Organs topology in strawberry plants depending on different nursery systems

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Strawberry plant architecture shows some constant features related to its sympodial growth. Variability of plant architecture is related to the distribution and position of the vegetative and reproductive structures along its short axis (rosette plant) and is determined by many factors, including abiotic, agronomic, nutritional and environmental factors. Nursery technique provides many plant types showing different architecture each one suitable for integrating in specific growing cycles. Plants from different nursery cultivation systems were dissected to determine plant architecture detecting and recording the fate of all the meristems before field cultivation. Branching pattern and organs topology were described in order to evaluate plant quality. The study shows that using specific propagation techniques, it may be possible to guide the architecture of the strawberry plants that can bear different number and distribution of shoots, inflorescences and stolons.

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Higher percentages of transplants of short-day cultivar 'Strawberry Festival' from runner tips plugged in early July rather than the standard time (early August) bloomed in the fall. Nearly 100% of the transplants produced in early July flowered in the fall, but less than 30% of the August-plugged transplants flowered in the fall. Under protected cultivation, July-plugged plants produced fruit in October, November and December. Illuminating the crowns of July-plugged transplants with red light in August delayed bloom by several months. In another study, growing transplants under red photoselective nets in August delayed flowering until January. The results of these studies suggested that floral bud initiation can be induced even under long photoperiod if the light illuminating the strawberry crown lacks red and shorter wavelength light whereas excessive red light transmittance either with red LED lights or growing transplants under red photoselective shade net in August delayed flower bud initiation. The colored nets did not affect runnering during fall months. The nursery industry can use the non-flowering transplants as stock plants because periodic flower removal is not needed for preventing infection by Colletotrichum species. Changing the time of plugging and altering the light quality for plug plant production will create an opportunity for double-cropping, e.g., fruit production from SD cultivars in fall and early winter and again in the spring in the mid-Atlantic coast region.
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BACKGROUND: Flower induction and the reproductive and vegetative behavior of strawberry plants depend on several agronomic and nutritional factors. OBJECTIVE: During propagation in the nursery, several fertigation techniques (nutrient amount and timing), rooting times and pot sizes were used to modify plant architecture. METHODS: Different levels of nutrient applications were tested by setting the fertigation composition at 700 or 1000 μScm−1 electrical conductivity. Fertigation was continuous, delayed or temporary during the summer growth of Elsanta and Capri runner plants, for tray and mini-tray plant production. Early and late rooting dates were also compared. RESULTS: The experiments showed the effects of the container type (tray and mini-tray) and the nutritional level on the plant architecture and reproductive behavior, with a major control of plant growth. Rooting time and fertigation timing also had some effects on plant architecture. CONCLUSIONS: Propagation and fertigation techniques can become effective strategies for manipulating the architecture and the reproductive behavior of the plant. However, the interaction between many growing factors and plant growth may reduce the predictability of the effects.
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This research was carried out to assess the relationship between the architecture of strawberry plants before chilling and winter-spring fruit production in a soilless forced culture system. On 11 September 2008, trayplants of the cultivar Gariguette were placed in a heated glasshouse and either exposed to long-day photoperiodic conditions or short-day photoperiodic conditions for 53 days. In addition, plants were held 26 days under short-day photoperiodic conditions followed by 27 days of long-day photoperiodic conditions or 26 days under long-day photoperiodic conditions followed by 27 days of short-day photoperiodic conditions. Architecture prior to chilling gave indications about the first fruit production period in winter-spring (1 March to 30 April 2009). The earliest short-day photoperiodic condition treatments produced the earliest fruits. These treatments exhibited the most developed inflorescences in the pre-chilling architectural analysis and the fewer nodes between the youngest expanded leaf and the terminal inflorescence. The plants that received 53 days of long-day photoperiodic conditions treatment had the least developed terminal inflorescence before chilling and the latest production. The architecture analysis of Gariguette trayplants could predict the earliness rank (first to last) but not the yield rank during the first harvest period.
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Strawberry (Fragaria×ananassa Duch.) production in sub-tropical areas is characterized by a low late-fall and early-winter fruit yield, a time when the value of the crop is highest. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility of waiting-bed plants for late fall and early winter production in order to increase early and total fruit yields in the Argentine sub-tropic. Plants of the cultivar ‘Chandler’ produced in a waiting-bed (WB), at high-latitude (HL), high-altitude (HA), or low-altitude (LA) were compared at two locations in Tucuman, NW Argentina: Famailla (1995, experiment 1; 1996, experiment 2) and Lules (1995, experiment 3). Total production from WB plants was 41% higher than from HA plants in experiment 1. Total production from WB plants was 83% and 53% greater than from HL plants and LA plants, respectively, in experiment 2. Early season fruit production was greater in WB (241%) than HL plants in experiment 2. In experiment 3, early fruit production from WB plants was greater than HL, HA, and LA, by 573%, 177%, and 158%, respectively. The number of marketable fruit from WB plants was greater than in the other treatments. WB percentages of marketable fruit were above 90%. WB plants could be considered as an alternative to HL, HA, and LA plants to improve fruit production and yield distribution in South American sub-tropical regions.
In Junebearing strawberry cultivars, flowering is induced by short photoperiod, which also reduces vegetative growth. The loss in vigour can lower yield if plants are not cold treated to restore vegetative growth. The aim of this study was to find a photoperiod treatment that induces flowering but does not reduce vegetative growth in strawberry 'Korona'. Plants were subjected to different photoperiods (12, 13.5 or 15 h) for varying durations (21, 35 or 49 d). After treatments, effects on plant development were recorded during forcing at 18 h daylength. Floral induction was comparably successful in 12 and 13.5 h photoperiods and the number of flowers and yield were increased by lengthening the treatment. Induction failed in many plants treated in a 15 h photoperiod and flowering was poor regardless of duration of treatment. Shorter photoperiod increased the number of branch crowns and reduced runner production, and these effects were enhanced by lengthening the treatment duration. Reduction in vegetative growth measured by petiole length was most obvious in 12 h photoperiod in all treatment durations, although the differences between treatments rapidly disappeared during forcing. Twelve and 13.5 h photoperiods were equally efficient in producing yield, but more vigorous vegetative growth was maintained during treatment in a 13.5 h photoperiod.
The architectural behaviour of the strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) is determined by many factors, including abiotic, agronomic, nutritional and environmental factors or the presence of stress. Our analysis of plant architecture detects and records the fate of all the meristems and scores the developmental stages of flower organs. The application of different growing techniques may guide the enhancement of vegetative or reproductive growth. Plants from different cultivation systems were dissected to determine plant architecture (number of stolons, number and topology of inflorescences, developmental stage of reproductive organs) and evaluate crop potential and plant quality in relation to production systems. These studies show that it may be possible to design production practices that promote vegetative or reproductive growth.
Qualità delle piante di fragola; Attitudine vegeto-riproduttiva; Differenziazione a fiore; Struttura dell’infiorescenza; Programmazione dell’architettura delle piante in vivaio; Fattori che influenzano l’architettura; Indicazioni colturali fornite dall’architettura. - Architecture of strawberry plants
This paper presents a method for describing plant architecture using topological and geometric information. This method is based on the use of a multiscale model of plant topology—called multiscale tree graphs—which is extended to include geometry. The relationships between both multiscale topology and geometry are explicitly identified and topology and geometry are shown to contain redundant information. This redundancy is expressed as sets of constraints between the geometrical parameters of plant components that belong either to one scale or to different scales. These within- and between-scale constraints are used to reduce the number of measurements when digitizing plant architecture and to implement the geometrical parameters that are not specified. Different solutions for simplifying plant architectural descriptions are proposed. The method, implemented in software dedicated to plant architecture analysis (AMAPmod), does not depend on the plant species or on the geometric model used to describe the plant components. The multiscale approach allows plant architecture to be represented at different levels of accuracy. This method is illustrated on two plants, a 3-year-old apple tree and a 20-year-old walnut tree, which correspond to applications of different sizes and with different goals for the representation.
It was previously shown that nitrogen fertilization immediately after commencement of SD exposure enhanced the floral induction effect of SD in June-bearing strawberries (Sønsteby et al., 2009). In order to optimize the timing of such fertilization under field conditions, seasonal timing of floral initiation in the strawberry cultivars ‘Frida’, ‘Polka’, ‘Korona’ and Florence’ was studied in the field at five contrasting latitudinal and altitudinal geographic locations in Norway and, for comparison, under controlled environment conditions with 12h photoperiod and temperatures ranging from 9 to 18°C. Serial collections and dissections of crowns from the various locations revealed that floral initiation was successively delayed with increasing latitude and altitude of the location, and with decreasing temperature under controlled environment conditions. Both in the field and in the phytotron, floral initiation was earliest in ‘Frida’ closely followed by ‘Polka’ and in due course by ‘Korona’ and finally ‘Florence’ which was particularly slow to respond. Floral initiation in the phytotron was progressively advanced with increasing temperature and was optimal at 15–18°C. Flowering time in the field was mainly determined by thermal relations in the spring and early summer, and accordingly, it was strongly delayed with increasing latitude and altitude of the location. In addition, late floral initiation in autumn also delayed flowering in the spring. Based on these observations, optimal timing of autumn fertilization for the various locations and cultivars are suggested.
The effects of photoperiod (12, 13, 14, 15 or 16h), day temperature (12, 15, 18, 24 or 27°C) and night temperature (6, 9 or 12°C) and their interactions on flower and inflorescence emergence were investigated by exposing 4 week old runner plants of strawberry cvs. Korona and Elsanta during a period of 3 weeks. A daily photoperiod of 12 or 13h resulted in the highest number of plants with emerged flowers. A photoperiod of 14h or more strongly reduced this number, while no flowers emerged at a photoperiod of 16h. Plants exposed to photoperiods of 12 or 13h flowered earlier and had longer flower trusses. A day temperature of 18°C and/or a night temperature of 12°C were optimal for plants to emerge flowers and resulted in the shortest time to flowering. A night temperature of 6°C strongly reduced the number of plants that emerged flowers, especially when combined with lower day temperatures. Photoperiod and temperature had no effect on the number of inflorescences, all flowering plants produced on average one inflorescence. The number of flowers on the inflorescence increased with decreasing day temperature and when photoperiod was raised from 12 to 15h. In general, ‘Korona’ was more sensitive to photoperiod and temperature as ‘Elsanta’, and had a lower optimal day temperature for flower emergence. Results of this experiment may be used to produce high quality plant material or to define optimal conditions when combining flower induction and fruit production.
The effects of timing of nitrogen (N) fertilization relative to the beginning of a 4-week floral-inducing short-day (SD) period have been studied in ‘Korona’ strawberry plants under controlled environment conditions. Groups of low fertility plants were fertilized with 100 ml of calcium nitrate solution for 3 days a week for a period of 3 weeks starting at various times before and at the beginning of the SD period, as well as at different times during the SD period. All plants, including SD and long day (LD) control plants, received a weekly fertilization with a low concentration complete fertilizer solution throughout the experiment. Leaf area, fresh and dry matter increments of leaves, crowns and roots, as well as leaf chlorophyll concentration (SPAD values) were monitored during the experimental period. A general enhancement of growth took place at all times of N fertilization. This was paralleled by an increase in leaf chlorophyll concentration, indicating that the control plants were in a mild state of N deficiency. When N fertilization was started 2 weeks before beginning of the SD period, flowering was delayed by 7 days, and this was gradually changed to an advancement of 8 days when the same treatment was started 3 weeks after the first SD. The amount of flowering was generally increased by N fertilization although the effect varied greatly with the time of N application. The greatest flowering enhancement occurred when N fertilization started 1 week after the first SD when the number of flowering crowns and the number of inflorescences per plant were more than doubled compared with the SD control, while fertilization 2 weeks before SD had no significant effect on these parameters. Importantly, the total number of crowns per plant was not affected by N fertilization at any time, indicating that enhancement of flowering was not due to an increase in potential inflorescence sites. No flowering took place in the control plants in LD. Possible physiological mechanisms involved and practical applications of the findings are discussed.
Growth and flowering of strawberry cultivars were studied in controlled environments. Early cultivars adapted to marginal growing areas in Scandinavia initiated flower buds in all photoperiods including continuous light at temperatures of 12 and 18°C. At 24°C they remained vegetative in photoperiods above 14 or 16 h. The later cultivars ‘Senga Sengana’ and ‘Abundance’ did not initiate flower buds in 24-h photoperiods at any of these temperatures. Their critical photoperiod changed from above 16 h at 12°C to about 14 and 13 h at 18 and 24°C, respectively. It is concluded that at high latitudes temperature is as important as photoperiod in controlling flowering in the strawberry. Stolon formation, petiole elongation, and leaf area growth were stimulated by high temperature and long days, usually with optima at 16 h and 18°C for petiole elongation and 16 h and 24°C for stolon formation. Although growth and flowering responses in general were opposite, the results indicate that they are to some extent independent. The photoperiodic growth responses were mainly of morphogenetic nature. Dry weight of stem and leaves was little influenced by photoperiod when the irradiance was kept constant.
temperature, light condition, flower initiation, fruit development, Straeberry
Six new strawberry varieties released
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