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Abstract

The architectural behaviour of the strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) is determined by many factors, including abiotic, agronomic, nutritional and environmental factors or the presence of stress. Our analysis of plant architecture detects and records the fate of all the meristems and scores the developmental stages of flower organs. The application of different growing techniques may guide the enhancement of vegetative or reproductive growth. Plants from different cultivation systems were dissected to determine plant architecture (number of stolons, number and topology of inflorescences, developmental stage of reproductive organs) and evaluate crop potential and plant quality in relation to production systems. These studies show that it may be possible to design production practices that promote vegetative or reproductive growth.

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... The quality of transplants used for establishment of grower's field is of high importance [1,2]. In Norway, until year 2015, when the borders were opened for import of strawberry plants, transplants had to be propagated in Norway under a strict control regime to avoid virus, pest and disease infection of plants. ...
... It has been shown in short day strawberry that in A-grade transplants with crown diameters 10-20 mm, yields were directly related to crown diameter [4]. Later, several authors have shown that increasing crown diameter from 6 to15 mm led to more flowers and higher yield and increased leaf area and ascorbic acid content in the fruit [2,[5][6][7]. However, in the cooler climates of the Nordic countries, where the transition to inductive short day conditions is delayed compared with lower latitudes, even plants with large crown diameter has not given plants with satisfactory flowering and yield potential (Sønsteby, unpublished results). ...
... The low yield especially in 2014 was partly because the average fruit weight was low, but also because the plants produced only one small sized inflorescence per plant with 5-12 flowers (Fig. 3). Nurseries further south in Europe delivered A+ (11-13 mm) plants with approximate 18 flowers per plant and A++ (16-18 mm) with 43 flowers per plant [2]. At Norwegian nurseries they normally remove the first runners because they are few, and therefore produce transplants on later developing runners to secure a large crop of transplants that they sell as a mixed plant size. ...
Article
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an fresh and cold stored bare-root- and plug-plants of ‘Korona’ and ‘Sonata’ were examined for establishing and yield parameters in the open, after three intervals of planting. Fresh plug-plants were delivered when available. Trials were established at NIBIO Research Station Kvithamar, Norway. Growth and yield parameters were registered in the establishing and cropping years. RESULTS: Plant establishment was poor in 2013 compared with 2014. Bare-root plants stored at 2–4°C generally developed poorly. Plug-plants established well at all delivery dates, except fresh plug in one year. Development of runner plants depended on plant type, cultivar and year. Plug- and bare-root-plants planted immediately after first delivery generally developed best crowns. Primary flower primordia reached a more developed stage for ‘Sonata’ than for ‘Korona’. Fruit yield of bare-root A15 and A13 was low in the establishing years. Plant-types differed in yield and fruit weight between cropping years. CONCLUSIONS: Bare-root and plug- plants planted one day after delivery generally yielded best. Storage of bare-root plants generally reduced yield. Fresh plug plants had low yield when planted late. Fruit yield of A15 and A13 in the establishing year was not satisfactory.
... Il basso numero di nodi presenti nella corona centrale e l'alta incidenza di nodi con destino riproduttivo, abbinate all'alto numero di fiori che possono complessivamente essere differenziati (Massetani e Neri, 2016) evidenzia anche che le tipologie rimontanti nel periodo di fine estate-inizio autunno possono effettuare una differenziazione a ...
... L'architettura della pianta di fragola conferma il modello di crescita simpodiale (Guttridge, 1952) in cui l'allungamento della corona avviene dalle posizioni laterali prossime a quella api-cale. In funzione del genotipo e delle condizioni colturali il comportamento riflette l'alto livello di plasticità della specie (Massetani e Neri, 2016). Ogni categoria di pianta ha una specifica capacità di sviluppare infiorescenze, germogli e stoloni. ...
... Although floral induction cannot be deduced by flower mapping, our results show that if flower mapping is performed at an appropriate time, its results are consistent with those obtained by analyzing molecular markers related to flowering (Figures 4, 7 and 8). Although the method is labor-intensive and requires special training, it remains essential for breeders that rely on its results to make important decisions concerning flowering and thus yield [15,42,43]. We also see that even when flowering has been induced, differences in post-induction environmental conditions can still influence initiation and subsequent stages of floral development (Figure 6), in accordance with previous reports [44,45]. ...
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Floral transition in the cultivated everbearing strawberry is a hot topic because these genotypes flower perpetually and are difficult to maintain in a non-flowering state. However, it has rarely been studied using morphogenetic and molecular analyses simultaneously. We therefore examined the morphogenetic effects and the activation of genes involved in floral induction and initiation in seedlings of an everbearing F1-hybrid. Seedlings were grown at 12, 19, and 26 °C under 10 h SD and 20 h LD conditions. We observed a strong environmental influence on meristem development and a FLOWERING LOCUS T1 (FaFT1)–SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS1 (FaSOC1) pathway similar to that in the everbearing woodland strawberry. The everbearing cultivar showed typical features of a quantitative LD plant, flowering earlier under LD than SD conditions at all temperatures. We also found that floral induction is facilitated by FaFT1 upregulation under LD conditions, while FaSOC1 upregulation in the apex leads to photoperiod-independent floral initiation. Moreover, we confirmed the strawberry meristem identity gene FaFUL can also be used as an early indicator of floral initiation in EB cultivars. This study also highlights the advantages of seed-propagated F1-hybrids in genetic studies, namely that they are genetically identical and not biased by a previous flowering history.
... Tray propagation techniques in the nursery must provide adequate conditions for flower induction and differentiation in late summer and early fall to optimize fruit production and quality during winter. Several studies related to strawberry architectural behaviour have proved that this method is as an effective tool in evaluating tray plant quality and also as predicting the timing and the extent of the potential harvest (Savini et al., 2004;Massetani and Neri, 2016;Valdiviesso et al., 2019). The plant architecture is represented as extended axes on which vegetative and reproductive organs (visibles and primordia) are drawn with different symbols and colours (Savini et al., 2005). ...
Article
Plants such as tray and mini-tray (in replace of bare-root plants) and artificial assimilation lighting systems on strawberry tunnels have been used to ensure better crop productivity and to increase the competitiveness of the Portuguese strawberry sector. In order to observe if LED (light emitting diodes) supplemental illumination will affect flower differentiation and development of short-day strawberry cultivars in southern Portugal, a field trial was established with tray and mini-tray plants of ‘Dream’ and ‘Darselect’ cultivars, grown under and without LED light (deep red/white/far-red). The artificial lighting was applied from October to January in complement to natural daylight keeping 16 h day-1 photoperiod. Plant architecture was established by plant dissection into crowns, leaves, inflorescences, flowers and fruits, and all the meristems of apical and lateral shoots were counted and distinguished as vegetative or reproductive. Tray plants were significantly more vigorous than mini-tray plants. Through meristems observation it was found that both cultivars developed inflorescences and flowers primordia that were differentiated in the nursery and no new differentiation occurred at 50 days after plantation (DAP). Afterward, flower differentiation took place again till the end of the growing season (110 DAP). LED light did not improve flower development during the first growing season. Although plants stop fruiting in January the apical meristems were in high activity. Further studies should be done to determine the flowering differentiation pattern throughout the first and second tray plant crop. Keywords: floral architecture, Fragaria × ananassa, mini-tray, tray, substrate culture
... Since, application of GA at high concentrations is reported to have an inhibitory action in plants (Hedden and Sponsel, 2015). The trifoliate leaves of strawberry are arranged in rosette at crowns and hence, the length of petiole determines the relative plant spread (Massetani and Neri, 2016). Therefore, the highest plant spread was recorded in plants that had boarder leaf lamina with longest petiole. ...
Article
Background: The South Gujarat hilly part is considered to be a non-traditional area of strawberry cultivation in India. The poor farmers of this region are cultivating strawberries under open field condition. Both, the yield and quality of strawberry fruits of this region are not up-to-the-mark as there in other parts of the country. Hence, a low-cost improved production technology is required to maximize yield as well as improve the quality of strawberry fruits. Method: Uniform runners of strawberry cv. Winter Dawn were grown in open field under paddy straw as bedding material. Foliar spraying of plant growth regulators viz. NAA (50, 75, 100 and 125 mg l-1) and GA3 (50, 75, 100 and 125 mg l-1) were done at 30 and 60 days after planting. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with control plants receiving no spray treatments and replicated thrice. Result: The plant growth parameters like plant spread, number of leaves, number of crowns, leaf area, length of petiole, number of runners were recorded maximum with the application of 100 mg l-1 GA3. This treatment was also found to be the best in respect of number of flowers, number of fruits, fruit weight, marketable and total fruit yield of strawberry. Strawberry fruits with the highest total soluble solid, ascorbic acid, reducing sugar, non-reducing sugar and total sugar content were recorded in the plants which received 125 mg l-1 NAA. However, the plant growth regulator treatments failed to influence any significant effect on days taken to 50.0% flowering, fruit firmness and acidity content of strawberry fruits.
... This flush is the consequence of the floral initiation that took place in preformed buds (Barthélémy and Caraglio, 2007) during the previous autumn when temperatures and day length decreased (reviewed in Heide et al., 2013). Usually, this first flowering flush derives from three well-differentiated inflorescences (Bosc et al., 2012;Massetani and Neri, 2016), which each end a primary or a secondary axis. After this first flush, environmental conditions are still favorable for floral initiation, without an intervening dormancy period, and the resulting flower buds are termed neoformed (Puntieri et al., 2002). ...
Article
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Plant development studies often generate data in the form of multivariate time series, each variable corresponding to a count of newly emerged organs for a given development process. These phenological data often exhibit highly-structured patterns and the aim of this study was to identify such patterns in cultivated strawberry. Six strawberry genotypes were observed weekly for their course of emergence of flowers, leaves and stolons along seven months. We here assume that these phenological series take the form of successive phases, synchronous between individuals. We applied univariate multiple change-point models for the identification of flowering, vegetative development and runnering phases and multivariate multiple change-point models for the identification of consensus phases for these three development processes. We show that the flowering and the runnering processes are the main determinants of the phenological pattern. On this basis, we propose a typology of the six genotypes in the form of a hierarchical classification. This study introduces a new longitudinal data modelling approach for the identification of phenological phases in plant development. The focus was on development variables but the approach can be directly extended to growth variables and to multivariate series combining growth and development variables.
... The architecture of the strawberry plant confirms the sympodial growing pattern (Guttridge, 1952). Depending on genotype and environment, the behaviour reflects the high plasticity of the species (Massetani and Neri, 2016). Each plant type has a specific ability to develop inflorescences, shoots and stolons. ...
Article
Strawberry plant architecture shows some constant features related to its sympodial growth. Variability of plant architecture is related to the distribution and position of the vegetative and reproductive structures along its short axis (rosette plant) and is determined by many factors, including abiotic, agronomic, nutritional and environmental factors. Nursery technique provides many plant types showing different architecture each one suitable for integrating in specific growing cycles. Plants from different nursery cultivation systems were dissected to determine plant architecture detecting and recording the fate of all the meristems before field cultivation. Branching pattern and organs topology were described in order to evaluate plant quality. The study shows that using specific propagation techniques, it may be possible to guide the architecture of the strawberry plants that can bear different number and distribution of shoots, inflorescences and stolons.
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Higher percentages of transplants of short-day cultivar 'Strawberry Festival' from runner tips plugged in early July rather than the standard time (early August) bloomed in the fall. Nearly 100% of the transplants produced in early July flowered in the fall, but less than 30% of the August-plugged transplants flowered in the fall. Under protected cultivation, July-plugged plants produced fruit in October, November and December. Illuminating the crowns of July-plugged transplants with red light in August delayed bloom by several months. In another study, growing transplants under red photoselective nets in August delayed flowering until January. The results of these studies suggested that floral bud initiation can be induced even under long photoperiod if the light illuminating the strawberry crown lacks red and shorter wavelength light whereas excessive red light transmittance either with red LED lights or growing transplants under red photoselective shade net in August delayed flower bud initiation. The colored nets did not affect runnering during fall months. The nursery industry can use the non-flowering transplants as stock plants because periodic flower removal is not needed for preventing infection by Colletotrichum species. Changing the time of plugging and altering the light quality for plug plant production will create an opportunity for double-cropping, e.g., fruit production from SD cultivars in fall and early winter and again in the spring in the mid-Atlantic coast region.
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BACKGROUND: Flower induction and the reproductive and vegetative behavior of strawberry plants depend on several agronomic and nutritional factors. OBJECTIVE: During propagation in the nursery, several fertigation techniques (nutrient amount and timing), rooting times and pot sizes were used to modify plant architecture. METHODS: Different levels of nutrient applications were tested by setting the fertigation composition at 700 or 1000 μScm−1 electrical conductivity. Fertigation was continuous, delayed or temporary during the summer growth of Elsanta and Capri runner plants, for tray and mini-tray plant production. Early and late rooting dates were also compared. RESULTS: The experiments showed the effects of the container type (tray and mini-tray) and the nutritional level on the plant architecture and reproductive behavior, with a major control of plant growth. Rooting time and fertigation timing also had some effects on plant architecture. CONCLUSIONS: Propagation and fertigation techniques can become effective strategies for manipulating the architecture and the reproductive behavior of the plant. However, the interaction between many growing factors and plant growth may reduce the predictability of the effects.
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This research was carried out to assess the relationship between the architecture of strawberry plants before chilling and winter-spring fruit production in a soilless forced culture system. On 11 September 2008, trayplants of the cultivar Gariguette were placed in a heated glasshouse and either exposed to long-day photoperiodic conditions or short-day photoperiodic conditions for 53 days. In addition, plants were held 26 days under short-day photoperiodic conditions followed by 27 days of long-day photoperiodic conditions or 26 days under long-day photoperiodic conditions followed by 27 days of short-day photoperiodic conditions. Architecture prior to chilling gave indications about the first fruit production period in winter-spring (1 March to 30 April 2009). The earliest short-day photoperiodic condition treatments produced the earliest fruits. These treatments exhibited the most developed inflorescences in the pre-chilling architectural analysis and the fewer nodes between the youngest expanded leaf and the terminal inflorescence. The plants that received 53 days of long-day photoperiodic conditions treatment had the least developed terminal inflorescence before chilling and the latest production. The architecture analysis of Gariguette trayplants could predict the earliness rank (first to last) but not the yield rank during the first harvest period.
Article
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Strawberry (Fragaria×ananassa Duch.) production in sub-tropical areas is characterized by a low late-fall and early-winter fruit yield, a time when the value of the crop is highest. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility of waiting-bed plants for late fall and early winter production in order to increase early and total fruit yields in the Argentine sub-tropic. Plants of the cultivar ‘Chandler’ produced in a waiting-bed (WB), at high-latitude (HL), high-altitude (HA), or low-altitude (LA) were compared at two locations in Tucuman, NW Argentina: Famailla (1995, experiment 1; 1996, experiment 2) and Lules (1995, experiment 3). Total production from WB plants was 41% higher than from HA plants in experiment 1. Total production from WB plants was 83% and 53% greater than from HL plants and LA plants, respectively, in experiment 2. Early season fruit production was greater in WB (241%) than HL plants in experiment 2. In experiment 3, early fruit production from WB plants was greater than HL, HA, and LA, by 573%, 177%, and 158%, respectively. The number of marketable fruit from WB plants was greater than in the other treatments. WB percentages of marketable fruit were above 90%. WB plants could be considered as an alternative to HL, HA, and LA plants to improve fruit production and yield distribution in South American sub-tropical regions.
Article
In Junebearing strawberry cultivars, flowering is induced by short photoperiod, which also reduces vegetative growth. The loss in vigour can lower yield if plants are not cold treated to restore vegetative growth. The aim of this study was to find a photoperiod treatment that induces flowering but does not reduce vegetative growth in strawberry 'Korona'. Plants were subjected to different photoperiods (12, 13.5 or 15 h) for varying durations (21, 35 or 49 d). After treatments, effects on plant development were recorded during forcing at 18 h daylength. Floral induction was comparably successful in 12 and 13.5 h photoperiods and the number of flowers and yield were increased by lengthening the treatment. Induction failed in many plants treated in a 15 h photoperiod and flowering was poor regardless of duration of treatment. Shorter photoperiod increased the number of branch crowns and reduced runner production, and these effects were enhanced by lengthening the treatment duration. Reduction in vegetative growth measured by petiole length was most obvious in 12 h photoperiod in all treatment durations, although the differences between treatments rapidly disappeared during forcing. Twelve and 13.5 h photoperiods were equally efficient in producing yield, but more vigorous vegetative growth was maintained during treatment in a 13.5 h photoperiod.
Article
Strawberries (Fragaria Xananassa Duch.) classified as day-neutrals (‘Hecker’ and ‘Tristar’), Junebearers (‘Redchief’ and ‘Guardian’), and everbearers (‘Ourown’ and ‘Ozark Beauty’) were grown at a constant 21°C under 16 hour long days (LD), 9 hour short days (SD), or 9 hours with the dark period interrupted by 3 hours of low-level incandescent radiation [night interruption (NI)]. Flowering of day-neutrals was unaffected by photoperiod; Junebearer flowering was inhibited under NI and LD compared to SD; flowering of everbearers was promoted by LD compared to SD. Runner production was greatest for all types under LD, followed by NI then SD. Everbearers produced more runners than the other types. Effects of photoperiod on total, nonstructural carbohydrates varied with photoperiodic type and tissue sampled. The 3 types of strawberries were grown also under SD and NI under day/night temperature regimes of 18°/14°, 22°/18°, 26°/22°, and 30°/26°C. With number of inflorescences and runners and total dry weight per plant, significant photoperiod × temperature × type interactions were found. Results indicate that current classification of strawberry cultivars into photoperiodic type is inadequate.
Chapter
Qualità delle piante di fragola; Attitudine vegeto-riproduttiva; Differenziazione a fiore; Struttura dell’infiorescenza; Programmazione dell’architettura delle piante in vivaio; Fattori che influenzano l’architettura; Indicazioni colturali fornite dall’architettura. - Architecture of strawberry plants
Article
It was previously shown that nitrogen fertilization immediately after commencement of SD exposure enhanced the floral induction effect of SD in June-bearing strawberries (Sønsteby et al., 2009). In order to optimize the timing of such fertilization under field conditions, seasonal timing of floral initiation in the strawberry cultivars ‘Frida’, ‘Polka’, ‘Korona’ and Florence’ was studied in the field at five contrasting latitudinal and altitudinal geographic locations in Norway and, for comparison, under controlled environment conditions with 12h photoperiod and temperatures ranging from 9 to 18°C. Serial collections and dissections of crowns from the various locations revealed that floral initiation was successively delayed with increasing latitude and altitude of the location, and with decreasing temperature under controlled environment conditions. Both in the field and in the phytotron, floral initiation was earliest in ‘Frida’ closely followed by ‘Polka’ and in due course by ‘Korona’ and finally ‘Florence’ which was particularly slow to respond. Floral initiation in the phytotron was progressively advanced with increasing temperature and was optimal at 15–18°C. Flowering time in the field was mainly determined by thermal relations in the spring and early summer, and accordingly, it was strongly delayed with increasing latitude and altitude of the location. In addition, late floral initiation in autumn also delayed flowering in the spring. Based on these observations, optimal timing of autumn fertilization for the various locations and cultivars are suggested.
Article
The effects of photoperiod (12, 13, 14, 15 or 16h), day temperature (12, 15, 18, 24 or 27°C) and night temperature (6, 9 or 12°C) and their interactions on flower and inflorescence emergence were investigated by exposing 4 week old runner plants of strawberry cvs. Korona and Elsanta during a period of 3 weeks. A daily photoperiod of 12 or 13h resulted in the highest number of plants with emerged flowers. A photoperiod of 14h or more strongly reduced this number, while no flowers emerged at a photoperiod of 16h. Plants exposed to photoperiods of 12 or 13h flowered earlier and had longer flower trusses. A day temperature of 18°C and/or a night temperature of 12°C were optimal for plants to emerge flowers and resulted in the shortest time to flowering. A night temperature of 6°C strongly reduced the number of plants that emerged flowers, especially when combined with lower day temperatures. Photoperiod and temperature had no effect on the number of inflorescences, all flowering plants produced on average one inflorescence. The number of flowers on the inflorescence increased with decreasing day temperature and when photoperiod was raised from 12 to 15h. In general, ‘Korona’ was more sensitive to photoperiod and temperature as ‘Elsanta’, and had a lower optimal day temperature for flower emergence. Results of this experiment may be used to produce high quality plant material or to define optimal conditions when combining flower induction and fruit production.
Article
The effects of timing of nitrogen (N) fertilization relative to the beginning of a 4-week floral-inducing short-day (SD) period have been studied in ‘Korona’ strawberry plants under controlled environment conditions. Groups of low fertility plants were fertilized with 100 ml of calcium nitrate solution for 3 days a week for a period of 3 weeks starting at various times before and at the beginning of the SD period, as well as at different times during the SD period. All plants, including SD and long day (LD) control plants, received a weekly fertilization with a low concentration complete fertilizer solution throughout the experiment. Leaf area, fresh and dry matter increments of leaves, crowns and roots, as well as leaf chlorophyll concentration (SPAD values) were monitored during the experimental period. A general enhancement of growth took place at all times of N fertilization. This was paralleled by an increase in leaf chlorophyll concentration, indicating that the control plants were in a mild state of N deficiency. When N fertilization was started 2 weeks before beginning of the SD period, flowering was delayed by 7 days, and this was gradually changed to an advancement of 8 days when the same treatment was started 3 weeks after the first SD. The amount of flowering was generally increased by N fertilization although the effect varied greatly with the time of N application. The greatest flowering enhancement occurred when N fertilization started 1 week after the first SD when the number of flowering crowns and the number of inflorescences per plant were more than doubled compared with the SD control, while fertilization 2 weeks before SD had no significant effect on these parameters. Importantly, the total number of crowns per plant was not affected by N fertilization at any time, indicating that enhancement of flowering was not due to an increase in potential inflorescence sites. No flowering took place in the control plants in LD. Possible physiological mechanisms involved and practical applications of the findings are discussed.
Article
Growth and flowering of strawberry cultivars were studied in controlled environments. Early cultivars adapted to marginal growing areas in Scandinavia initiated flower buds in all photoperiods including continuous light at temperatures of 12 and 18°C. At 24°C they remained vegetative in photoperiods above 14 or 16 h. The later cultivars ‘Senga Sengana’ and ‘Abundance’ did not initiate flower buds in 24-h photoperiods at any of these temperatures. Their critical photoperiod changed from above 16 h at 12°C to about 14 and 13 h at 18 and 24°C, respectively. It is concluded that at high latitudes temperature is as important as photoperiod in controlling flowering in the strawberry. Stolon formation, petiole elongation, and leaf area growth were stimulated by high temperature and long days, usually with optima at 16 h and 18°C for petiole elongation and 16 h and 24°C for stolon formation. Although growth and flowering responses in general were opposite, the results indicate that they are to some extent independent. The photoperiodic growth responses were mainly of morphogenetic nature. Dry weight of stem and leaves was little influenced by photoperiod when the irradiance was kept constant.
Article
temperature, light condition, flower initiation, fruit development, Straeberry
Article
The effects of various defoliation treatments on flower initiation were studied in the strawberry var. Talisman, which is a facultative short-day plant, with particular reference to differences in the inductive capacity of leaves of differing maturity. Plants from which all mature leaves had been removed to leave only two immature leaves flowered in longer photoperiods than intact controls, and conversely plants bearing only three fully mature and no immature leaves required a shorter photoperiod for flower initiation than intact plants. Intact plants in constant darkness and totally defoliated plants in continuous light both initiated flowers, but intact plants in continuous light failed to flower. It is submitted that these results provide evidence that the photoperiodic control of flowering in this plant operates through a flower inhibitor produced in the leaves. They also show that although leaves of any maturity are able to inhibit flower initiation, under some conditions mature leaves are more inhibitory than immature, and that the inhibitory activity of any leaf decreases with decreasing photoperiod.
Six new strawberry varieties released
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Changes in growth and yield of strawberry (cv. Maehyang and Seolhyang) in response to defoliation during nursery period
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Kim, D.Y., Kim, T.I., Kim, W.S., Kang, Y.I., Yun, H.K., Choi, J.M., and Yoon, M.K. (2011). Changes in growth and yield of strawberry (cv. Maehyang and Seolhyang) in response to defoliation during nursery period. J. Bio-Environment Control 20, 283-289.
Die Wirchung zeitlich begrenzter Wassergaben auf Wuchsund Ertragleistun von Erdbeeren
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Naumann, W.D. (1961). Die Wirchung zeitlich begrenzter Wassergaben auf Wuchsund Ertragleistun von Erdbeeren. Gartenbau 26, 441-458.
Strawberry growth and flowering. An architectural model
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Savini, G., Neri, D., Zucconi, F., and Sugiyama, N. (2005). Strawberry growth and flowering. An architectural model. Int. J. Fruit Sci. 5 (1), 29-50 http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J492v05n01_04.
Korona and Elsanta, at different photoperiods
  • Fragaria
  • Duch
Fragaria × ananassa Duch., cvs. Korona and Elsanta, at different photoperiods. Sci. Hortic. (Amsterdam) 112 (2), 200-206 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2006.12.022.