ArticlePDF Available

Abstract and Figures

The present study examined the moderation effects of extraversion on the relationships between hiding and faking emotions, perceived satisfaction from intimate relationships, and reported physical health concerns. Four hundred and four Israeli participants, who were all involved in intimate relationships at the time of the study, responded to the Extraversion scale from the Big-Five Inventory, the DEELS to measure hiding and faking emotions, the SELF to assess physical health concerns, and the short version of the ENRICH to evaluate perceived satisfaction with intimate relationships. The mean age was 32.3 years (SD = 8.2); and the average length of time as a couple was 7.8 years (SD = 8.2). Of the participants, 198 were married (48.5%). The findings indicate that the effect of hiding negative emotions was stronger for perceived satisfaction with intimate relationships and physical health concerns than that for faking positive emotions. Extraverts who showed a higher frequency of hiding their negative emotions were significantly less satisfied with their relationships than introverts and they also tended to report more concerns with their physical health. These results were not found when extraverts reported a high frequency of faking positive emotions. These results are discussed in the context of the trait-behavior-concordance model and stress the importance of distinguishing faking from hiding.
Content may be subject to copyright.
This article was downloaded by: [Tali Seger]
On: 15 June 2015, At: 21:36
Publisher: Routledge
Informa Ltd Registered in England and Wales Registered Number: 1072954
Registered office: Mortimer House, 37-41 Mortimer Street, London W1T 3JH,
UK
Click for updates
The Journal of Psychology:
Interdisciplinary and Applied
Publication details, including instructions for
authors and subscription information:
http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/vjrl20
The Costs of Hiding and
Faking Emotions: The Case of
Extraverts and Introverts
Tali Seger-Guttmanna & Hana Medler-Lirazb
a Ruppin Academic Center
b Academic College of Tel-Aviv-Yaffo
Published online: 15 Jun 2015.
To cite this article: Tali Seger-Guttmann & Hana Medler-Liraz (2015): The Costs of
Hiding and Faking Emotions: The Case of Extraverts and Introverts, The Journal of
Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied, DOI: 10.1080/00223980.2015.1052358
To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00223980.2015.1052358
PLEASE SCROLL DOWN FOR ARTICLE
Taylor & Francis makes every effort to ensure the accuracy of all the
information (the “Content”) contained in the publications on our platform.
However, Taylor & Francis, our agents, and our licensors make no
representations or warranties whatsoever as to the accuracy, completeness,
or suitability for any purpose of the Content. Any opinions and views
expressed in this publication are the opinions and views of the authors, and
are not the views of or endorsed by Taylor & Francis. The accuracy of the
Content should not be relied upon and should be independently verified with
primary sources of information. Taylor and Francis shall not be liable for any
losses, actions, claims, proceedings, demands, costs, expenses, damages,
and other liabilities whatsoever or howsoever caused arising directly or
indirectly in connection with, in relation to or arising out of the use of the
Content.
This article may be used for research, teaching, and private study purposes.
Any substantial or systematic reproduction, redistribution, reselling, loan,
sub-licensing, systematic supply, or distribution in any form to anyone is
expressly forbidden. Terms & Conditions of access and use can be found at
http://www.tandfonline.com/page/terms-and-conditions
Downloaded by [Tali Seger] at 21:36 15 June 2015
The Journal of Psychology, 2015, 00(0), 1–20
Copyright C
2015 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
doi: 10.1080/00223980.2015.1052358
The Costs of Hiding and Faking
Emotions: The Case of Extraverts
and Introverts
TALI SEGER-GUTTMANN
Ruppin Academic Center
HANA MEDLER-LIRAZ
Academic College of Tel-Aviv-Yaffo
ABSTRACT. The present study examined the moderation effects of extraversion on the
relationships between hiding and faking emotions, perceived satisfaction from intimate
relationships, and reported physical health concerns. Four hundred and four Israeli partic-
ipants, who were all involved in intimate relationships at the time of the study, responded
to the Extraversion scale from the Big-Five Inventory, the DEELS to measure hiding and
faking emotions, the SELF to assess physical health concerns, and the short version of
the ENRICH to evaluate perceived satisfaction with intimate relationships. The mean age
was 32.3 years (SD =8.2); and the average length of time as a couple was 7.8 years
(SD =8.2). Of the participants, 198 were married (48.5%). The findings indicate that the
effect of hiding negative emotions was stronger for perceived satisfaction with intimate re-
lationships and physical health concerns than that for faking positive emotions. Extraverts
who showed a higher frequency of hiding their negative emotions were significantly less
satisfied with their relationships than introverts and they also tended to report more con-
cerns with their physical health. These results were not found when extraverts reported a
high frequency of faking positive emotions. These results are discussed in the context of
the trait-behavior-concordance model and stress the importance of distinguishing faking
from hiding.
Keywords: emotional work, extraversion/introversion, faking emotions, hiding emotions,
intimate relationships, physical health
RESEARCHERS HAVE INVESTIGATED the general traits of personality and
affectivity as predictors of satisfaction with intimate relationships (Malouff,
Thorsteinsson, Schutte, Bhullar, & Rooke, 2010; Watson, Hubbard, & Weise,
Address correspondence to Tali Seger-Guttmann, Ruppin Academic Center, Emek-Hefer
4025000, Israel; talis@ruppin.ac.il (e-mail).
Color versions of one or more of the figures in the article can be found online at www.
tandfonline.com/vjrl.
1
Downloaded by [Tali Seger] at 21:36 15 June 2015
2The Journal of Psychology
2000). There is strong support for the notion that satisfaction with intimate rela-
tionships mainly depends on the quality of communication within the relationship
(Fletcher & Thomas, 2000; Overall, Fletcher, Simpson, & Sibley, 2009). To ac-
count for emotional regulation in close relationships, the Arlie Hochschild (1983)
suggested the concept of “emotion work” (also called “emotion management”),
which refers to individuals’ ability to regulate and manage their feelings in accor-
dance with what is expected from them by family members, spouses, colleagues,
and friends. In the same manner, Cordova, Gee, and Warren (2005) discussed emo-
tional skillfulness as a key factor in building intimacy. Although the importance of
emotional regulation as a key success factor in healthy communication has been
amply documented, there is scant research on emotional work in the context of
intimate relationships.
The purpose of the present study was to better understand emotional work in
the context of intimate relationships. Watson et al. (2000) stated that “although
studies have examined the relationship between personality traits and satisfaction
in both marital couples and dating couples, few have analyzed the same set of trait
predictors in both types of relationships” (p. 419). Thus, the second purpose of
this study was to explore the costs of emotional work in married couples as well as
in dating couples. We first show the meaningfulness of the differentiation between
hiding and faking of emotions, and then test the possible differential effect of these
two emotional regulation strategies on extraverts’ and introverts’ reported satis-
faction with their intimate relationships, and the extent of their reported physical
health concerns.
Literature Review
The benefits of having intimate personal relationships are well known.
Married couples share instrumental activities (household tasks, raising a family,
earning money), but dating couples as well as married couples share an expres-
sive dimension that is often considered to be the core of a relationship (Sprecher,
Metts, Burleson, Hatfield, & Thompson, 1995). The expressive dimension of an
intimate relationship includes behaviors for maintaining the relationship close,
as well as affection and warmth, which contribute predominantly to satisfaction
from intimate relationships (Duck, 1992). Telling the intimate partner about one’s
feelings or experiences is known as self-disclosure (Sprecher & Hendrick, 2004).
Self-disclosure was found to be associated with positive communication in inti-
mate relationships for both dating and marital couples (Derlega, Metts, Petronio,
& Margulis, 1993). Previous studies have shown that the expression of positive
emotion is an important element in relationship intimacy (Mirgain & Cordova,
2007) and a robust predictor of relationship satisfaction (e.g., Watson et al., 2000).
In addition, the positive influence of displaying authentic emotions toward inti-
mate partners is well-documented (Clark & Brissette, 2003; Clark & Finkel, 2005;
Downloaded by [Tali Seger] at 21:36 15 June 2015
Seger-Guttmann & Medler-Liraz 3
De-Greeff, Burnett, & Cooley, 2009; Lopez & Rice, 2006; Yoo, Clark, Lemay,
Salovey, & Monin, 2011).
However, not all displays are authentic. Hiding as well as faking emotions is
two of the major forms of non-authentic displays. The personal costs of hiding and
faking emotions have rarely been differentiated (e.g., Glomb & Tews, 2004; Pugh,
Groth, & Hennig-Thurau, 2011). One recent study that distinguished between these
concepts and thus further contributed to validating their differential influence was
reported by Lee and Brotheridge (2011) who investigated child care workers. They
found that experienced workers hid their feelings more frequently than did their
less experienced counterparts and that the need to express positive emotions was
associated with faking emotions.
Although it is clear that hiding and faking emotions are possible (Lee &
Brotheridge, 2011), their consequences are less so. John and Gross (2004) pointed
out that hiding may “ ... not reduce the experience of negative emotion but
they [the negative feelings] may in fact continue to linger and accumulate un-
resolved” (p. 349). These authors argued that retaining these bad feelings can
clamp down on the expression of positive emotions. Failure to respond to on-
going demands for emotional expressions within the range that is socially ex-
pected, accepted and tolerated is considered pathological (e.g., Baumeister & Vohs,
2004).
Hiding and faking emotions are commonplace and are primarily motivated
by people’s desire to comply with social and cultural norms and the expectations
of significant others. However, inauthentic displays of emotions may also stem
from individuals’ wishes to convey a certain image or protect their self-esteem,
manipulate others’ responses, or avoid possible unpleasant reactions on the part
of others (De-Greeff et al., 2009). The benefits of hiding negative emotions and
or faking positive ones may also be based on the assumption that people who tend
to express negative emotions are viewed as less likable, less friendly, and less
popular than those who hide these emotions or fake positive ones (Sloan, 2007;
Sommers, 1984).
Regardless of the specific motivation for hiding and faking, there may be a
price to pay. Previous studies have shown that purposeful regulatory processes
are effortful and deplete mental resources (Baumeister, Bratslavsky, Muraven,
& Tice, 1998; Muraven, Tice, & Baumeister, 1998). Studies have reported that
the suppression of negative emotions and or faking of positive emotions led to a
lower perception of self-authenticity (Brotheridge & Lee, 2003; Simpson & Stroh,
2004), which in turn generated depressed moods and stress (Erickson & Wharton,
1997; Gross & John, 2003; Sheldon, Ryan, Rawsthorne, & Ilardi, 1997). Hiding
may not help minimize negative emotional experiences, which thus may remain
unresolved and lead to lower levels of well-being (Gross & John, 2003). Hiding
authentic feelings can lead to emotional dissonance, which arises in situations
that create an inconsistency between self-concept and behavior (Harmon-Jones
& Mills, 1999), which may also deplete personal coping resources due to felt
Downloaded by [Tali Seger] at 21:36 15 June 2015
4The Journal of Psychology
stress (Zapf, 2002). Stress also increases intimate partners’ negative perceptions,
resulting in a decrease in their satisfaction with the relationship (Neff & Karney,
2004). This provides a rational basis for the notion that hiding negative emotions
may be negatively related to satisfaction with an intimate relationship.
However, satisfaction is a subjective phenomenon on which is a mainly based
on internal process within the individual (e.g., trait characteristics; Watson et al.,
2000). In this regard, Heller, Watson, and Iles (2004) found that greater ex-
traversion was associated with greater intimate relationship satisfaction. In their
meta-analytical study, Malouff et al. (2010) also noted that extraversion was as-
sociated with intimate relationship satisfaction and that this finding did not differ
significantly between married and unmarried individuals.
These findings make sense when taking into account the definition of ex-
traversion. Studies have suggested that in general, more extraverted people are
described as happier, more active, outgoing, assertive, and gregarious, whereas in-
troverts are depicted as more quiet, passive, and less sociable (Hermes, Hagemann,
& Naumann, 2011; Wilt & Revelle, 2009). Extraverts were found to be better in
preserving positive moods when these occur and were happier than individuals
low on extraversion (Hemenover, 2003; Lischetzke & Eid, 2006).
Numerous studies have tested extraverts’ and introverts’ emotional and be-
havioral reactions to various situations (e.g., Zelenski, Santoro, & Whelan, 2012).
For instance, White, Hendrick, aand Hendrick (2004) reported that extraversion
was positively associated with partner satisfaction and intimacy.
Nevertheless, few studies have examined the possible differences in the out-
comes of these two emotional regulation strategies (i.e., hiding emotions and
faking emotions). In fact, to the best of our knowledge, no study has investigated
hiding separately from faking emotions in extraverts and introverts or the effects of
these emotional strategies on them in the personal domain. In the area of intimate
relationships, although they did not study the level of partners’ extraversion, the
Cordova et al. (2005) findings support the significant role of emotional regula-
tion in terms of the quality of intimate relationships. The authors argued that the
ability to express emotions, identify, and manage challenging emotions is pos-
itively correlated with intimate relationship quality. However, in a work-related
area and within the personality congruency perspective, Judge, Flugge-Woolf,
and Hurst (2009) investigated extraverts and introverts who faked emotions in
terms of the surface acting and deep acting constructs. They reported that surface
acting (faking emotions) ...is generally more difficult and less rewarding for
introverts compared to extraverts” (p. 80). They found that faking emotions had
fewer negative effects (i.e., emotional exhaustion) on extravert service providers
than on introverts. Their results support the personality congruency perspective
(Feelson, 2004) that posits that emotional regulation should be less stressful for in-
dividuals who are asked to exhibit congruent personality emotions; Bono and Vey
(2007) reported that individuals high on extraversion experienced elevated heart
rates when asked to express personality-incongruent emotions (i.e., anger). The
Downloaded by [Tali Seger] at 21:36 15 June 2015
Seger-Guttmann & Medler-Liraz 5
notion of trait behavior concordance is the theoretical basis of the present work.
This model predicts that when individuals engage in trait-concordant behavior
they experience more positive affect than when they engage in trait-inconsistent
behavior (see Little, 2000; Moskowitz & Cˆ
ot´
e, 1995). In the present study, faking
of positive emotions was assumed to be more congruent with extraverts’ than
with introverts’ behavior (Bono & Vey; Judge et al., 2009). While hiding emo-
tions is part of the definition of introversion, it is assumed to fit introverts better
than extraverts (Fleeson, Malanos, & Achille 2002; Zelenski et al.). Thus, when
extraverts and introverts act in ways that conflict with their personality traits,
they may deplete self-control resources, which is why people seldom engage in
such behavior (Little & Joseph, 2007). In a recent work, Zelenski and colleagues
examined the emotional and cognitive consequences of acting counter to one’s
emotional disposition. The authors found that when extraverts were assigned to
act like introverts (e.g., restrain their responses or hide their negative emotions) this
produced poor performance, low persistence, and poor decision making, and led
to low levels of positive emotions, which made it difficult to restore resources. An
earlier study by Fleeson et al. (2002) examined whether “acting extraverted” could
be as “good” as being extraverted. The authors asked dispositional individuals low
on extraversion to “act out of character” and found that this led to high negative
costs. When extraverts were told to act introverted (e.g., restrain their responses or
hide their negative emotions) they suffered from both depletion and low positive
emotions.
Hence, acting counter to these inner tendencies, even though obviously po-
tentially attractive, has high costs, demands more self-control, and may cause
more stress than in cases of congruity between characteristics and behavior (Vohs,
Baumeister, & Ciarocco, 2005). We therefore assumed that when extraverts and
introverts behave in accordance with their character they should report more sat-
isfaction with their intimate relationships and fewer physical health concerns. It
is clear that the extraversion trait is a crucial one that impinges on both emotional
strategies (e.g., Judge et al., 2009; Zelenski et al., 2012). Furthermore, previous
findings have demonstrated the importance of extraversion in intimate relation-
ships (Malouff et al., 2010).
Purpose of the Current Study
This review of literature suggests that hiding negative emotions and fak-
ing positive ones are two separate strategies individuals use to manage their
emotions. While the motivation for hiding and faking has been documented,
there may be a different price to pay for each. The personal costs of hid-
ing and faking emotions are rarely differentiated and scarcely studied. There-
fore, this study aimed to examine dispositional extraversion as a moderator of
the relationships between faking emotions and hiding emotions in intimate re-
lations, perceived satisfaction with intimate relationships and reported health
concerns.
Downloaded by [Tali Seger] at 21:36 15 June 2015
6The Journal of Psychology
We put forward the following hypotheses:
Hypothesis 1: The negative relationship between hiding negative emotions and
perceived satisfaction with intimate relationships is moderated by individual
extraversion, such that the relationship will be stronger for individuals high on
extraversion.
Hypothesis 2: The negative relationship between faking positive emotions and
perceived satisfaction with intimate relationships is moderated by individual
extraversion, such that the relationship will be weaker for individuals high on
extraversion.
Hypothesis 3: The positive relationship between hiding negative emotions and
reported physical health concerns is moderated by individual extraversion, such
that the relationship will be stronger for individuals high on extraversion.
Hypothesis 4: The positive relationship between faking positive emotions and
reported physical health concerns is moderated by individual extraversion, such
that the relationship will be weaker for individuals high on extraversion.
Method
Sample and Procedure
The sample consisted of 404 Israeli participants who stated that they had
been in a significant intimate relationship for at least the previous six months
(to ensure sufficient acquaintance). Of the participants, 217 were females (54%)
and 187 were males (46%). The mean age was 32.3 years (SD =8.2 years); and
the average length of time as a couple was 7.9 years (SD =8.2 years). Of the
participants, 198 were married (49.1%), 52 (12.9%) were living together, and 153
(38.0%) were in a relationship.
Research seminar students distributed survey questionnaires as part of their
course requirements and were given a letter explaining the study and providing
instructions about data collection. They were instructed not to distribute the sur-
vey to partners in the same relationship to avoid violation of the assumption of
independence. The students administered the questionnaires to participants after
obtaining their consent. The participants were informed that the study was about
“attitudes about their relationship with their partners.” Confidentiality was guaran-
teed; the data were viewed only by the researchers. Respondents were requested to
place the completed questionnaires in an unmarked envelope to ensure anonymity.
The students then returned the sealed envelopes with the completed surveys to the
authors (they were told that breaking the seal would invalidate the questionnaires).
Measures
Self-report surveys were administered to the respondents that measured ex-
traversion, hiding negative emotions, faking positive emotions, satisfaction with
the participants’ intimate relationship, and physical health concerns. They also
Downloaded by [Tali Seger] at 21:36 15 June 2015
Seger-Guttmann & Medler-Liraz 7
completed a demographic survey. We used the back translation method (Brislin,
1970): the items were translated into Hebrew by the first author and then inde-
pendently retranslated into English by the second author. The translated version
was compared to the original English version, after which the authors discussed
differences and finalized an agreed-upon version.
Extraversion was measured using John, Donahue, and Kentle’s questionnaire
(1991).
We used the Hebrew version employed by Etzion and Laski (1998). This scale
is made up of eight items reflecting typical behaviors (e.g., full of energy, tendency
to be quiet [reversed], shy [reversed]). Respondents were asked to indicate how
well each behavior described them. Responses were on a 7-point scale ranging
from (1 =“not at all” to 7 =“a great deal”). High scores indicate individuals
high on extraversion and low scores represent low extraversion. Responses were
summed to arrive at a trait score. The Cronbach alpha was 0.78.
Hiding negative emotions was measured using Glomb and Tews’ (2004)
Discrete Emotions Emotional Labor Scale (DEELS). This scale is made up of nine
items. Participants were asked to what extent they hid the following emotions rather
than expressed them toward their partner. Sample items included “nervousness,”
“anxiety,” and “hate,” rated on a 5-point scale (1 =“I never keep this emotion
to myself”; 5 =“I keep this emotion to myself several times during the day”).
Participants could select zero in cases where they felt that they “never feel this
emotion.” Zero was recoded as a missing value. The reliability was 0.91.
Faking positive emotions was measured by four items from the DEELS that
characterized the respondents’ ability to express emotions that they did not actually
feel toward their partners. Sample items included “happiness,” “concern,” and
“love,” rated on a 5-point scale (1 =“never express this feeling”; 5 =I “express
this feeling several times during the day when I do not feel it”). The Cronbach
alpha was 0.89.
Perceived intimate relationship satisfaction was measured using the ENRICH
marital satisfaction scale developed by Fowers and Olson (1992). We used the
short version (9 items), developed and translated by Lavie (1995). Sample items
included “I’m pleased with my spouse’s [partner’s] behavior” and “I’m pleased
with the expression of love between me and my spouse” that were ranked on a
5-point scale (1 =“not at all”; 5 =“a great deal”). The Cronbach alpha was 0.79.
Reported physical health concerns were measured using the Self Evaluation
of Life Function (SELF) scale described by Linn and Linn (1984). Participants
were asked to what extent they suffered from each of the physical problems on the
list (13 items). Sample items included “headache,” “indigestion,” and “fatigue.
All items were rated on a 5-point scale (1 =“not at all true of me”; 5 =“very true
of me”). The Cronbach alpha was 0.83.
Control variables were also measured to reduce the possibility of other factors
affecting the results. Based on the literature, these included: respondents’ gender,
age, length of the relationship, and number of children. It has been suggested that
Downloaded by [Tali Seger] at 21:36 15 June 2015
8The Journal of Psychology
women are more sociable and empathic and therefore have better communication
skills than men (Deery, Iverson, & Walsh, 2002), which may affect satisfaction
level in a relationship. Older respondents are more mature and more capable of
managing relationships. It is also reasonable to assume that the longer a rela-
tionship, the better spouses know which emotions need to be hidden or faked.
In addition, research suggests that satisfaction from marriage decreases after the
birth of the first child (Guttmann & Lazar, 2004).
Results
Preliminary Data Analyses
Given that the data were collected from a single source, procedures rec-
ommended by Podsakoff, MacKenzie, Lee, and Podsakoff (2003) were used to
rule out the influence of common method bias. The Harman one-factor test, the
most common technique for addressing common method variance, was employed
(Podsakoff et al.). Comparison of the one-factor solution with a five-factor solu-
tion (extraversion, hiding negative emotions, faking positive emotions, health, and
satisfaction) indicated that the single-factor model did not fit the data well (χ2=
3009.1 on 723 degrees of freedom; CFI =0.67; IFI =0.67; TLI =0.62; RMSEA
=0.09) and was, in fact, significantly worse (χ2(9)=1469.2, p<.001) than
the five-factor solution.
Testing the Research Model
The means, standard deviations, and correlations for the research variables
are presented in Table 1.
First, we hypothesized that extraversion would moderate the relationship be-
tween hiding negative emotions and perceived intimate relationship satisfaction. A
hierarchical regression analysis was conducted. Respondents’ gender, age, length
of relationship, and number of children were used as control variables in the first
step; hiding negative emotions and extraversion were entered in the second step;
and the interaction term (hiding negative emotions ×extraversion) was entered
in the third step. The independent variables were centered on their respective
means to reduce the multicollinearity between the main effects and the interaction
term and increase the interpretability of the beta-weights of the interaction terms
(Cohen & Cohen, 1983); this linear transformation has no effect on multiple R
coefficients or beta-weights for the main effects.
As seen in Table 2, extraversion significantly moderated the relationship
between hiding negative emotions and perceived intimate relationship satisfaction
(β=–.58, t=–3.08, p<.01). The plot presented in Figure 1 suggests that the
negative relationship between hiding negative emotions and perceived intimate
relationship satisfaction was moderated by extraversion, such that the relationship
was stronger for individuals high in extraversion. Using the procedure outlined
in Pugh et al. (2011) and Zhang and Bartol (2010), a simple slopes test was
Downloaded by [Tali Seger] at 21:36 15 June 2015
Seger-Guttmann & Medler-Liraz 9
TABLE 1. Means, Standard Deviations, and Correlations
Var i a b l e MSD 12345678
1. Gender
2. Age 32.26 8.25 –.05 —
3. Length of relationship 7.93 8.22 .06 .79∗∗∗
4. Number of children 0.25 1.22 .13∗∗ .67∗∗∗ .73∗∗∗
5. Extraversion 4.06 0.86 .10 –.09 –.10 –.10
6. Hiding negative emotions 1.66 0.76 –.05 .16∗∗ .16∗∗ .21∗∗∗ .25∗∗∗
7. Faking positive emotions 1.84 0.90 –.06 .04 .03 .00 .02 .35∗∗∗
8. Health 1.86 0.58 .17∗∗∗ .04 .03 .13∗∗ .11.33∗∗∗ .19∗∗∗
9. Satisfaction 3.68 0.61 .18∗∗∗ .33∗∗∗ .28∗∗∗ .31∗∗∗ .21∗∗∗ .38∗∗∗ .16∗∗ .15∗∗
Note. N =409. p<.05. ∗∗ p<.01. ∗∗∗p<.001.
Downloaded by [Tali Seger] at 21:36 15 June 2015
10 The Journal of Psychology
TABLE 2. Moderating Effects of Extraversion on the Association Between
Hiding Negative Emotions and Satisfaction
Variables Step 1 Step 2 Step 3
Intercept 3.80(.19) 3.85(.23) 3.09(.33)
Gender .20∗∗∗(.06) .18∗∗∗(.06) .17∗∗∗(.05)
Age –.16(.01) –.11(.01) –.12(.01)
Length of relationship .01(.01) .02(.01) .01(.01)
Number of children .23∗∗(.04) –.18∗∗(.03) –.19∗∗(.03)
Hiding negative emotions .28∗∗∗(.04) .28(.15)
Extraversion .08(.03) .35∗∗∗(.07)
Hiding negative emotion ×
Extraversion
.58∗∗(.04)
R2.09 .02
R2.16 .25 .27
F19.40∗∗∗ 22.81∗∗∗ 21.32∗∗∗
Note. N =409. Values are standardized coefficients, with standard errors in parentheses. p<
.05. ∗∗p<.01. ∗∗∗p<.001.
conducted. It confirmed that hiding negative emotions had a stronger negative
effect on perceived intimate relationship satisfaction when extraversion was high
(z=–8.10, p<.01) than when extraversion was low (z=–3.95, p<.01).
Consequently, the first hypothesis was supported.
The second hypothesis was that extraversion would moderate the relationship
between faking positive emotions and perceived intimate relationship satisfaction.
A similar analysis to the previous one was conducted. The results, presented in
Table 3, did not support this claim (β=–.10, t=–.39, p>.05; see also Figure 2).
We also predicted that extraversion would moderate the relationship between
hiding negative emotions and reported physical health concerns. As seen in Table 4,
extraversion significantly interacted with hiding negative emotions to influence re-
ported physical health concerns (β=.66, t=3.36, p<.01). The plot presented
in Figure 3 suggests that the negative relationship between hiding negative emo-
tions and reported physical health concerns was reversed such that hiding negative
emotions was positively related to physical health concerns for individuals who
were high on extraversion but was negatively related for individuals who were
low on extraversion. Simple slopes tests confirmed that hiding negative emotions
had a positive effect on physical health problems when extraversion was high
(z=7.32, p<.01) but this effect was reversed for those with low extraversion
(z=–3.52, p<.01). Thus, this prediction (Hypothesis 3) was supported.
Last, we predicted that extraversion would moderate the relationship be-
tween faking positive emotions and reported physical health concerns. As seen
Downloaded by [Tali Seger] at 21:36 15 June 2015
Seger-Guttmann & Medler-Liraz 11
FIGURE 1. Moderating effects of extraversion on the association between
hiding negative emotions and satisfaction.
FIGURE 2. Moderating effects of extraversion on the association between
faking positive emotions and satisfaction.
Downloaded by [Tali Seger] at 21:36 15 June 2015
12 The Journal of Psychology
TABLE 3. Moderating Effects of Extraversion on the Association Between
Faking Positive Emotions and Satisfaction
Variables Step 1 Step 2 Step 3
Intercept 3.80(.19) 3.60(.22) 3.50(.35)
Gender .20∗∗∗(.06) .18∗∗∗(.06) .17∗∗∗(.06)
Age –.16(.01) –.16(.01) –.17(.01)
Length of relationship .01(.01) .02(.01) .02(.01)
Number of children .23∗∗(.04) –.23∗∗(.03) –.23∗∗(.03)
Faking positive emotions .15∗∗(.03) –.06(.15)
Extraversion .15∗∗(.03) .19(.07)
Faking positive emotion ×
Extraversion
.10(.04)
R2.05 .00
R2.16 .21 .21
F19.40∗∗∗ 17.10∗∗∗ 14.65∗∗∗
Note. N =409. Values are standardized coefficients, with standard errors in parentheses. p<
.05. ∗∗p<.01. ∗∗∗p<.001.
in Table 5, extraversion significantly interacted with faking positive emotions to
influence physical health concerns (β=.64, t=2.44, p<.05). The plot, pre-
sented in Figure 4, suggests that the negative relationship between faking positive
emotions and physical health problems was moderated by extraversion, such that
FIGURE 3. Moderating effects of extraversion on the association between
hiding negative emotions and physical health problems.
Downloaded by [Tali Seger] at 21:36 15 June 2015
Seger-Guttmann & Medler-Liraz 13
TABLE 4. Moderating Effects of Extraversion on the Association Between
Hiding Negative Emotions and Physical Health Problems
Variables Step 1 Step 2 Step 3
Intercept 1.48(.19) 1.28(.23) 2.10(.33)
Gender .16∗∗(.06) .18∗∗∗(.06) .19∗∗∗(.05)
Age .05(.01) .01(.01) .01(.01)
Length of relationship .17(.01) –.13(.01) –.15(.01)
Number of children .20∗∗(.03) .14(.03) .16(.03)
Hiding negative emotions .33∗∗∗(.04) –.33(.15)
Extraversion –.05(.03) –.36∗∗(.07)
Hiding negative emotion ×
Extraversion
.66∗∗(.04)
R2.11 .02
R2.05 .16 .18
F5.39∗∗∗ 12.62∗∗∗ 12.71∗∗∗
Note. N =409. Values are standardized coefficients, with standard errors in parentheses.
p<.05. ∗∗p<.01. ∗∗∗p<.001.
the relationship was weaker for individuals high in extraversion. Simple slopes
tests confirmed that faking positive emotions had a positive effect on physical
health problems when extraversion was high (z=4.11, p<.01). However, the
test did not reach significance for low extraversion (z=1.64, p>.05). Thus, this
prediction was partially supported.
Discussion
The current study emphasizes the influence of emotional work on intimate
relationships. Intimate couples need to deal with intense emotions such as jealousy,
hostility, and fear; however some ways are better than others. From this point of
view, it is not the specific emotion that affects the quality of the relationship, but
how one has learned to hide, fake or express these emotions. Although there is
growing evidence concerning satisfaction with intimate relationships in previous
research, as far as we know no study has examined the association between
partners’ regulation of negative emotions separately from positive emotions and
either satisfaction from intimate relationships or health concerns. Furthermore, we
were interested in whether one form of emotional regulation (i.e., hiding negative
emotions) would be more strongly related to satisfaction than the other (faking
Downloaded by [Tali Seger] at 21:36 15 June 2015
14 The Journal of Psychology
TABLE 5. Moderating Effects of Extraversion on the Association Between
Faking Positive Emotions and Physical Health Problems
Variables Step 1 Step 2 Step 3
Intercept 1.48(.19) 1.55(.19) 2.18(.35)
Gender .16∗∗(.06) .19∗∗∗(.06) .21∗∗∗(.06)
Age .05(.01) .05(.01) .05(.01)
Length of relationship .17(.01) –.19(.01) –.20(.01)
Number of children .20∗∗(.03) .20∗∗(.03) .20∗∗(.03)
Faking positive emotions .21∗∗∗(.03) –.35(.15)
Extraversion –.13(.03) –.38∗∗(.08)
Faking positive emotions ×
Extraversion
.64(.04)
R2.06 .01
R2.05 .11 .12
F5.39∗∗∗ 8.29∗∗∗ 8.04∗∗∗
Note. N =409. Values are standardized coefficients, with standard errors in parentheses. p<
.05. ∗∗p<.01. ∗∗∗p<.001.
positive emotions), and whether extraversion would moderate the relationship
between hiding and faking emotions and satisfaction with intimate relationships.
The results supported our main claim that the association between emotional
regulation strategies (hiding and faking) and the price paid for enacting them is
moderated by the extent of a person’s extraversion. Hence, the findings underscore
the importance of differentiating between hiding and faking as separate emotional
strategies in a relationship.
Our results showed that hiding emotions resulted in less satisfaction with
intimate relationships and a lower level of reported physical health concerns. These
findings are consistent with claims made by John and Gross (2004) who argued
that since suppression comes late in the emotion-generative process, it requires the
individual to make efforts to continually manage emotional responses as they arise.
These repeated efforts “burn” cognitive resources that could otherwise be used
for more favorable functions in the social contexts in which the emotions arise.
The findings concerning hiding are also congruent with the John and Gross (2004)
report that as hiding negative emotions is an effortful form of self regulation, the
physiological costs may be high.
The fact that both strategies significantly related to less satisfaction with
intimate relationships links our results to previous research on the importance
and significance of authenticity in close relationships (Clark & Finkel, 2005;
De-Greeff et al., 2009; Lopez & Rice, 2006). However, our findings also indicated
that this generalization should be reconsidered since in the current study the
Downloaded by [Tali Seger] at 21:36 15 June 2015
Seger-Guttmann & Medler-Liraz 15
FIGURE 4. Moderating effects of extraversion on the association between
faking positive emotions and physical health problems.
results of hiding and faking emotion depended, to some extent, on the interacting
partner’s level of extraversion. More specifically, the results showed that the more
extraverted the person who hides, the higher the price in terms of the degree
of intimate relationship satisfaction as well as physical health. By contrast, for
individuals low on extraversion, hiding was negatively related to physical health
concerns. This difference is also consistent with previous studies (Zelenski et al.,
2012). We found that when individuals low on extraversion and individuals high on
extraversion behave in accordance with their character, neither pays such a price.
Thus, when individuals high on extraversion fake emotions, this may represent
a part of the social game that extraverts often play and does not go against the
grain; we found that the positive relationship between faking and physical health
concerns was weaker for high extraverts. On the other hand, individuals low on
extraversion can hide negative emotions and pay a lesser price for it.
Although the extraversion trait had a high moderating effect in the case of
hiding negative emotions and perceived intimate relationship satisfaction, unex-
pectedly it was not found to moderate the association between faking positive
emotions and satisfaction with intimate relationships. This finding may be due to
a feature pointed out by Zelenski and colleagues (2012) that in interpersonal rela-
tions, introverts (low on extraversion) were found to enjoy a high level of positive
emotions when they acted like extraverts (faking), which may buffer the potentially
depleting effects of counter-dispositional behavior. As Zelenski et al. mentioned:
...dispositional introverts may indeed benefit from acting extraverted” (p. 290).
Downloaded by [Tali Seger] at 21:36 15 June 2015
16 The Journal of Psychology
Thus, although faking for an introvert is an effort and out of character, their faked
positive emotions most likely provide them with a buffer in their relationships
(Vohs et al., 2005).
The positive relationships between hiding and faking represent a tendency
to use both strategies simultaneously; however, the low strength of this relation-
ship indicates that these are two relatively independent strategies. Our findings
regarding the different consequences of hiding negative emotions compared to
faking positive emotions highlight this idea and the need to continue exploring
these emotional strategies separately from one another, not only in work contexts
(Brotheridge & Lee, 2003) but in the interpersonal context as well.
Limitations
Inferences from this study are limited by the cross-sectional design, which
precludes making the kind of causal statements on the nature of relationships
afforded by longitudinal or experimental studies. For example, the assumption is
that hiding and faking emotions relates negatively to perceived satisfaction from
intimate relationships and reported physical health concerns. It is also possible,
however, that high perceived satisfaction from the relationship may decrease the
need to fake or hide emotions. Future research could study the reverse direction.
Despite these limitations, this study is one of the first to examine the potential
costs (decrease in satisfaction with intimate relationships and more physical health
concerns) caused by implementing hiding or faking emotional strategies. More
specifically, the data show that the costs of hiding are greater than the costs of
faking. Nevertheless, studies of perceived intimate relationship satisfaction and
physical health concerns should not only take the emotional strategies used by an
intimate partner into consideration, but also individual personalities (e.g., level of
extraversion). Hence, as hiding is more natural to individuals low on extraversion
in general, low extraversion individuals “pay” a lesser price when they hide their
negative emotions; however, individuals high on extraversion “pay” a higher price
in terms of their physical health when they fake their emotions. In comparison
to individuals low on extraversion, extraverts appear to suffer more from health
problems and to report lower satisfaction with their intimate partner when they
hide negative emotions. This relates to a higher level of hiding negative emotions,
as individuals low on extraversion (who hide emotions as part of their character)
are less affected by health problems.
This study may contribute to a better understanding and thus to our ability to
predict extraverts’ and introverts’ behavior in intimate relationships. The fact that
we found that extraversion moderates the effect of hiding and faking sheds light
on these two separate emotional regulation mechanisms. This work and studies
like it may help therapists and counselors develop a deeper understanding of the
interplay between emotional regulation styles (i.e., faking and hiding emotions)
and personality style, and hence contribute to improving the quality of couples’
Downloaded by [Tali Seger] at 21:36 15 June 2015
Seger-Guttmann & Medler-Liraz 17
relationships. Last, in terms of future work, this study examined extraversion;
research should be extended to other personality traits as well.
AUTHOR NOTES
Tali Seger-Guttmann is a senior lecturer at Ruppin Academic Center. Her
research interests focuses on emotional work in various types of relationships,
emotional-service encounters, customer experience, and emotions in the work-
place. Hana Medler-Liraz is a senior lecturer at Academic College of Tel-Aviv-
Yaffo. Her current research focuses on emotions and behavior in organizations and
on the dynamics of service delivery, especially the interactions between service
providers and their customers.
REFERENCES
Baumeister, R. F., Bratslavsky, E., Muraven, M., & Tice, D. (1998). Ego depletion: Is
the active self a limited resource? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,74,
1252–1265. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.74.5.1252
Baumeister, R. F., & Vohs, K. D. (Eds.). (2004). Handbook of self-regulation: Re-
search, theory, and applications (pp. 283–300). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
doi:10.5860/choice.42-3719
Bono, J. E., & Vey, M. A. (2007). Personality and emotional performance: Extraver-
sion, neuroticism, and self-monitoring. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology,12,
177–192. doi:10.1037/1076-8998.12.2.177
Brislin, R. W. (1970). Back-translation for cross-cultural research. Journal of Cross-
Cultural Psychology,1, 185–216. doi:10.1177/135910457000100301
Brotheridge, C. M., & Lee, R. T. (2002). Testing a conservation of resources model of the
dynamics of emotional labor. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology,7, 57–67.
doi:10.1037/1076-8998.7.1.57
Brotheridge, C. M., & Lee, R. T. (2003). Development and validation of the Emotional
Labor Scale. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology,76, 365–379.
doi:10.1348/096317903769647229
Clark, M. S., & Brissette, I. (2003). Two types of relationship closeness and their influence
on people’s emotional lives. In R. J. Davidson, K. R. Scherer, & H. H. Goldsmith (Eds.),
Handbook of affective sciences (pp. 824–838). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Clark, M. S., & Finkel, E. J. (2005). Type of relationship, relationship orientation, and
their interaction as determinants of willingness to express emotions. Journal of Personal
Relationships,12, 169–180. doi:10.1111/j.1350-4126.2005.00109.x
Cohen, J., & Cohen, P. (1983). Applied multiple regression/correlation analysis for the
behavioral sciences, 2nd ed. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. doi:10.4324/9781410606266
Deery, S., Iverson, R., & Walsh, J. (2002). Work relationships in telephone call centers:
Understanding emotional exhaustion and employee withdrawal. Journal of Management
Studies,39, 471–496. doi:10.1111/1467-6486.00300
Deery, S., Iverson, R., & Walsh, J. (2002). Work relationships in telephone call centers:
Understanding emotional exhaustion and employee withdrawal. Journal of Management
Studies,39, 471–496. doi:10.1111/1467-6486.00300
De-Greeff, B. L., Burnett, A., & Cooley, D. (2009). Communicating and philosophizing
about authenticity and inauthenticity in a fast-paced world. Journal of Happiness Studies,
11, 395–408. doi:10.1007/s10902-009-9147-4
Downloaded by [Tali Seger] at 21:36 15 June 2015
18 The Journal of Psychology
Derlega, V. J., Metts, S., Petronio, S., & Margulis, S. T. (1993). Self-disclosure.Newbury
Park, CA: Sage.
Duck, S. (1992). Human relationships (2nd ed).Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Erickson, R. J., & Wharton, A. S. (1997). Inauthenticity and depression. Work and Occu-
pations,24, 188–213. doi:10.1177/0730888497024002004
Etzion, D., & Laski, S. (1998). Hebrew version by permission of the “Big Five”
Inventory—Versions 5a and 54. Tel Aviv University, Faculty of management, the In-
stitute of Business Research. Retrieved from PsycARTICLES database.
Feelson, W. (2004). Moving personality beyond the person situation debate: The challenge
and the opportunity of with-in person variability. Current Directions in Psychological
Science,13, 83–87. doi:10.1111/j.0963-7214.2004.00280.x
Fleeson, W., Malanos, A. B., & Achille, N. M. (2002). An intraindividual process ap-
proach to the relationship between extraversion and positive affect: Is acting extraverted
as “good” as being extraverted? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,83,
1409–1422. doi:10.1037//0022-3514.83.6.1409
Fletcher, G. J. O., & Thomas, G. (2000). Behavior and on-line cognition in mar-
ital interaction. Personal Relationships,7, 111–130. doi:10.1111/j.1475-6811.2000.
tb00007.x
Fowers, B. J., & Olson, D. H. (1992). ENRICH marital satisfaction scale: A brief re-
search and clinical tool. Journal of Family Psychology,7, 176–185. doi:10.1037//0893-
3200.7.2.176
Glomb, T. M., & Tews, M. J. (2004). Emotional labor: A conceptualization and
scale development. Journal of Vocational Behavior,64(1), 1–23. doi:10.1016/s0001-
8791(03)00038-1
Gross, J. J., & John, O. P. (2003). Individual differences in two emotion regulation processes:
Implications for affect, relationships, and well-being. Journal of Personality and Social
Psychology,85(2), 348–362. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.85.2.348
Guttmann, J., & Lazar, A. (2004). Criteria for marital satisfaction: Does having a child
make a difference? Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology,22, 147–155.
doi:10.1080/02646830410001723733
Harmon, J., & Mills, J. (1999). Cognitive dissonance: Progress on a pivotal theory in social
psychology. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Hemenover, S. H. (2003). Individual differences in rate of affect change: Studies in
affective chronometry. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,85, 121–131.
doi:10.1037/0022-3514.85.1.121
Hemenover, S. H. (2003). Individual differences in rate of affect change: Studies in
affective chronometry. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,85, 121–131.
doi:10.1037/0022-3514.85.1.121
Hermes, M., Hagemann, D., & Naumann, E. (2011). Extraversion and its positive
emotional core—further evidence from neuroscience. Emotion,11(2), 367–378. doi:
10.1037/a0021550
Hochschild, A. (1983). The Managed Heart. Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA: University of
California Press.
John, O. P., Donahue, E. M., & Kentle, R. I. (1991). The “Big Five” Inventory—Versions
5a and 54. Technical Report. Berkeley, CA: Berkeley University Institute of Personality
and Social Psychology.
John, O. P., & Gross, J. J. (2004). Healthy and unhealthy emotion regulation: Personality
processes, individual differences, and lifespan development. Journal of Personality,72,
1301–1334. doi:10.1111/j.1467-6494.2004.00298.x
Judge, T. A., Fluegge-Woolf, E., & Hurst, C. (2009). Is emotional labor more difficult for
some than for others? A multilevel, experience-sampling study. Personnel Psychology,
62, 57–88. doi:10.1111/j.1744-6570.2008.01129.x
Downloaded by [Tali Seger] at 21:36 15 June 2015
Seger-Guttmann & Medler-Liraz 19
Lavie, I. (1995). Marriage Satisfaction Scale (MSS) - Clinical and research use. The
25th Annual Meeting of Psychologist Association, Ben-Gurion University, Israel
(Hebrew).
Lee, R. T., & Brotheridge, C. M. (2011). Words from the heart speak to the heart: A
study of deep acting, faking, and hiding among child care workers. Career Development
International,16(4), 401–420. doi:10.1108/13620431111158805
Linn, M. W., & Linn, B. S. (1984). Self-evaluation of life function (SELF) scale: A
short, comprehensive self report of health for elderly adults. Journal of Gerontology,39,
603–612. doi:10.1093/geronj/39.5.603
Lischetzke, T., & Eid, M. (2006). Why extraverts are happier than individuals low on
extraversion: The role of mood regulation. Journal of Personality,74, 1127–1162.
doi:10.1111/j.1467–6494.2006.00405.x
Little, B. R. (2000). Free traits and personal contexts: Expanding a social ecological model
of well being. In W. B. Walsh, K. H. Craik, & R. H. Price (Eds.), Person-environment
psychology: New directions and perspectives (2nd ed., pp. 87–116). Mahwah, NJ:
Erlbaum.
Little, B. R., & Joseph, M. F. (2007). Personal projects and free traits: Mutable selves and
well-beings. In B. R. Little, K. Salmela-Aro, & S. D. Phillips (Eds.), Personal project
pursuit: Goals, actions, and human flourishing (pp. 373–398). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence
Erlbaum.
Lopez, F. G., & Rice, K. G. (2006). Preliminary development and validation of a mea-
sure of relationship authenticity. Journal of Counseling Psychology,53, 362–371.
doi:10.1037/0022-0167.53.3.362
Malouff, J., Thorsteinsson, E. B., Schutte, N. S., Bhullar, N., & Rooke, S. E.
(2010). The Five-Factor Model of personality and relationship satisfaction of inti-
mate partners: A meta-analysis. Journal of Research in Personality,44, 124–127.
doi:10.1016/j.jrp.2009.09.004
Mirgain, S. A., & Cordova, J. V. (2007). Emotion skills and marital health: The association
between observed and self-reported emotion skills, intimacy, and marital satisfaction.
Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology,26(9), 983–1009. doi: 35400016214265.
0010
Moskowitz,D.S.,&Cot
´
e, S. (1995). Do interpersonal traits predict affect? A com-
parison of three models. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,69, 915–924.
doi:10.1037//0022-3514.69.5.915
Muraven, M., Tice, D. M., & Baumeister, R. F. (1998). Self-control as limited resource: Reg-
ulatory depletion patterns. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,74, 774–789.
doi:10.1037//0022-3514.74.3.774
Neff, L. A., & Karney, B. R. (2004). How does context affect intimate relationships?
Linking external stress and cognitive processes within marriage. Personality and Social
Psychology Bulletin,30, 134–148. doi:10.1177/0146167203255984
Overall, N. C., Fletcher, G. J. O., Simpson, J. A., & Sibley, C. G. (2009). Regu-
lating partners in intimate relationships: The costs and benefits of different com-
munication strategies. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,96, 620–639.
doi:10.1177/0146167203255984
Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee, J. Y., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2003). Common method
biases in behavioral research: A critical review of the literature and recommended
remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology,88, 879–903. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.88.
5.879
Pugh, S. D., Groth, M., & Hennig-Thurau, T. (2011). Willing and able to fake emotions: A
closer examination of the link between emotional dissonance and employee well-being.
Journal of Applied Psychology,96, 377–390. doi:10.1037/a0021395
Downloaded by [Tali Seger] at 21:36 15 June 2015
20 The Journal of Psychology
Sheldon, K. M., Ryan, R. M., Rawsthorne, L. J., & Ilardi, B. (1997). Trait self and true self:
Cross-role variation in the Big-Five personality traits and its relations with psychological
authenticity and subjective wellbeing. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,73,
1380–1393. doi:10.1037//0022-3514.73.6.1380
Simpson, P. A., & Stroh, L. K. (2004). Gender differences in the content and effects
of emotional labor in managerial jobs. Journal of Applied Psychology,89, 715–721.
doi:10.1037/0021-9010.89.4.715
Sloan, M. M. (2007). The “real self” and inauthenticity: The importance of self-concept
anchorage for emotional experiences in the workplace. Social Psychology Quarterly,70,
305–318. doi:10.1177/019027250707000308
Sommers, S. (1984). Reported emotions and conventions of emotionality among college
students. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,46, 207–215. doi:10.1037/0022-
3514.46.1.207
Sprecher, S., & Hendrick, S. S. (2004). Self-disclosure in intimate relationships: associ-
ations with individual and relationship characteristic over time. Journal of Social and
Clinical Psychology,23(6), 857–877. doi:10.1521/jscp.23.6.857.54803
Sprecher, S., Metts, S., Burleson, B., Hatfield, E., & Thompson, A. (1995). Domains
of expressive interaction in intimate relationships: Associations with satisfaction and
commitment. Family Relations,44(2), 203–210. doi:10.2307/584810
Vohs, K. D., Baumeister, R. F., & Ciarocco, N. J. (2005). Self-regulation and self-
presentation: Regulatory resource depletion impairs impression management and ef-
fortful self-presentation depletes regulatory resources. Journal of Personality and Social
Psychology,88, 632–657. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.88.4.632
Watson, D., Hubbard, B., & Wiese, D. (2000). General traits of personality and affectivity
as predictors of satisfaction in intimate relationships: Evidence from self- and partner-
ratings. Journal of Personality,68, 413–447. doi:10.1111/1467-6494.00102
White, J. K., Hendrick, S. S., & Hendrick, C. (2004). Big five personality variables
and relationship constructs. Personality and Individual Differences,37(7) 1519–1530.
doi:10.1016/j.paid.2004.02.019
Wilt, J., & Revelle, W. (2009) Extraversion. In M. Leary & R. Hoyle (Eds.), Handbook
of Individual Differences in Social Behavior (pp. 27–45). New York, NY: Guilford.
doi:10.5860/choice.47-3482
Yoo, S. H., Clark, M. S., Lemay, E. M., Jr., Salovey, P., & Monin, J. K. (2011). Responding
to partners’ expression of anger: The role of communal motivation. Personality and
Social Psychology Bulletin,37(2), 229–241. doi:10.1177/0146167210394205
Zapf, D. (2002). Emotion work and psychological well-being. A review of the literature and
some conceptual considerations. Human Resource Management Review,12, 237–268.
doi:10.1016/s1053-4822(02)00048-7
Zelenski, J. M., Santoro, M. S., & Whelan, D. C. (2012). Would Individuals low on
extraversion be better off if they acted more like extraverts? Exploring emotional and
cognitive consequences of counter dispositional behavior. Emotion,12(2), 290–303.
doi:10.1037/a0025169
Zhang, X., & Bartol, K. M. (2010). Linking empowering leadership and employee
creativity: The influence of psychological empowerment, intrinsic motivation, and
creative process engagement. Academy of Management Journal,53, 107–128.
doi:10.5465/amj.2010.48037118
Original manuscript received July 5, 2014
Final version accepted May 13, 2015
Downloaded by [Tali Seger] at 21:36 15 June 2015
... Lee and Brotheridge (2011) supported this distinction by demonstrating that organisational rules about the need to suppress negative emotions predicted higher levels of hiding feelings, but not faking emotions. Other studies have revealed well-differentiated relations between these two surface acting components and a variety of antecedents and outcomes (Seger-Guttmann & Medler-Liraz, 2016). The present research relies on this triadic representation (deep acting, hiding feelings, and faking emotions). ...
... We also expect that a profile characterised by high levels of hiding feelings would be associated with more negative outcomes (e.g. lower job satisfaction) than a profile characterised by high levels of faking emotions (Seger-Guttmann & Medler-Liraz, 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
The present study examines how three emotional labour strategies (hiding feelings, faking emotions, and deep acting) combine within different profiles of workers among two samples characterised by different types and intensity of customer contact. In addition, this research investigates the role of perceived workload as well as perceived organisational support, supervisor support, and colleagues support in the prediction of profile membership. Finally, this research also documents the relation between emotional labour profiles and adaptive and maladaptive work outcomes (job satisfaction, work performance, emotional exhaustion, sleeping problems, psychological detachment, and counterproductive work behaviours). Latent profile analysis revealed three similar emotional labour profiles in both samples. Results also showed the most desirable levels on all outcomes to be associated with Profile 3 (Low Emotional Labor/Low Surface Acting and Moderate Deep Acting), followed by Profile 2 (Moderate Emotional Labor/Moderate Surface Acting and High Deep Acting) and Profile 1 (High Emotional Labor), with most comparisons being statistically significant in both samples. In contrast, a more diversified pattern of findings was observed in the prediction of profile membership. For instance, perceived colleagues support did not predict membership into any of the profiles, while supervisor support predicted an increased likelihood of membership into Profile 3 relative to Profiles 1 and 2.
... Third, people tend to dilate positive emotions, hide negative feelings or emotions (Gross and Levenson, 1997;Seger-Guttmann and Medler-liraz, 2016) in public interactions and social media. Hence, it becomes imperative to normalize these values. ...
... When examining authentic emotional displays, it is important to make a distinction between the consequences of displaying authentic positive as compared with negative emotions (Seger-Guttmann & Medler-Liraz, 2016). It has been suggested that in the context of a friendship or a business exchange, people who display more positive emotions are more well-liked (Clark & Brissette, 2003;Clark & Finkel, 2005), which may contribute to the quality of the relationship. ...
Article
Studies have shown that the expression of positive emotion is an important element in relationship intimacy and a robust predictor of relationship satisfaction. Although the positive influence of displaying authentic emotions toward intimate partners is well documented, research has largely overlooked the association between authentic displays of either positive or negative emotions between employees and managers and the impact of these displays on emotional exhaustion. In a sample of 331 employees, the quality of the employee–manager relationship fully mediated the association between authentic positive emotional displays and emotional exhaustion; in contrast, the association between authentic negative emotional displays and emotional exhaustion was only partially mediated. The findings contribute to a better understanding of the role of employee emotional displays in shaping leader–member interactions, and work-related outcomes.
Article
Full-text available
This study aimed to examine the relationship among customer value co-creation, relationship quality, and relationship equity in the tailoring services in Malaysia. Moreover, this study also investigated whether customer personality trait plays a moderating role in the relationship of value co-creation behavior and relationship quality as well as the relationship between relationship quality and relationship equity. A total of 245 questionnaires were collected via purposive sampling from customers seeking tailoring services from SME tailoring businesses. The findings revealed that customer value co-creation has a statistically significant influence on relationship quality. In addition, relationship quality was also positively related to relationship equity. However, the moderating effect of customer personality trait was not significant. This study contributes to the existing literature on customer co-creation and personality traits of consumers in tailoring services of SMEs, particularly in explaining the relationship equity of consumers.
Article
Despite its roots as a leader in juvenile justice, prison advocacy and reform, appreciation and professional support for forensic social work (FSW) has waxed and waned over the last one hundred and twenty years. It has gone from leadership in the field of criminal justice to becoming nearly invisible to the profession of social work itself. Over the last decade, FSW began experiencing a resurgence thanks to a shift in policy and practice toward treatment and diversion for justice-involved individuals. Despite FSW’s historical roots and relevance to today’s justice systems, there is a dearth of materials about who is practicing in the FSW field and their level of fit in their organization. Other information, such as how they chose their specialization, how they were educated and trained, and how various protective and deleterious (negative) factors influence that level of fit, job satisfaction, job role stress and sustainability is also essential. Because this critically important area of practice was not well reflected in the literature, this study examined those gaps. Relying on the ecological perspective, this study used a cross-sectional design to electronically survey 384 individuals working as social workers in the core criminal and juvenile justice processes within 13 public, non-profit and proprietary agencies in Connecticut. The quantitative and qualitative findings of this research indicate that this sample of forensic social workers came from a variety of backgrounds, worked in a variety of settings, and experienced difficulty with level of fit and job role stress. The group had moderate to high levels of secondary traumatic stress (STS), burnout (BO), and compassion satisfaction (CS) with STS and BO increasing with the number of negative factors experienced by the individual. The most predictive factors for STS, BO, and job role stress were stress over isolation from other social workers at work, resources, safety, and value inconsistencies with one’s place of work. Based on the results of this study, the suggested policy and practice implications would improve process and outcomes for the profession, the specialization, the workers, and the employers. Those changes would reduce the impact of negative factors on social workers, particularly those in custodial or other host settings, and increased protective factors (e.g. mentoring, clinical supervision, and social work training) would improve job satisfaction, recruitment and retention. Considering the important work of forensic social workers and their impact on marginalized, oppressed, and often victimized individuals entangled in the criminal and juvenile justice systems, implications for increased social work education and training through specialized forensic curricula would provide a highly educated pool of forensic social workers prepared to address the individual and social justice needs of clients.
Article
Two studies examined whether employees’ emotional labor as perceived by customers, moderates the relationship between customers’ participation and money spent. In Study I, 30 in-depth interviews were conducted with customers to examine participation during shopping as well as customers’ awareness of their service employees’ behaviors. The interviews revealed two types of customer participation: emotional engagement and physical effort. Based on Study I, Study II investigated 114 customers, and the moderating role of perceived employees’ emotional labor on the relationships between customer participation and spending money. Even when customers were highly involved in the purchasing process, they spent less money when they observed employee inauthenticity as manifested in Surface Acting. However, Deep Acting positively moderated the relationship between customer participation and spending money. These findings help shed light on the circumstances in which customer participation is strengthened (leading to greater spending) or weakened.
Article
Full-text available
A meta-analysis that included 19 samples with a total of 3848 participants showed that scores on four of the Five-Factor Model personality factors correlated significantly with level of relationship satisfaction by intimate heterosexual partners. The four personality characteristics were low neuroticism, high agree-ableness, high conscientiousness, and high extraversion. The associations between an individual's per-sonality characteristics and the relationship satisfaction of the individual's intimate partner did not vary significantly from men to women or from married to unmarried individuals. The results of the meta-analysis provide support for the utility of the Five-Factor Model of personality in understanding an important realm of life, intimate relationships.
Article
In 2 studies, college students evidenced differing levels of the "Big-Five" traits in different roles, supporting social-contextualist assumptions regarding trait expression. Supporting organismic theories of personality, within-subject variations in the Big Five were predictable from variations in the degree of psychological authenticity felt in different roles. In addition, two concepts of self-integrat ion or true selfhood were examined: 1 based on high consistency of trait profiles across roles (i.e., lowself-concept differentiation; E. M. Donahue, R. W. Robins, B. W. Roberts, & O. P. John, 1993) and 1 based on high mean levels of authenticity felt across roles. The 2 self-integration measures were found to be independent predictors of psychological and physical well-being indicating that both self-consistency and psychological authenticity are vital for organized functioning and health.
Article
Interest in the problem of method biases has a long history in the behavioral sciences. Despite this, a comprehensive summary of the potential sources of method biases and how to control for them does not exist. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to examine the extent to which method biases influence behavioral research results, identify potential sources of method biases, discuss the cognitive processes through which method biases influence responses to measures, evaluate the many different procedural and statistical techniques that can be used to control method biases, and provide recommendations for how to select appropriate procedural and statistical remedies for different types of research settings.
Article
The major purpose of this investigation was to examine the relative importance of three domains of expressive interaction-companionship, sexual expression, and supportive communication-in predicting relationship satisfaction and commitment. This issue was examined with data collected from both partners of 94 married or committed (engaged or cohabiting) couples. Results indicated that all three domains of expressive interaction were significantly related to relationship satisfaction and commitment and that supportive communication had the strongest association with satisfaction and commitment.
Article
Synthesizing theories of leadership, empowerment, and creativity, this research built and tested a theoretical model linking empowering leadership with creativity via several intervening variables. Using survey data from professional employees and their supervisors in a large information technology company in China, we found that, as anticipated, empowering leadership positively affected psychological empowerment, which in turn influenced both intrinsic motivation and creative process engagement. These latter two variables then had a positive influence on creativity. Empowerment role identity moderated the link between empowering leadership and psychological empowerment, whereas leader encouragement of creativity moderated the connection between psychological empowerment and creative process engagement.
Article
This paper describes the development and validation of the Emotional Labour Scale (ELS) as tested on samples of 296 and 238 respondents. The ELS is a 15-item self-report questionnaire that measures six facets of emotional display in the workplace, including the frequency, intensity and variety of emotional display, the duration of interaction, and surface and deep acting. Estimates of internal consistency for the subscales ranged from .74 to .91. Confirmatory factor analysis results provided support for the existence of six unidimensional subscales. Evidence was also provided for convergent and discriminant validity.