theoretical framework is proposed to determine how isolation leads to intention to purchase luxury brands through bandwagon luxury consumption behavior. Additionally, the moderating effects of COVID-19 anxiety and social capital on the relationship between bandwagon luxury consumption behavior and subjective well-being and intention to purchase luxury brands are tested. Design/methodology/approach Survey responses from a national sample of 261 luxury consumers in the USA were collected. The data were analyzed using a covariance-based structural equation modeling technique. Findings The results confirm that the feeling of isolation leads to a higher intention to purchase luxury brands. Both COVID-19 anxiety and social capital moderate the relationship between bandwagon luxury consumption behavior and intention to purchase luxury brands/subjective well-being related to the luxury brand purchase. Research limitations/implications Luxury marketers should focus on highlighting bandwagon elements of their brands, such as their popularity and how they enhance social connectedness when tailoring their brand communication to isolated consumers. The data is limited to luxury consumers in the USA; thus, the findings are specific to the US market. Originality/value Given the paucity of research on luxury consumption for isolated consumers, this study adds to the literature on luxury brands by examining how the feeling of isolation affects the intention to purchase luxury brands.
... Interestingly, most human-human research found that mimicry increases perception of another person [21,73]. The chameleon effect is a common phenomenon in which humans unconsciously mimic the gestures and facial expressions of an interaction partner to match their type of social expression and level of extroversion [20]. In this instance, our users made it clear that explicit mimicry from the robot is not appreciated, but that they did want similar levels of support. ...
Preprint
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Hugs are complex affective interactions that often include gestures like squeezes. We present six new guidelines for designing interactive hugging robots, which we validate through two studies with our custom robot. To achieve autonomy, we investigated robot responses to four human intra-hug gestures: holding, rubbing, patting, and squeezing. Thirty-two users each exchanged and rated sixteen hugs with an experimenter-controlled HuggieBot 2.0. The robot's inflated torso's microphone and pressure sensor collected data of the subjects' demonstrations that were used to develop a perceptual algorithm that classifies user actions with 88\% accuracy. Users enjoyed robot squeezes, regardless of their performed action, they valued variety in the robot response, and they appreciated robot-initiated intra-hug gestures. From average user ratings, we created a probabilistic behavior algorithm that chooses robot responses in real time. We implemented improvements to the robot platform to create HuggieBot 3.0 and then validated its gesture perception system and behavior algorithm with sixteen users. The robot's responses and proactive gestures were greatly enjoyed. Users found the robot more natural, enjoyable, and intelligent in the last phase of the experiment than in the first. After the study, they felt more understood by the robot and thought robots were nicer to hug.
... For example, research on gaze cueing has shown that people are faster to detect stimuli that are preceded by a face looking in the direction of the stimulus, even when gaze direction is non-predictive of stimulus location (Driver et al., 1999;Friesen & Kingstone, 1998) or is predictive of a stimulus in the opposite direction (Driver et al., 1999). More generally, research on automatic imitation has shown that people spontaneously imitate a wide range of behaviors (Chartrand & Bargh, 1999;Genschow et al., 2017) even when doing so is disadvantageous (Brass et al., 2000;Stürmer et al., 2000). Both gaze cueing (Capozzi et al., 2015(Capozzi et al., , 2021Sun et al., 2017) and automatic imitation (Cracco et al., 2015;Cracco & Brass, 2018a, 2018b have recently been shown to increase with group size. ...
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Social group influence plays an important role in societally relevant phenomena such as rioting and mass panic. One way through which groups influence individuals is by directing their gaze. Evidence that gaze following increases with group size has typically been explained in terms of strategic processes. Here, we instead tested the role of sensorimotor processes. In an ecologically valid virtual reality task, we found that participants were more likely to follow the gaze of a group when more people looked, even though they knew the group provided no relevant information. Interestingly, participants also sometimes changed their mind after starting to follow the gaze of the group, indicating that automatic imitation can be overruled by strategic processes. Our results suggest that social group influence is best explained by a two-step model in which bottom-up imitative processes first elicit a reflexive tendency to imitate, before top-down strategic processes determine whether to execute or inhibit this reflex. These results provide a deeper understanding of how group dynamics steer behavior.
... For example, a robot may imitate a human's facial expression, who looks cheerful, and changes its emotional state accordingly. This mechanism is also referred to as primitive emotional contagion [41] or the chameleon effect [42]. Mimicry is important in building rapport [43] and makes the observer more persuasive [44]; however, under certain situations, this may produce a diminishing effect. ...
Article
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For a service robot to serve travelers at an airport or for a social robot to live with a human partner at home, it is vital for robots to possess the ability to empathize with human partners and express congruent emotions accordingly. We conducted a systematic review of the literature regarding empathy in interpersonal, virtual agents, and social robots research with inclusion criteria to analyze empirical studies in a peer-reviewed journal, conference proceeding, or a thesis. Based on the review, we define empathy for human-robot interaction (HRI) as the robot's (observer) capability and process to recognize the human's (target) emotional state, thoughts, and situation, and produce affective or cognitive responses to elicit a positive perception of humans. We reviewed all prominent empathy theories and established a conceptual framework that illuminates critical components to consider when designing an empathic robot, including the empathy process, outcome, and the observer and target characteristics. This model is complemented by empirical research involving empathic virtual agents and social robots. We suggest critical factors such as domain dependency, multi-modality, and empathy modulation to consider when designing, engineering, and researching empathic social robots.
... Although it is possible that examiners D and E mimicked the nonverbal cues generated by test-takers 4 and 5 because they perceived the test-takers to be strong students, findings from previous studies have suggested that mimicry may lead to greater rapport and to individuals being assessed more positively (Chartrand & Dalton, 2007). One possible argument, therefore, would be that the examiners mimicked testtakers' nonverbal cues in an attempt to show engagement and provide encouragement; research has also indicated that mimicry (and consequent affiliation) may be a strategy of social coordination (Chartrand & Bargh, 1999;Stel et al., 2005). In summary, findings from a comparative analysis of the scores assigned to each criterion during the face-to-face and audio-recorded speaking tests suggest that nonverbal cues may have played a role in the assessment of test-takers' speaking skills. ...
Thesis
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This study investigated the role of gestures, smiles, and eye contact on scores assigned to English-as-an-additional-language (EAL) speakers during standardized face-to-face speaking tests. Four English-as-a-first-language examiners and four EAL test-takers participated in simulated IELTS Speaking Tests. Qualitatively, an inductive thematic analysis was conducted. Quantitatively, scores were holistically (overall scores assigned) and analytically (by criterion). Nonverbal cues were examined by the total number of cues produced by all test-takers, the frequency of production by test-taker, the frequency of production of subcategories of nonverbal cues by test-taker, and by production alongside speech or in isolation. Mimicry of nonverbal cues generated by test-takers was investigated. Test-takers’ lexical range was also analyzed vis-à-vis the scores assigned to the criterion lexical resource. Conclusions drawn from the triangulation of data sources indicate that nonverbal cues may have played a role in the assessment of the criteria fluency and coherence and pronunciation. This study adds to the current body of literature on second language assessment, which has suggested that variables other than language proficiency may play a role in scores assigned to test-takers during face-to-face speaking tests.
... The term "mimicry," in its broad sense, refers to the imitation of a variety of others' nonverbal behaviors, including facial expressions (Hess & Fischer, 2013), gestures (Chartrand & Bargh, 1999), bodily postures (Bavelas et al., 1986;Bernieri & Rosenthal, 1991), speech prosody and nonverbal vocalizations (Neumann & Strack, 2000), or autonomous signals such as heart rate (Feldman et al., 2011) or pupil diameter (Kret et al., 2015). Imitating others' expressed emotions stands out of this category because emotional displays, in contrast to other non-verbal behaviors, are meaningful social signals that inform about the expresser's inner states, intentions, and orientation towards the perceiver (van Kleef, 2017). ...
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This article explores emotional mimicry and its interpersonal functions under the absence versus presence of visual contact between the interacting partners. We review relevant literature and stress that previous studies on emotional mimicry were focused on imitative responses to facial displays. We also show that the rules applying to mimicking facial expressions may not necessarily be applicable when visual emotional signals are not present (e.g., people attending an online meeting cannot see each other’s faces). Overall, our review suggests that emotional mimicry functionally adapts to whether the interacting partners can see each other. We therefore argue that going beyond facial displays may provide insight into emotional mimicry’s social functions, thereby clarifying its role in fostering affiliation and emotional understanding.
... Research has confirmed that human beings are extremely talented at imitation (e.g., Brass & Heyes, 2005;Carpenter & Call, 2009;Chartrand & Bargh, 1999) and can unconsciously and very accurately imitate the verbal and non-verbal behaviors of conversational partners (for reviews, see Heyes, 2011;Lakin et al., 2003;Pardo et al., 2017). In the context of phonology, according to Giles et al. (1991), individuals adapt to each other's behaviors in terms of a wide range of linguistic, prosodic, and nonverbal features to accomodate to peers and facilitate communication (see also McCafferty, 2008, for a review on gesture mimesis and language learning). ...
Thesis
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This thesis proposes an overview of the theoretical background on embodied cognition. gesture studies, and L2 phonological acquisition to motivate the use of embodied prosodic training with hand gestures and kinesthetic movements as an efficient method to improve L2 learners' perception and pronunciation. It is composed of three independent empirical studies looking at three different techniques in different learning contexts.
... Furthermore, despite previous research showing both daters simultaneously (e.g., Hall et al., 2015;Place et al., 2009Place et al., , 2012, the effect of synchronous behaviour between the daters has not been directly examined. Indeed, mimicry has been shown to increase the chance of liking and affiliation with others (Chartrand, & Bargh, 1999;Cheng & Chartrand, 2003;Lakin & Chartrand, 2003; see also Roth et al., 2021aRoth et al., , 2021b. Therefore, if synchronous behaviour between two daters facilitates the detection of attraction (i.e., dater A smiles and dater B reciprocates that smile), then the presentation of randomly shuffled videos would impair accuracy in detecting attraction. ...
Article
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In a series of three studies, we examined whether third-party observers can detect attraction in others based on subtle nonverbal cues. We employed video segments of dates collected from a speed-dating experiment, in which daters went on a brief (approx. 4 min) blind-date and indicated whether they would like to go on another date with their brief interaction partner or not. We asked participants to view these stimuli and indicate whether or not each couple member is attracted to their partner. Our results show that participants could not reliably detect attraction, and this ability was not influenced by the age of the observer, video segment location (beginning or middle of the date), video duration, or general emotion recognition capacity. Contrary to previous research findings, our findings suggest that third-party observers cannot reliably detect attraction in others. However, there was one exception: Recognition rose above chance level when the daters were both interested in their partners compared to when they were not interested. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s12144-022-02927-0.
... Since mirroring is a complex phenomenon [11], we made a first attempt to build a framework which quantify gestures from a video of face-to-face communication in order to automatically detect the presence of mirroring [1]. In this paper, we further enhance the framework by improving gesture detection and adding the ability to estimate the overall time lag of the detected mirroring. ...
Research
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Nonverbal communication plays an important role in social interaction. Mirroring, an action that mimics the nonverbal behavior patterns of their interaction partners, captures the attention of the Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) community. This action can help building rapport with others by making communication more effective and reflective. This study proposes a computer vision-based system that detects mirroring and analyzes the time lag during a face-to-face communication. Our approach consists of the following steps: (1) human pose estimation; (2) hand gestures quantization; (3) action detection based on Dynamic Time Warping (DTW); (4) estimation of mirroring time lag based on the cross-correlation. For this study, we recorded twenty face-to-face communication scenes using an omni-directional video camera with and without mirroring performed by the imitator. Results show that the DTW was able to detect actions having distinct gestures, whereas the cross-correlation was able to estimate the time lags for reactive mimicry of the imitator during the conversation.
... They argue that in VR, unlike face-to-face interaction, the user's rendered behavior can deviate from their actual behavior. The system can leverage this characteristic to, for example, improve communication by altering the user's rendered behavior such that it mimics the nonverbal behavior of others, referred to as the Chameleon Effect [29]. While beyond-real social interactions have been explored [129,130], many research questions remain. ...
Preprint
We can create Virtual Reality (VR) interactions that have no equivalent in the real world by remapping spacetime or altering users' body representation, such as stretching the user's virtual arm for manipulation of distant objects or scaling up the user's avatar to enable rapid locomotion. Prior research has leveraged such approaches, what we call beyond-real techniques, to make interactions in VR more practical, efficient, ergonomic, and accessible. We present a survey categorizing prior movement-based VR interaction literature as reality-based, illusory, or beyond-real interactions. We survey relevant conferences (CHI, IEEE VR, VRST, UIST, and DIS) while focusing on selection, manipulation, locomotion, and navigation in VR. For beyond-real interactions, we describe the transformations that have been used by prior works to create novel remappings. We discuss open research questions through the lens of the human sensorimotor control system and highlight challenges that need to be addressed for effective utilization of beyond-real interactions in future VR applications, including plausibility, control, long-term adaptation, and individual differences.
... Conversational agents can be embodied to use visible speech, facial expressions, or body language, adding supplementary modalities [24]. These types of social cues allow for synchronicity and fluency between the speaker and the listener, increasing conversational quality and facilitating the development of a social relationship [13,9]. Several works show, that users interact with ECAs as they would with other humans, as the agents are able to elicit the same responses as real people [25]. ...
Chapter
Humans communicate on three levels: words, paralanguage, and nonverbal. While conversational agents focus mainly on the interpretation of words that are being spoken, recently the focus has also shifted to how we say those words with our tone, pace, and intonation. Nonverbal communication, including facial expression, eye contact, posture, and proximity, has been largely ignored in human-agent interactions. In this work, we propose to incorporate nonverbal behavior into conversations between humans and agents by displaying a human-like embodied agent on a large screen and by responding appropriately to nonverbal cues from the interlocutors. In a user study with 19 volunteers, we investigated the influence on the participants for different behaviors (mimicry, positively biased mimicry, negatively biased mimicry, random) of the embodied conversation agents. The results indicate that goal-directed behavior is perceived significantly better concerning likability, social competence, attitude, and responsiveness in comparison to random behavior. This indicates that already simple nonverbal methods of building rapport can be used to improve the perceived conversational quality with an embodied conversational agent.
... For example, entrainment has been linked with greater relationship stability (Ireland et al., 2011), higher levels of cooperation (Manson et al., 2013), and better performance on collaborative goal-directed communication tasks (e.g., Borrie et al., 2019;Reitter & Moore, 2014). Further, interlocutors who exhibit high levels of entrainment are rated by their conversation partner as being more competent, persuasive, and likable than those with low levels of entrainment (Bailenson & Yee, 2005;Chartrand & Bargh, 1999;. Even studies relying on simulated interactions, where confounding factors are eliminated, have shown that entrainment is a beneficial and useful aspect of communication (Miles et al., 2009;Polyanskaya et al., 2019). ...
Article
Conversational entrainment, also known as alignment, accommodation, convergence, and coordination, is broadly defined as similarity of communicative behavior between interlocutors. Within current literature, specific terminology, definitions, and measurement approaches are wide-ranging and highly variable. As new ways of measuring and quantifying entrainment are developed and research in this area continues to expand, consistent terminology and a means of organizing entrainment research is critical, affording cohesion and assimilation of knowledge. While systems for categorizing entrainment do exist, these efforts are not entirely comprehensive in that specific measurement approaches often used within entrainment literature cannot be categorized under existing frameworks. The purpose of this review article is twofold: First, we propose an expanded version of an earlier framework which allows for the categorization of all measures of entrainment of speech behaviors and includes refinements, additions, and explanations aimed at improving its clarity and accessibility. Second, we present an extensive literature review, demonstrating how current literature fits into the given framework. We conclude with a discussion of how the proposed entrainment framework presented herein can be used to unify efforts in entrainment research.
... It may be that the perception-behaviour link where unconscious mirroring of posture bolsters empathy between conversational partners, especially when working collaboratively [225], and the extent to which posture is represented through a communication medium may be important. ...
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We present a state of the art and positioning book, about Web3, Bitcoin, and `Metaverse'; describing the intersections and synergies. A high level overview of Web3 technologies leads to a description of blockchain, and the Bitcoin network is specifically selected for detailed examination. Suitable components of the extended Bitcoin ecosystem are described in more depth. Other mechanisms for native digital value transfer are described, with a focus on `money'. Metaverse technology is over-viewed, primarily from the perspective of Bitcoin and extended reality.\par Bitcoin is selected as the best contender for value transfer in metaverses because of it's free and open source nature, and network effect. Challenges and risks of this approach are identified. A cloud deployable virtual machine based technology stack deployment guide with a focus on cybersecurity best practice can be downloaded from GitHub to experiment with the technologies. This deployable lab is designed to inform development of secure value transaction, for small and medium sized companies.
... The link between synchronous coordination and communication is well-documented. As people converse, syntactic structures and accents become more similar (Branigan et al., 2000;Giles et al., 1992), body movements more synchronized (Shockley et al., 2003;Chartrand & Bargh, 1999), and eye movements more coordinated (Richardson et al., 2007). ...
Conference Paper
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We examined how rhythmic activities affect children's perspective-taking in a referential communication task with 69 Chinese 5-to 6-year-old children. The child first played an instrument with a virtual partner in one of three coordination conditions: synchrony, asynchrony, and antiphase synchrony. Eye movements were then monitored with the partner giving instructions to identify a shape referent which included a pre-nominal scalar adjective (e.g., big cubic block). Participants with awareness of their partner's perspective could, in principle, identify the intended referent before the shape was named when the target contrast (a small cubic block) was in shared ground whereas a competitor contrast was occluded for the partner. Children in the asynchrony and antiphase synchrony conditions, but not the synchrony condition, showed anticipatory looks to the target, suggesting that playing instruments asynchronously or in alternation facilitates perspective-taking, likely by training self-other discrimination and inhibitory control.
... It found that human behavior may be modified by socially-oriented strategies such as competition, cooperation, or intra-group comparison used by machines (Oinas-Kukkonen and Harjumaa 2008) and emotions that are imitated by artificial agents (Ahmad et al. 2020). An early example of such persuasion is the chameleon effect, which refers to the imitation of one person's gestures, mannerisms, and facial expressions to make a positive impression and gain approval (Chartrand and Bargh 1999). The more someone behaves or looks like the interlocutor, the higher probability that he or she will be positively perceived. ...
Article
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Human organizations’ adoption of the paradigm of the Fourth Industrial Revolution is associated with the growth of techno-empowerment, which is the process of transferring autonomy in decision-making to intelligent machines. Particular persuasive strategies have been identified that may coax people to use intelligent devices but there is a substantial research gap regarding what antecedents actually influence human intention to assign decision-making autonomy to the artificial agents. In this study, ethological and evolutionary concepts are used to explain the drivers for autonomous assistants’ techno-empowerment. The method used in the study was 4 x 2 experiment made with 278 persons. The research tool used to collect the data was an online survey. The results shows that more positive attitudes and higher trust, perceived usefulness, and perceived ease of use are linked to higher intention to allow autonomous assistant to independence in decision-making. Second, the results suggest that the more humanlike a non-human agent is, the higher the intention to empower it – but only if this agent simultaneously provides functional and visual anthropomorphic cues explainable by the mimicry effect.
... Synchrony in communication plays an important role in maintaining positive social relationships among people since it indicates increased affiliation, rapport and feelings of empathy [3], [7], [25]. ...
Preprint
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Natural conversations between humans often involve a large number of non-verbal nuanced expressions, displayed at key times throughout the conversation. Understanding and being able to model these complex interactions is essential for creating realistic human-agent communication, whether in the virtual or physical world. As social robots and intelligent avatars emerge in popularity and utility, being able to realistically model and generate these dynamic expressions throughout conversations is critical. We develop a probabilistic model to capture the interaction dynamics between pairs of participants in a face-to-face setting, allowing for the encoding of synchronous expressions between the interlocutors. This interaction encoding is then used to influence the generation when predicting one agent's future dynamics, conditioned on the other's current dynamics. FLAME features are extracted from videos containing natural conversations between subjects to train our interaction model. We successfully assess the efficacy of our proposed model via quantitative metrics and qualitative metrics, and show that it successfully captures the dynamics of a pair of interacting dyads. We also test the model with a never-before-seen parent-infant dataset comprising of two different modes of communication between the dyads, and show that our model successfully delineates between the modes, based on their interacting dynamics.
... In general, using multi-participant experiments in VR could be useful in any research field interested in studying more than one person in isolation. For example, in social sciences and economics there is a long tradition of investigating group interactions, opposing goal-directed actions, and other decision processes, e.g. the prisoner's dilemma game (46), equilibrium theory (47) or the chameleon effect (48,49). It would be even possible to extend networking based VR experiments with additional neuroimaging functionalities like EEG to explore the neural correlates of multi-participant experiments in VR. ...
Preprint
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Multi-participant experiments in virtual reality (VR) could provide a new way to investigate real-time interactions in a controlled and ecologically valid environment. However, to create the impression of a shared world between participants, all non-static elements of the environment need to be networked. Currently available networking solutions contain complex automated functionalities and were developed for the demands of multiplayer video games. However, the required level of expertise to tweak such automated functionality is difficult to acquire during the short time frame of an experimental project's implementation phase. As the focus of multi-participant experiments lies on the control of experimental variables and data quality, we propose a new light-weight networking solution called LightNet, specifically designed for the needs of implementations of multi-participant experiments.LightNet is an open-source networking library. It provides a transparent software architecture, multiple customization options, and precise networking of variables to ensure control over experimental variables and data quality. In this article, we present a "how-to" section in which we explain the necessary steps to include networking functionalities using LightNet. We conclude this section with a list of additional recommendations for any LightNet implementation. Furthermore, we describe the networking logic and properties of a more complex example experiment, incorporating shared gaze.Overall, we believe that the provided networking solution facilitates the implementation of multi-participant experiments to enable a comprehensible access to investigating social interactions in VR, even without expert-level expertise in the field of networking.
... Salmela and Nagatsu detail various mechanisms of shared affect in joint action. These include first the affective rewards of various forms of behavioral and physiological synchrony as evidenced in several studies on motor behavior (Hove & Risen, 2009), body postures and gaze patterns (Shockley et al., 2009), facial expressions (Chartrand & Bargh, 1999), or heart rate (Vikhoff et al., 2013). Salmela and Nagatsu also discuss collective effervescence, the emergence of shared emotions in ritualistic social interactions as analyzed in the Durkheimian tradition of sociology (e.g., Collins, 2014), the pleasure derived from corresponding sentiments, as proposed by Adam Smith (2002[1759) and more recently Sugden (2002), and the way in which joint intentional activities can generate such corresponding sentiments. ...
Article
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The purpose of this article is to explore the role commitments may play in shaping our sense of joint agency. First, we propose that commitments may contribute to the generation of the sense of joint agency by stabilizing expectations and improving predictability. Second, we argue that commitments have a normative element that may bolster an agent's sense of control over the joint action and help counterbalance the potentially disruptive effects of asymmetries among agents. Finally, we discuss how commitments may contribute to make acting jointly emotionally rewarding, both by improving coordination and by inducing or reinforcing the circumstances under which shared emotions emerge among co‐agents.
... The personal traits of chameleon leadership can increase employees' susceptibility to external influences (Casali, 2008) that may hinder their adherence to chosen moral values. Simply perceiving or thinking about other people's behaviors, traits, or values creates a strong tendency to unconsciously engage in similar or related behaviors (Chartrand & Bargh, 1999). Using the chameleon approach involves analyzing the immediate environment to make the most appropriate decision (Tang, 2021;Williamson, 1975). ...
Article
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The primary aim of the current study is to identify the effect of chameleon leadership behaviors on the innovative behavior of staff in the health sector in the Sultanate of Oman, and examining if job security plays a mediating role in the relationship between chameleon leadership and innovative behavior. Data were collected using a questionnaire consisting of 282 employees working in healthcare organizations in Oman. The PLS-SEM methodology was performed used to test the proposed hypotheses. The results indicated that chameleon leadership behaviors (external control, and relativistic beliefs) have no effect on innovative behavior but have a positive effect of external control on job security. Moreover, job security has a direct positive impact on innovative behavior. In addition, the results showed that job security is not a factor in the relationship between chameleon leadership behaviors and innovative behavior. The study contributes to providing a deferent perspective to explore the behaviors of chameleon leadership in the Omani health sector to provide security and accelerating innovative systems to support a stable work environment.
... The view of this respondent is in line with the Socio-Cognitive (Theory) Mechanism which points out that, in social contexts, knowing that one is being-observed leads to modifications of behavior and often into socially-desirable-responses. The theory also proffers the view that when individuals are observed by rule or norm-enforcing agents this self-awareness effect is believed to be stronger, given the potentially negative implications for the rule violation (Chartrand & Bargh, 1999;Paulhus, 1988;Wicklund, 1975). ...
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In the quest for effective external control of police departments, several Caribbean countries have created civilian oversight of police agencies. These agencies facilitated external police accountability and enabled ordinary citizens to participate in the process of police control. While anec-dotal evidence suggests the presence of challenges and obstacles, there is a dearth of academic literature on civilian oversight of police agencies in the region. The current effort utilised a multi-phased case study approach in order to assess civilian oversight of police agencies in the Caribbean. Data were gathered from leaders of four civilian oversight of police agencies in three Small Island Developing States in the Caribbean. The findings emanating from the data suggest the presence of several challenges, advantages, and disadvantages associated with civilian oversight of police agencies in the countries under inquiry. These and other findings as well as recommendations for embracing civilian oversight of police agencies in the Caribbean are discussed.
... Several detailed reviews outline the downstream impacts of being mimicked (Chartrand & Lakin, 2012;Chartrand & van Baaren, 2009;Hale & Hamilton, 2016a; but see Hale & Hamilton, 2016b). Broadly being mimicked appears to build rapport and increase our liking for other people (Chartrand & Bargh, 1999;Stel & Vonk, 2010), and this effect is present from early in childhood (Meltzoff, 2007). Interestingly, this effect may persist even when the mimicker is a computer or virtual-reality agent (Bailenson & Yee, 2005;Suzuki et al., 2003; but see Hale & Hamilton, 2016b). ...
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Despite the recent increase in second-person neuroscience research, it is still hard to understand which neurocognitive mechanisms underlie real-time social behaviours. Here, we propose that social signalling can help us understand social interactions both at the single- and two-brain level in terms of social signal exchanges between senders and receivers. First, we show how subtle manipulations of being watched provide an important tool to dissect meaningful social signals. We then focus on how social signalling can help us build testable hypotheses for second-person neuroscience with the example of imitation and gaze behaviour. Finally, we suggest that linking neural activity to specific social signals will be key to fully understand the neurocognitive systems engaged during face-to-face interactions.
... For instance, social psychology researchers have found the phenomena of behavioral mimicry, emotional contagion, and attitudinal conformity to be pervasive and implicit in human behavior (Chartrand & Lakin, 2013;Hess & Fischer, 2014). Moreover, some authors contend that merely perceiving the specific behaviors of others automatically engenders the same behaviors in the perceiver, based on the shared schemas (Chartrand & Bargh, 1999), or shared representations (Barresi & Moore, 1996) of reality mechanisms. Such behaviors can also serve an adaptive purpose and may occur spontaneously, often without full awareness in an unfamiliar environment (Smith & Mackie, 2016), such as that presented by an SR. ...
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... One possible reason is that they may reciprocate with their appearance as equal contribution to the interaction. Such mimicry behavior has been documented by many researchers (for reviews, see [74,75]). Individuals tend to behave similarly with their communicative partners, and in many cases, they do so unconsciously. Another reason could be social conformity, which describes an act of changing one's behavior to match that of others. ...
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