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The Tragedy of the Commons

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... (viii) Feinberg's 31 variations on the Ride on the Bus story –> the offence principle (there are (crudely six types of) human experiences that don't constitute harm, yet are so unpleasant that we can rightly demand legal protection from them even at the cost of other persons' liberties (Feinberg 1985) (ix) Garrett Hardin's Pasture –> tragedy of the commons hypothesis (free commons – i.e. when the benefits of using some public good are privatized, but the costs are externalized – is destined to go to ruin) (Hardin 1968)The above list is far from complete. And yet, given the frequency and overall popularity of the method, the results of thought experimentation in moral and political philosophy are discouraging, to say the least. ...
... Garreth Hardin's (in)famous Pasture parable (Hardin 1968) provides another telling example of TE-circularity. On a particular reading of it, we are to accept, without further evidence, that every single farmer will, in a blind pursuit of his or her own economic interests at the expense of everyone else's, place a maximum number of cattle on the pasture, which will inevitably lead to its decay. ...
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Prof. Miščević has long been an ardent defender of the use of thought experiments in philosophy, foremost metaphysics, epistemology and philosophy of mind. Recently he has, in his typically sophisticated manner, extended his general account of philosophical thought-experimenting to the domain of normative politics. Not only can the history of political philosophy be better understood and appreciated, according to Miščević, when seen as a more or less continuous, yet covert, practice of thought-experimenting, the very progress of the discipline may crucially depend on finding the right balance between the constraints of (biological, psychological, economic, political, and so on) reality and political-moral ideals when we set to design our basic political notions and institutions. I have much less confidence in this project than prof. Miščević does. As a subspecies of moral TE, political TE share all their problems plus exhibit some of their own. In the paper, I present and discuss two types of evidence that threaten to undermine political philosophers' trust in thought-experiments and the ethical/political intuitions elicited by them: (i) the dismal past record of thought-experimentation in moral and political philosophy; and (ii) variety, prevalence, and stubbornness, of bias in social/political judgment.
... The problem of competing for a shared, limited resource is, colloquially, the "tragedy of the commons" (Hardin 1968(Hardin , 1993. The shared resource may be used most efficiently by slow, prudent exploitation, but rapacious individuals can gain a disproportionate share of the total by rapid exploitation. ...
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Several evolutionary processes influence virulence, the amount of damage a parasite causes to its host. For example, parasites are favored to exploit their hosts prudently to prolong infection and avoid killing the host. Parasites also need to use some host resources to reproduce and transmit infections to new hosts. Thus parasites face a tradeoff between prudent exploitation and rapid reproduction-a life history tradeoff between longevity and fecundity. Other tradeoffs among components of parasite fitness also influence virulence. For example, competition among parasite genotypes favors rapid growth to achieve greater relative success within the host. Rapid growth may, however, lower the total productivity of the local group by overexploiting the host, which is a potentially renewable food supply. This is a problem of kin selection and group selection. I summarize models of parasite virulence with the theoretical tools of life history analysis, kin selection, and epidemiology. I then apply the theory to recent empirical studies and models of virulence. These applications, to nematodes, to the extreme virulence of hospital epidemics, and to bacterial meningitis, show the power of simple life history theory to highlight interesting questions and to provide a rich array of hypotheses. These examples also show the kinds of conceptual mistakes that commonly arise when only a few components of parasite fitness are analysed in isolation. The last part of the article connects standard models of parasite virulence to diverse topics, such as the virulence of bacterial plasmids, the evolution of genomes, and the processes that influenced conflict and cooperation among the earliest replicators near the origin of life.
... There is however no parallel individual incentive to make the investments necessary to maintain the resource system. This leads to what has been called 'the tragedy of the commons' (Hardin, 1968). Typical examples include fisheries and grazing fields. ...
Conference Paper
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Building on empirical material from 6 months ethnographically inspired fieldwork in Málaga Común, a mutual credit community currency in Southern Spain, the paper uses Ostrom's (1991) theoretical framework on common-pool resources to look deeper into the provision and appropriation dynamics of the currency. Particular attention will be put to the sources of inequality in members' provision and appropriation capacities. Findings suggest that, embedded as community currencies are in the conventional economy, the sources of inequality from the conventional economy are also brought into the community currency. More particularly, ownership and specialised complex skills lie behind members' unequal capacity to earn community currency in relation to their spending needs. Some considerations are outlined to attend when designing the governance institutions of community currency schemes that aim to overcome the inequality brought in by these currencies embeddedness in the conventional economy.
... However, increased competition leads to over-exploitation of the resource, reducing long-term gain and lowering everyone's success. Self interested individuals tend to overexploit the common resource, leading to the tragedy of the commons (Hardin 1968). I developed a simple evolutionary model of the tragedy of the commons (Frank 1994bFrank , 1995aFrank , 1998). ...
... In economics too, that individuals make rational choices based upon linguistic thought would appear to be a commonly held assumption. In the widely cited "Tragedy of the Commons," Hardin (1968) describes the process of deliberation on whether or not to add an animal to common land in the following way: as rational being, each herdsman seeks to maximize his gain. Explicitly or implicitly, more or less consciously, he asks, 'What is the utility to me of adding one more animal to my herd?... Adding together the component partial utilities, the rational herdsman concludes that the only sensible course for him to pursue is to add another animal to his herd. ...
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Kim (2003) showed that when Americans are encouraged to talk to themselves their ability at a image based intelligence test (Raven’s Progressive Matrices) improved, and was impaired when their self-talk was prevented whereas conversely Asian performance on the same test was unaffected by self-talk suppression, whereas it deteriorated when Asians were required to talk to themselves. Kim concluded that Asian thought is non-linguistic. In this paper, based upon a reversal of Lacanian theory of self-development (2007) which posits a progression from an infantile ‘mirror stage’ to adult linguistic self representation, we first confirmed that visual imagination is more prevalent among Japanese than self-talk. Then, replicating Kim’s experimental manipulation, reversing language and vision, we found that on a linguistic task, Americans were unaffected both by being required to imagine and by imagination suppression, whereas Japanese problem solving ability increased under the imagination and decreased under the imagination suppression condition. We concluded that the main media of Japanese thought may be vision rather than language, and used this finding to elucidate the nature and function of thought. (Abstract translated from the Japanese by the first author, original Japanese abstract as follows) Kim(2002)は、米人は言語を発声させられることで影像的問題の解決能力が上がり、言語発声を阻止されることで問題解決能力が下がるのに対して、アジア人は言語発声の阻止であまり影響されず、逆に発声させられることで問題が解決できなくなる結果から、アジア人の思考は言語的でないという結論を出した。本論では、Lacan(2007)の《鏡像から言語へ》という自己発達論を逆転したテーゼに基づき、まず日本人が内言するより想像をすることを確かめた。次にKimの実験における言語と影像を置き換え、米人は影像を思い浮かべることでも、想像を阻止されても、言語的問題解決能力があまり影響されないのに対して、日本人は想像で問題解決能力が上がり、想像を阻止されると問題解決能力が下がる結果から、日本人の思考の主たる媒体が言語より影像である結論へと導き、思考とは何かにまで考察を広げた。
... Usually running counter to the short-term benefit for the individual is the (often long-term) environmental and overall social damage. What results is a so-called " tragedy of the commons " (seeHardin 1968;Ostrom 1990). The individual benefit can be located in possession and use, in self-realization and – independently of the (im-)material intrinsic value – in social status. ...
Working Paper
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To bring about sustainable production and consumption patterns, three strategies come into consideration: efficiency, consistency and sufficiency. These strategies are complementary. We argue that the controversial one – sufficiency – is necessary in industrialized countries. While sufficiency is often regarded as a voluntary lifestyle choice we see its emergence as a system innovation which only succeeds in interplay with varied elements that are interdependent. These elements include values, markets, infrastructures and also policy. In this working paper we focus on the political dimension, which has been neglected up to now. Sufficiency policy encompasses political measures which are geared to environmentally sustainable consumption patterns and involve a change in benefit for a substantial share of the population. We demonstrate why sufficiency policy is necessary and what measures can be envisaged – not only to replace but also to complement efficiency and consistency measures. Further expanding the focus on sufficiency policy, the challenges, an outline of sufficiency policy, the necessary communication efforts, and the need for further research are also presented.
... moral legitimacy of Samaritan laws, i.e. obligatory assistance) (Singer 1993) (vii) Singer's Shelter/Fairhaven –> there is no moral justification for hermetically closed borders, or restrictive laws on (im)migration (ibid.) (viii) Feinberg's 31 variations on the Ride on the Bus story –> the offence principle (there are (crudely six types of) human experiences that don't constitute harm, yet are so unpleasant that we can rightly demand legal protection from them even at the cost of other persons' liberties (Feinberg 1985) (ix) Garrett Hardin's Pasture –> tragedy of the commons hypothesis (free commons – i.e. when the benefits of using some public good are privatized, but the costs are externalized – is destined to go to ruin) (Hardin 1968)The above list is far from complete. And yet, given the frequency and relative popularity of the method, the results of thought experimentation in moral and political philosophy are discouraging, to say the least. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Prof. Miščević has long been an ardent defender of the use of thought experiments in philosophy, foremost metaphysics, epistemology and philosophy of mind. Recently he has, in his typically sophisticated manner, extended his general account of philosophical thought-experimenting to the domain of normative politics. Not only can the history of political philosophy be better understood and appreciated, according to Miščević, when seen as a more or less continuous, yet covert, practice of thought-experimenting, the very progress of the discipline may crucially depend on finding the right balance between the constraints of (biological, psychological, economic, political, and so on) reality and political-moral ideals when we set to design our basic political notions and institutions. I have much less confidence in this project than prof. Miščević does. As a subspecies of moral TE, political TE share all their problems plus exhibit some of their own. In the paper, I present and discuss two types of evidence that threaten to undermine political philosophers' trust in thought-experiments and the ethical/political intuitions elicited by them: (i) the dismal past record of thought-experimentation in moral and political philosophy; and (ii) variety, prevalence, and stubbornness, of bias in social/political judgment.
... From that they get food and some income from selling crop yield when possible. Professor Garrett Hardin [4] in his book "The Tragedy of the Commons" concluded that the poor are the most degraders of the environment. However, the poor may have reason to depend on environmental resource (land) because is the only source of their livelihood they can access. ...
Article
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Tanzanian agriculture employs about 80% of the national labour force and most of these are rural dwellers. The country has about 44 million hectares of arable land but less than 24% of the area has been harnessed. Similarly, the country has inland rivers, lakes and other water bodies that could supply water for irrigation, however only 2% of the irrigation potential has been exploited. Here we reviewed 54 scientific publications on potentials, challenges and prospects of agriculture in the country and found that; its production trend has been fluctuating over time in a decreasing manner. Tanzania Agricultural Policy aims at stimulating agricultural growth from 3.6% to at least 6%. However, inadequate market systems, transportation and storage infrastructures among others things, have been the major hindrances to make agriculture a commercial industry. On top of that, the adverse impacts of climate change have exacerbated the situation. Similarly, lack of political willingness and shortage of capital for agricultural investment have increased the magnitude of the problem. This paper highlights on the opportunities, challenges and prospects of agriculture with the aim of transforming it from subsistence to commercial farming. Therefore, to increase agricultural productivity and transform the sector to commercial industry; innovative strategies and technologies with great political willingness of the government are urgently needed to address both natural and man-made challenges facing the sector.
... A prominent proponent is Hardin (1968), who argued that users of an environmental commons face rational incentives to exploit it beyond its ability to recuperate (thus resulting in the 'tragedy of the commons'), unless some centralized authority prevents them from doing so. He noted, 'The social arrangements that produce responsibility are arrangements that create coercion, of some sort' (Hardin, 1968Hardin, : 1247), and in particular he advocated coercive constraints on the 'commons in breeding' (op cit.: 1248). Interconnected trends and characteristics of environmental governance have eroded this faith in centralized authority structures. ...
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The environment and natural resources constitute a particularly urgent and complex governance domain. A linear relationship is commonly assumed between statehood and environmental performance, but this is not supported by the data, nor the expansive literatures on other actors and modes of environmental governance, focused on communities and social networks, on the one hand, and on markets and voluntary action by market-based actors, on the other. 'Hybrid' or 'mixed' forms of governance involving collaboration between state, business, and civil society actors have emerged, but the effectiveness and legitimacy of such collaboration is likely constrained in areas with very limited statehood. As statehood increases, prospects for such mixed governance improve, though this depends inter alia on characteristics of the state, such as its commitment to participatory and deliberative decision-making. Overall, statehood clearly plays an important role in environmental governance and its outcomes, but in a more multidimensional and often indirect way than commonly assumed.
... The second is based Coase theorem (Coase 1960) which argued that an ideal status of resources configurations could be achieved by market transactions and voluntary negotiation manner. While its presumptions are so rigid that they are very difficult to satisfy in real situations especially for the reasons of traffic congestion, pollutions and some other harmful effects are a kind of the Tragedy of the Commons (Hardin 1968). The third is according social involvement thinking which proposed by Pentland (2014) who appeal to influence power of neighbors based on sociophysics and its basic notion is facilitating cooperation by a kind indirect manner that motivates his companions which will amplify the decision makers own pressures. ...
... The transboundary nature of the Baltic Sea region ecosystem means that all basin states are affected by this damage and by environmental and water quality degradation, regardless of the source or geographical origin of pollution. The transboundary aspect of the Baltic Sea presents a classic dilemma with lack of management of a regional public good (Hardin 1968): the management of the transboundary water resources cannot be adequately addressed by individual countries acting alone without cooperation by their neighbour states, through consensus or other legitimate decision-making process (Granit 2010, International Task Force on Global Public Goods 2006. ...
... It is therefore rarely in the interests of a single country to reduce its own emissions, even though a reduction in global emissions could benefit every country. That is to say, the problem of climate change is a " tragedy of the commons " (Hardin, 1968). " intergenerational may change the global (and intragenerational) situation significantly. ...
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The thesis explores critically some of the theoretical suggestions offered in the literature of environmental political philosophy to overcome the ecological challenges and suggests some promising ways forward. According to the thesis, complexity of the ecological problems, uncertainty related to them, and vulnerability to disagreements because of this, speak in favour of democratic justification of the authority: no other way of resolving the disagreements in the uncertain and complex world can be claimed to be epistemically and morally superior to democracy. Moreover, because appropriately democratic processes are able to show publicly that the (possibly) disputing interests of people are treated in equal and fair manner, the democratic outcomes are able to gain more legitimacy than those resorting solely to the environmentally grounded epistemic (eco)-authority. While democratic processes remain an essential way to produce legitimately authoritative environmental outcomes, the global and intergenerational scope of the problems requires a justification that transcends the democratic processes themselves. Here the thesis defends a Rawlsian kind of contractualism as a way to justify the authority of some global and intergenerational principles and argues that even in the existing non-ideal circumstances the Rawlsian principle of fairness gives us some guidance about the limits within which our societal institutions, laws, and policies deserve our compliance. In addition, the thesis defends the common sense no-harm principle that holds irrespective of the institutional arrangements between people. ¬Due to vast dispersion of causes and effects, a growing number of environmental ethicists have doubted its applicability in the context of large-scale environmental problems at all. Some others have proposed its application at the collective level. Contrary to these authors, the thesis provides a defence of the individualistic no-harm principle as a common-sense way to justify individuals’ duties to change their environmentally harmful behaviour and to promote more effective collective and institutional ways to prevent environmental harm. Finally, the thesis defends a sufficientarian understanding of social justice as the most plausible and coherent way to connect local, global and intergenerational demands. It is also suggested that the sufficientarian approach is capable of overcoming some theoretical challenges that rise at the intergenerational context, in which our choices have an influence not only on how well- or badly-off people in the future are, but also on who those future people are.
... Hutan mangrove di Dusun Magelo'o yang saat ini (2014) memiliki luas 23 hektar dapat dinikmati bukan hanya oleh penduduk Magelo'o saja tetapi juga oleh penduduk dari dusun sekitar. Banyaknya orang yang mengambil manfaat dari keberadaan hutan ini, pada suatu masa dapat berubah menjadi tragedi (Hardin, 1968). Sumber daya alam yang tidak diatur secara jelas, akan mendorong setiap orang untuk mengambil manfaat darinya tanpa mempertimbangkan keberlanjutannya. ...
Conference Paper
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Magelo'o Hamlet is one of the hamlets in Sikka Regency, East Nusa Tenggara. The hamlet that lies on the coastal island of Flores, in 1992 was hit by a tsunami. For the efforts of a pioneer, Babah Akong, the village is now green, and protected from abrasion. Babah Akong planted the coast of Magelo'o Hamlet with mangroves. The planting began in 1993. This mangrove planting is not only greening and protecting hamlets from natural disasters such as abrasion and possibly tsunamis, but also providing a source of income for the villagers. Babah Akong succeeded in becoming a motivator for the villagers to participate in planting mangroves. By studying local characteristics and potentials, the vulnerable hamlet is now a resilient village in the face of various phenomena of natural change. However, the existence of mangrove forests in Magelo'o Hamlet is not without problems. The few people involved
... Comme on pouvait s'y attendre, la société occidentale réagit à cette crise selon ses valeurs dominantes qui sont techniques. Or les défis et les enjeux dépassent le tech nicisme, qu'il soit instrumental ou régle mentaire, car il est probable, comme l'a inlassablement rappelé Hardin (1968Hardin ( ,1993, et malgré les réserves qu'on puisse faire sur ses prises de position, qu'il n'y a pas de solution technique à la crise. Il s'agit de bien autre chose qui touche à d'autres sphères des compétences et des interrogations humaines. ...
... "encuentra que su parte de los costos de los desperdicios que descarga en los recursos comunes es mucho menor que el costo de purificar sus desperdicios antes de deshacerse de ellos" (Hardin, 1968). ...
Article
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Ordenación territorial y manejo de cuencas hidrográficas en Colombia:¿es adecuado el modelo de gobernanza del agua en el país? En este ensayo se muestra que el modelo de gobernanza del agua, que ha sido impulsado por las políticas de ordenación territorial de las cuencas hidrográficas y manejo del agua, ha generado situaciones de conflicto ambiental y socio-ambiental. Para ilustrar esta idea se establece como premisa que las categorías cultural y política del territorio, al ser incompatibles, producen diferentes territorialidades que al interactuar generan conflictos ambientales y socio-ambientales, los cuales conllevan al fracaso del proceso político de ordenación territorial de las cuencas hidrográficas en Colombia, resultando en una inadecuada gobernanza del agua (Hawley, 1975) (Escobar, 1999) La adecuada gobernanza del agua, se refiere a la cooperación constructiva entre los diferentes sectores usuarios del agua, que permiten el uso eficiente del recurso, mediante el ejercicio responsable y confiable del poder, que provea los servicios ecosistémicos derivados del agua, de forma efectiva y sostenible, lo cual debe traducirse en una dinámica entre el gobierno y la sociedad, que le permite a esta última, gozar de una mejor relación con su entorno natural (Dominguez-Serrano, 2011). El no lograr encontrar el modelo de una adecuada gobernanza del agua, ocasiona, profundos impactos en la vida de las personas y en la habilidad de las mismas para prosperar, además, de que el problema se ve reflejado en la afectación de los cauces de los ríos, el estado de los acuíferos y en los incrementos de los niveles de contaminación del agua (UNDP-IFAD, 2006). Para Castro, 2007, uno de los elementos del problema de gobernanza del agua, es la significación misma del agua, porque esta se conceptualiza como " recurso " , reduciendo al vital líquido a una sola de sus dimensiones por parte de los interesados, produciendo en consecuencia, una valoración material y económica de este bien, considerándolo un objeto de control, al igual que sucede con un determinado territorio (Castro J. , 2007).
... Hardin defined that our biggest challenge is to invent the corrective feedbacks which are needed to keep the guard honest. Thus, since it always happened from time to time, we have to establish a solution to legitimate the need of authority of both guards and the corrective feedbacks (Hardin, 1968). This finding became a breakthrough among the researchers and they always used this theory to solve any cases, which related to natural resources overexploitation. ...
Article
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This article reviews corruption cases that are associated with natural resources management, especially in accessing and utilizing common property resources in Indonesia. A crucial fact about to highlight in this article is corruption case in natural resource. This article applies social-ecological systems (SES) framework to deliver a clear roadmap for incorporating more ecological or natural characteristics into studies that explores linkage social and legal systems. The framework therefore considers how problems are de?ned and how action and policy are formulated to deal with these problems. This article studies macro data in National level, the law on natural resource and environment in Indonesia where the case is occurred in West Pasaman. The case in West Pasaman is the evidence based. The data is gathered by interviewing local people who live around palm plantations in West Pasaman. Thus, this article is also linked with Indonesian regulation about environment and natural resources. Corruption in the context of managing common property resources brings many disadvantages to community and State because it will lead to the scarcity of resources. Overall, eradicating corruption is not only on the hands of community or private sectors, but also needs active involvement from government and policy-makers as the main stakeholders.
... Individuals are often thought to be selfish initially in classic evolutionary games, while mutualism evolves afterwards. Here, we suggest an alternative evolutionary sequence in harsh environment: cooperation (symbiosis or mutualism) first appears in harsh environment, followed by the invasion of defection, which then inevitably leads to a common tragedy, or the social dilemma [67,68]. The pioneer species that colonizes a barren habitat, as in the studies on community succession, are often symbiotic or social, followed by exploiters (competitive species) [69,70]. ...
Article
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Unveiling the origin and forms of cooperation in nature poses profound challenges in evolutionary ecology. The prisoner's dilemma game is an important metaphor for studying the evolution of cooperation. We here classified potential mechanisms for cooperation evolution into schemes of frequency-and density-dependent selection, and focused on the density-dependent selection in the ecological prisoner's dilemma games. We found that, although assortative encounter is still the necessary condition in ecological games for cooperation evolution, a harsh environment, indicated by a high mortality, can foster the invasion of cooperation. The Hamilton rule provides a fundamental condition for the evolution of cooperation by ensuring an enhanced relatedness between players in low-density populations. Incorporating ecological dynamics into evolutionary games opens up a much wider window for the evolution of cooperation, and exhibits a variety of complex behaviors of dynamics, such as limit and heteroclinic cycles. An alternative evolutionary, or rather succession, sequence was proposed that cooperation first appears in harsh environments, followed by the invasion of defection, which leads to a common catastrophe. The rise of cooperation (and altruism), thus, could be much easier in the density-dependent ecological games than in the classic frequency-dependent evolutionary games.
... As a result, the early Iron Age (800 – 200 B.C.) has been classified as a period of economic transition , when mixed agropastoral systems transitioned into a period of 'pure nomadism' – although, this model has been seriously critiqued (Anthony et al. 2005; Chang et al. 2003; Frachetti 2008). This climate-driven model also relies on the " Tragedy of the Commons " (Hardin 1968), especially as an explanation for the Iron Age transition. However, many economists, historians , and anthropologists have pointed out that (historically) Malthusian catastrophe predictions are rarely (if ever) fulfilled (Sen 1981). ...
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Like all humans, mobile pastoralists alter their ecological niche to their advantage; however, archaeological discussions of mobile pastoralists in Central Asia often focus on environmental factors as a sole driving force in decision making. In reality, anthropogenic modification of the landscape are evident as far back at the Bronze Age. Herders altered the overall ecology of the region by converting forest into pasturelands and indirectly enhanced focal points on the landscape through herding processes. These ecological nodes are locations with higher nutrient-rich biomass, their productivity is further enhanced through grazing. Hence, the overall process of herding in Central Asia has constructed a niche over the long-term that is better suited for this economic pursuit.
... While compliance with seasons was relatively good, a 21% violation rate suggests that ample motivation remains for some harvesters to ignore these regulations . One such motivation for all of these poor practices is pre-emptive competition among harvesters for what is perceived to be a limited resource – a 'tragedy of the commons' (Hardin 1968; Mace and Reynolds 2001). The temptation to harvest early must be strong since it is obvious that seeds are not ripe and, therefore, the harvest is more destructive than later harvest. ...
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Thirty natural populations of American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) were censused twice annually for five to 11 years to monitor the rate, frequency, and intensity of root harvest. Over this period, 43% of populations were harvested and ca.10% of plants was removed by harvesters. On an annual basis, 15% of populations were harvested and 1.3% of individuals were confirmed harvested. Both rates are likely underestimates of actual rates since we used conservative criteria to recognize harvest. Nearly half of the harvested populations were harvested more than once. Harvesters removed a small proportion of plants from populations; however, they frequently took non-reproductive and small plants, making the effect of harvest more destructive. In addition, violations of regulations regarding season, location, and plant size were common (20%, 65%, and 82% of events, respectively). Only 6% of harvest events were legal and 1.4% of plants were legally harvested in all three respects at the study sites. Two illegal harvests were documented carefully because they occurred at or near census points. These harvests highlighted the proximal factors that result in unsustainable harvest practices: (1) removal of adult plants prior to ripening of seeds, thus precluding the proper planting of propagules for population recovery; (2) removal of plants that are under the legal size limit, with no ability of dealers or buyers to detect this violation; and (3) removal of plants from land in which harvest is strictly prohibited, and the associated difficulty of enforcing such rules. We discuss policy options that could contribute to addressing these problems.
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T-HIS series gives readers the opportunity to consider and contribute to discussion of some of the ethical dilemmas that can arise in veterinary practice. Each month, a case scenario is presented, followed by discussion of some of the issues involved. In addition, a possible way forward is suggested; however, there is rarely a cut-and-dried answer in such cases, and readers may wish to suggest an alternative approach. This month’s dilemma, ‘Performance indicators and prescribing antimicrobials’, was submitted and is discussed by Anne Fawcett and Thomas Gottlieb. Readers with comments to contribute are invited to send them as soon as possible, so that they can be considered for publication in the next issue. The series is being coordinated by Steven McCulloch, a practising vet with a PhD in the ethics of veterinary policy. It aims to provide a framework that will help practitioners find solutions when facing similar dilemmas.
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Global warming has emerged as one of the most serious threats to the existence of humankind. There is also increasing acknowledgement that old arguments that focused on the exhaustion of economic resources and changing dynamics of utility are no longer necessary and useful in confronting climate change. This article reviews the main arguments that have shaped recent global initiatives on mitigating climate change and global warming. The increasing introduction of climate change mitigation initiatives comes from the recognition that such initiatives no longer require reducing economic growth. Fortunately, recent developments appear promising as the majority of the world's nations pledged at the Paris Accord of 2015 to check environmental degradation. Consequently, individual signatories have supplied intended national determined contribution proposals to the United Nations Framework Convention for Climate Change to cap temperature rise to 1.5 ˚C over the next century.
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This article examines the processes of urban commoning and its co‐produced features of urbanity, making the claim that, through these processes, informality becomes translated into institutionalized city planning. Commoning is analysed through a comparative study that utilizes contingent features of urbanity and three modalities accommodating the informality–formality meshwork during urban change. The article contributes to research on urban transformations by integrating commons, informality dynamics and the constitution of state institutions. This focus is elaborated with reference to collective gardening practices in the context of two of the less studied European cities, Narva in Estonia and Tampere in Finland. The results of the study indicate that urban commoning takes place through delegating a public mandate and enacting uncertainty, two processes that informalize city government practices. Particular differences appeared in regard to the institutional porosity that enables unregulated spaces of collective gardening to be mobilized as part of urban politics. We argue that networked movements appear as an essential part of the urban logic of action producing meaningful connections in an informal–formal meshwork and bringing together multiple sites in the commoning process.
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We report from the Do Not Disturb Challenge where 30 volunteers disabled notification alerts for 24 hours across all devices. The effect of the absence of notifications on the participants was isolated through an experimental study design: we compared self-reported feedback from the day without notifications against a baseline day. The evidence indicates that notifications have locked us in a dilemma: without notifications, participants felt less distracted and more productive. But, they also felt no longer able to be as responsive as expected, which made some participants anxious. And, they felt less connected with one's social group. In contrast to previous reports, about two third of the participants expressed the intention to change how they manage notifications. Two years later, half of the participants are still following through with their plans.
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Für eine nachhaltige Gestaltung von Produktions- und Konsummustern kommen drei Strategien in Frage: Effizienz, Konsistenz und Suffizienz. Diese Strategien sind komplementär. Wir argumentieren, dass in Industrieländern auch die umstrittene unter ihnen – Suffizienz – notwendig ist. Während diese oft als freiwillige Lebensstilgestaltung gesehen wird, sehen wir ihre Entstehung als System-Innovation, die nur im Zusammenspiel verschiedener interdependenter Faktoren gelingt. Unter anderem spielen dabei Werte, Märkte, Infrastrukturen und Politik eine Rolle. Im vorliegenden Working Paper fokussieren wir auf die bisher vernachlässigte politische Dimension. Bei Suffizienzpolitik handelt es sich um politische Maßnahmen, die auf ökologisch tragfähige Konsummuster abzielen und für einen erheblichen Teil der Bevölkerung eine Nutzen-Änderung bedeuten. Wir zeigen auf, warum Suffizienzpolitik nötig ist und welche Maßnahmen darunter fallen können – nicht zur Ersetzung, sondern zur Ergänzung von Effizienz- und Konsistenz-Maßnahmen. Das Feld Suffizienzpolitik weiter aufspannend, werden zudem die spezifischen Herausforderungen, erste Konturen von Suffizienzpolitik, Kommunikationserfordernisse sowie weiterer Forschungsbedarf präsentiert. English summary: To bring about sustainable production and consumption patterns, three strategies come into consideration: efficiency, consistency and sufficiency. These strategies are complementary. We argue that the controversial one – sufficiency – is necessary in industrialised countries. While sufficiency is often regarded as a voluntary lifestyle choice we see its emergence as a system innovation which only succeeds in interplay with varied factors that are interdependent. These factors include values, markets, infrastructures and also policy. In this working paper we focus on the political dimension, which has been neglected up to now. Sufficiency policy encompasses political measures which are geared to environmentally sustainable consumption patterns and involve a change in benefit for a substantial share of the population. We demonstrate why sufficiency policy is necessary and what measures can be envisaged – not to replace but to complement efficiency and consistency measures. Further expanding the focus on sufficiency policy, the challenges, nascent sufficiency policy, the necessary communication efforts, and the need for further research are also presented.
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Corporations can contribute to sustainable development goals such as poverty reduction by bringing linking social capital into community and stakeholder networks. Often their well-intentioned efforts produce disappointing results because they encounter a variety of pitfalls such as unorganised communities, self-serving elites, violent opposition and conflicting stakeholder demands. This article applies the social network analysis concepts of social capital, bridging, bonding and core-periphery structure to firm-stakeholder networks. The result is a three-dimensional classification scheme showing 12 patterns of social capital. It is proposed that each of the 12 is associated with a different pattern of outcomes for the stakeholders and the company, exemplified by the aforementioned pitfalls. Measures of the stakeholder network's current pattern of social capital can be compared with the 12 classification patterns to find the closest match. It is proposed that a match predicts pitfalls and therefore can guide movement towards the patterns that most facilitate sustainable development.
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The goals of sustainable development and of climate-change oriented policies, while important, are not the only, or the main agenda for anthropological activity. The specific contribution of anthropology to sustainable development lies in its peculiar ability to describe the diversity of human worlds and their interaction with non-human modes of existence. This task involves an active role in sustaining and promoting the production of diversity as well as the search for principles of justice which cut across different worlds.
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The analysis of equilibrium points in random games has been of great interest in evolutionary game theory, with important implications for understanding of complexity in a dynamical system, such as its behavioural, cultural or biological diversity. The analysis so far has focused on random games of independent payoff entries. In overcoming this restrictive assumption, here we study equilibrium points in random games with correlated entries. Namely, we analyse the mean value and the distribution of the number of (stable) internal equilibria in multi-player two-strategy evolutionary games where the payoff matrix entries are correlated random variables. Our contributions are as follows. We first obtain a closed formula for the mean number of internal equilibria, characterise its asymptotic behaviour and study the effect of the correlation. We then provide analytical formulas to compute the probability of attaining a certain number of internal equilibria, and derive an approximate formula for the computation of this probability. Last but not least, we reveal some universal estimates that are independent of the distribution of the payoff matrix entries, and provide numerical simulations to support the obtained analytical results.
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Chapter
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Chapter
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Book
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Mastering global challenges such as the 2020 Coronavirus pandemic requires implementing effective responses at various social levels. Leadership teams (governmental, industrial) need to integrate available information to introduce effective regulation and update their decisions as new information becomes available. Groups (families, peers, teams) need to act persistently, even when these actions oppose members’ individual short-term interests. Moreover, individuals need to stay calm and act diligently, while dealing with emotions of threat and resisting counterproductive social influence. Our research programme on implementation intentions at social levels suggests that collective if-then plans facilitate goal attainment for teams, groups, and individuals in social contexts. We therefore analyse how if-then planning can help master global human challenges such as the 2020 Coronavirus pandemic.