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Abstract

This study was undertaken to investigate the antifungal effect of DL-limonene on yeasts using disk diffusion and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The effect of DL-limonene on ethyl alcohol fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae was also investigated. According to disk diffusion results, the development of an inhibition zone was observed in all microorganisms tested. The inhibition zones were larger than those occurring with the Fungizone antibiotic used as the control. Inhibition zone diameters increased with increasing amounts of DL-limonene. MIC results varied between 500 and 4000 mu g mL(-1) depending on the yeast strain. DL-limonene at a concentration of 0.20% (w v(-1)) inhibited cell growth, ethanol formation, and sugar utilization by S. cerevisiae.

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... D-limonene has been reported to inhibit E. coli, S. Aureus, Salmonella sp and Pseudomonas sp. It has also been shown to inhibit some yeast species; Sachharomyces elipsoideus, Wilia hansenula and Oidium lactis (Unal et al., 2012) [13] . ...
... D-limonene has been reported to inhibit E. coli, S. Aureus, Salmonella sp and Pseudomonas sp. It has also been shown to inhibit some yeast species; Sachharomyces elipsoideus, Wilia hansenula and Oidium lactis (Unal et al., 2012) [13] . ...
Experiment Findings
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This study was aimed to look at the in vitro antimicrobial activities and chemical components of the volatile oil obtained from dry peels of Citrus aurantium (bitter orange). The essential oils of this plant were obtained by steam distillation technique and chemical compositions were analyzed by exploring chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method. The susceptible effects of this oil were tested against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) and Candida albican (C. albican) by using agar disc diffusion and dilution broth techniques. The results obtained were able to reflect its antimicrobial activities against P. aeruginosa and C. albican with zone inhibition diameter of 13 mm and 22 mm when compared with standard antibiotic. In contrast, the oil exhibited wide range of antimicrobial activity against P. aeruginosa with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and maximum bacteriocidal concentration (MBC) of 250 µg/mL when compare to C. albican with minimum inhibitory concentration of 500 µg/mL and maximum fungicidal concentration (MFC) greater than 500 µg/mL. The GC-MS analysis discovered the presence of D-Limonene with 38.13% that had highest share space follow by (-)-β-Fenchol with 6.83%. These might accounted for the antimicrobial properties of the essential oils. The encouraging results indicate the essential oils of C. aurantium may well be exploited as natural antibiotic for the management of many infectious disease elicited by these microorganisms.
... Terpenes from volatile oil of medicinal plants are reported to be powerful antimicrobial agents. Effect of DL-limonene in inhibition of cell growth, ethanol formation, and sugar utilization by S. cerevisiae has also been reported (Unal et al., 2012). Essential oil C. limonum and C. aurantium were effective in inhibition of microorganism growth in multi-species biofilms in the oral cavity, which included Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus faecalis responsible for atrophic candidiasis, periradicular disease, endodontic infections and several other infections (Oliveira et al., 2014). ...
... The variation seen in the percentage yield may be due to the differences in climatic conditions, soil quality and methods of extraction. In several studies on citrus varieties, peel oil consisted of limonene as the most predominant component followed by β-myrcene, α-pinene, β-phellandrene, 3carene and nonane, -pinene, -terpinene (Zohra et al., 2015;Okunuwo et al., 2013;Javed et al., 2014;Vasudeva and Sharma, 2012;Sorrou et al., 2013), another study (Takaya et al., 2008) on oil extract of peel of Citrus aurantium L. found β-pinene (0.62%-19.08%), limonene (0.53%-94.67%), trans-β-ocimene (3.11%-6.06%), linalool (0.76%-58.21%), and α-terpineol (0.13%-12.89%) as major components. ...
Article
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Essential oils derived from plants by hydro distillation possess several medicinal properties. Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merr. fruit is nutritive, cardiotonic, refrigerant, in stomach troubles, puerperal sepsis and insanity; while leaves are useful in epilepsy, chorea, convulsive cough and stomach pain due to indigestion. Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectroscopy (GCMS) has been used for detection and identification of volatile components from the hydro-distillate from leaf and rind of Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merr. of Rutaceae. Yield of oil was more in rind (0.12%) compared to leaf (0.07%). Forty two and thirty four compounds were detected from leaf and fruit respectively, among which citronellol (28.26%) was the major component in the leaves while D-limonene (89.04%) in the rind. Volatile compounds responsible for various medicinal properties are identified from hydro-distillate of Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merr. from Dakshina Kannada using GC-MS.
... Regarding its major compounds, it was shown that β-pinene inhibited the growth of Candida spp., C. neoformans, Trichophyton spp. and A. fumigatus [59][60][61][62][63]. Several studies reported the antifungal effect of limonene against Candida spp., A. fumigatus, T. rubrum and several other fungi [60,[64][65][66][67][68][69][70]. In contrast, borneol presented a very weak activity against several fungal strains [60,[71][72][73][74]. Similarly, myrcene presents low antifungal activity [75][76][77][78][79]. ...
Article
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Fungal infections and the accompanying inflammatory responses are associated with great morbidity and mortality due to the frequent relapses triggered by an increased resistance to antifungal agents. Furthermore, this inflammatory state can be exacerbated during inflammaging and cellular senescence. Essential oils (EO) are receiving increasing interest in the field of drug discovery due to their lipophilic nature and complex composition, making them suitable candidates in the development of new antifungal drugs and modulators of numerous molecular targets. This work chemically characterized the EO from Santolina rosmarinifolia L., collected in Setúbal (Portugal), and assessed its antifungal potential by determining its minimum inhibitory (MIC) and minimum lethal (MLC) concentration in accordance with the Clinical Laboratory Standard Guidelines (CLSI) guidelines, as well as its effect on several Candida albicans virulence factors. The anti-inflammatory effect was unveiled using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages by assessing several pro-inflammatory mediators. The wound healing and anti-senescence potential of the EO was also disclosed. The EO was mainly characterized by β-pinene (29.6%), borneol (16.9%), myrcene (15.4%) and limonene (5.7%). It showed a strong antifungal effect against yeasts and filamentous fungi (MIC = 0.07–0.29 mg/mL). Furthermore, it inhibited dimorphic transition (MIC/16), decreased biofilm formation with a preeminent effect after 24 h (MIC/2) and disrupted preformed biofilms in C. albicans. Additionally, the EO decreased nitric oxide (NO) release (IC50 = 0.52 mg/mL) and pro-IL-1β and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in LPS-stimulated macrophages, promoted wound healing (91% vs. 81% closed wound) and reduced cellular senescence (53% vs. 73% β-galactosidase-positive cells). Overall, this study highlights the relevant pharmacological properties of S. rosmarinifolia, opening new avenues for its industrial exploitation.
... Stock solutions for each of these compounds (0.5% (w/v) bioactive compound) were prepared using milli-Q ® water containing 0.5% (v/v) Tween 80 (Sigma Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA). Tween 80 is a surfactant that has been reported to enhance the solubility of an hydrophobic compound [34]. The preparation of the cultivation media containing 2.4, 24, and 240 mg/L bioactive compounds was carried out in a similar fashion to the compounds with ethanol solvent. ...
Article
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The fermentation of fruit processing residuals (FPRs) with filamentous fungi can provide protein-rich food products. However, FPRs that contain bioactive compounds with antimicrobial properties present a major challenge. In this work, the resistance of two edible filamentous fungi, Rhizopus oligosporus and Neurospora intermedia, to 10 typically inhibiting bioactive compounds available in FPRs (epicatechin, quercetin, ellagic acid, betanin, octanol, hexanal, D-limonene, myrcene, car-3-ene, and ascorbic acid) was examined. These compounds’ inhibitory and stimulatory effects on fungal growth were examined individually. Three different concentrations (2.4, 24, and 240 mg/L) within the natural concentration range of these compounds in FPRs were tested. These bioactive compounds stimulated the growth yield and glucose consumption rate of R. oligosporus, while there was no increase in the biomass yield of N. intermedia. Ellagic acid caused an up to four-fold increase in the biomass yield of R. oligosporus. In addition, octanol and D-limonene showed antifungal effects against N. intermedia. These results may be helpful in the development of fungus-based novel fermented foods.
... Diameter of zones were measured with a ruler. The sensitivity of the microorganisms to the studied waters was revealed by measuring the inhibitory zones size on the agar surface around the discs [10][11][12][13]. ...
Article
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The aim of the actual study is to evaluate antimicrobial and antioxidant potentials, total phenolic contents of thyme (Thymus sp.), myrtle (Myrtus communis L.), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus L.) and rosemary herbal waters (Rosmarinus officinalis L.). They were bought a retailer in Giresun. In the studies, it was determined that only thyme water exhibited antimicrobial activity in all herbal waters. Streptomycine, tetracycline and nystatin which were synthetic antimicrobials demonstrated higher activity than studied herbal waters. Moreover; total flavonoid contents of the tested waters ranges from 50.19±0.0038 µL CE/mL to 126.15±0.004 µL CE/mL. The highest and the lowest total phenolic contents were detected in the thyme water and the eucalyptus water as 688.18±0.009 µL GAE/mL and 24.54±0.0008 µL GAE/mL, respectively. DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities of the herbal waters exhibited a dose dependent manner and increased with increasing conentrations. As a result of this study, it was concluded that thyme water could be an alternative to synthetic antimicrobial agents and thyme water, myrtle water, eucalyptus water and rosemary waters might be an alternative to synthetic antioxidative agents. Hence, further and detailed investigations are needed to determine active constituents in the herbal waters.
... Second, limonene, a monoterpene, which is produced by many plants and algae including diatoms (Wise 2003, Meskhidze et al. 2015 and cyanobacteria, has allelopathic effects on other phytoplankton (Hu et al. 2014, Zuo 2019, and has antifungal (Ünal et al. 2012) andantibacterial (Pathirana et al. 2018) effects. Although the amount of limonene was not significantly different between host species and between infection status, it could be involved in the constitutive defense of hosts to fungal/bacterial infections. ...
Article
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Host-parasite interactions between phytoplankton and fungi (chytrids) are key processes in aquatic ecosystems. However, individual-level heterogeneity in these interactions remains unexplored, although its importance in predicting the spread of diseases has been demonstrated in epidemiology. In this study, we experimentally tested whether individual-level heterogeneity could be a good indicator of phytoplankton-chytrid interactions, using a freshwater green alga Staurastrum sp., the diatoms Ulnaria sp. and Fragilaria crotonensis , and chytrid fungi. The number of attached fungi per host cell showed a non-random clumped parasite distribution on Ulnaria sp. and F. crotonensis , but a random Poisson distribution on Staurastrum sp. To explore the potential mechanisms of these patterns, we developed a mathematical model describing sequential encounters between chytrid zoospores and host cells. The statistical fits of the model explained the parasite distributions for Ulnaria sp. and F. crotonensis well, indicating that the clumped parasite distributions may result from an infection rate, increasing with the number of infections that already occurred on each host cell. Simultaneous analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from uninfected and infected host populations revealed that, among 13 VOCs detected, 6 components characterized the differences in VOC compositions between species and infection status. In particular, the level of beta-ionone, potentially acting against fungal activities, was significantly reduced in the presence of chytrid infection of Staurastrum sp. These VOCs are targets for future studies, which potentially act as chemical signals influencing chytrid zoospores’ behaviors. The combination of mathematical and chemical analyses represents a promising approach to better understand the individual-level processes of phytoplankton-chytrid interactions.
... 38 The inhibitory activity of the essential oil may be a cumulative effect of D-Limonene and some other unidentified components or flavonoids and phenolic compound present. 39 For instance, Flavonoids are known as antimicrobial agents and some phenolic compounds have been shown to inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus. 40 ...
Article
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The use of Essential Oils as antimicrobial agents have become popular over the years in an attempt to find alternative ways of dealing with strains of bacteria that have become resistant to conventional antibiotics. This study was carried out to compare the antimicrobial effects of Citrus peel essential oils obtained from Okene Main Market, 7'33'4.39'' N 6'14'9.20'' E, Kogi State, Nigeria, on the clinical isolates of some microorganisms (Escherichia coli, Pseudesomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Aspergillus niger). The oils were extracted from the peels using the cold maceration method with n-hexane as the solvent. The agar diffusion method was used to test the susceptibility of the micro-organism strains using ciprofloxacin as the standard positive control. The experiment was carried out in duplicates and obtained data was analysed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT), with P<0.05 considered significant. The results revealed that Orange (Citrus sinensis) exhibited the inhibitoriest effect on the test isolates followed by lime (Citus aurantifolia) and Lemon (Citrus Limon) with the least significant effect.
... DL-limonene and β-pinene, two cyclic hydrocarbons, exhibited antifungal activity with MIC values of 20 and 16 mM, respectively. An almost 100× higher MIC value for DL-limonene on S. cerevisiae (2,000 mg/L) was reported (Thakre et al., 2018;Ünal et al., 2012), and associated to programmed cell death. ...
Article
The antifungal activity of twenty monoterpenes, currently found as main compounds in many essential oils, were evaluated against the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), Minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC), and the time/dosage effect of selected monoterpenes were determined. The results showed that oxygenated monoterpenes exhibited higher fungistatic and fungicidal activity than hydrocarbons. Among oxygenated monoterpenes, the more effectives were citral, geraniol, citronellol, and citronellal, with MIC and MFC values between 0.64 and 3.68 mM, and 1.56 and 6.25 mM, respectively. Time response experiments showed that the selected monoterpenes rapidly reduce yeast cell viability in a time and dose‐dependent manner. Moreover, the reduction of viability was associated with loss of cell membrane integrity. These results may aid in the selection of essential oils for the control of undesirable yeasts or fungi, and serve as a basis for the study of chemical structure influence on the mode of action of monoterpenes.
... According to Thakre et al. (2018), limonene has destructive effects on the yeast cell surface, thereby resulting in the induction of apoptosis and strongly inhibits C. albicans growth [21]. Furthermore, Ünal et al. (2012) indicated that limonene (10 µL) exhibited a higher antifungal activity than antibiotic Fungizone (50 µL) against 12 strains of tested yeast [22]. Celery seed essential oil has been found to exhibit a strong inhibitory effect against E. coli and good activity against P. aeruginosa, B. subtilis, and S. aureus [13,23,24]. ...
Article
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The aim of the research was to increase the efficiency of the hydrodistillation process and determine the volatile composition, biological activity, and aroma profile of essential oil from celery seeds (Apium graveolens L.). The essential oil was extracted from the plant material by ultrasonic hydrodistillation with higher efficiency when compared with classical hydrodistillation. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated using the impedimetric method for the bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, and yeast Candida vini as well as moulds Aspergillus niger and Penicillium expansum with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) (μL/mL) values: 30, 10, 20, 3, 30, 40, and 40, respectively. The oil possessed very weak 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) antioxidant activity with the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 81.6 g/L. Initial studies of the aroma profile indicated that the perception of the fragrance of the oil could be related to the sex of the panellists. According to women, the fragrance of celery seeds oil was intense herb-like. From the men’s point of view, it had a fresh, mossy, and mushroom scent.
... It was found that limonene possessed significant antifungal activity against all the tested strains because of their ability to inhibit pectin methylesterase and cellulase enzymes of tested fungi.78 Unal et al79 used the disc diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration to investigate the antifungal activity of DL-limonene on 14 yeasts. They also studied the inhibitory effect of DL-limonene on ethyl alcohol fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. ...
Article
Anethum graveolens L. (dill), a member of Umbelliferae family, is an important essential oil‐bearing herb native to the Mediterranean and West Asia. It is well documented for its medicinal and traditional uses. The chemical composition of dill seed essential oil showed the presence of numerous volatile compounds with carvone, limonene, α‐phellandrene, β‐phellandrene and p‐cymene being the major ones in almost all its aerial parts. Thus, the main focus of this updated review is to highlight the biological importance of dill essential oil and its major constituents (carvone and limonene) reported till date. Although the number of reviews has been published on its chemical composition and medicinal uses, its role in the field of agriculture to develop commercial formulations is still needed to be explored. In brief, the information presented in this review will be useful in creating interest in the use of dill essential oil and its major constituents for the development of commercial plant‐based pesticides.
... Concretely, limonene represents a safer and "greener" alternative to commercial synthesized antimicrobial products whose environmental and human health safety are disputed. In fact, Ünal et al. demonstrated the broad-spectrum and dose-dependent antifungal effect of limonene, showing higher effectiveness than standard product Fungizone ® at even lower doses (10 µL) [41]. Even more, limonene can modulate the antimicrobial effect of commonly used antibiotics against certain strains [42]. ...
Article
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Limonene, mainly found as a major component in Citrus spp., has been proven to possess a valuable potential as sustainable replacement to synthetic pesticides and food preservatives. This review intends to give a clear overview of the principal emerging applications of limonene in the agri-food industry as antimicrobial, herbicidal and antioxidant agent. To successfully use limonene in a greener agri-food industry, its preservation had become a top concern for manufacturers. In order to elucidate the most efficient and sustainable manner to encapsulate limonene, the different techniques and materials tested up to the present are also reviewed. In general, encapsulation conserves and protects limonene from outside aggressions, but also allows its controlled release as well as enhances its low water solubility, which can be critical for the discussed applications. Other parameters such as scalability, low cost and availability of equipment will need to be taken into account. Further efforts would likely be oriented to the elucidation of encapsulating sustainable systems obtained by cost-efficient elaboration processes, which can deliver effective concentrations of limonene without affecting crops and food products.
... Antifungal activity was determined by disc diffusion method with Sabaroud Dextrose Agar (SDA) and Sabaroud Dextrose Broth (SDB) [7,8]. All antimicrobial tests were done twice. ...
Article
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The inhibitory action of the extracts of Protoparmeliopsis muralis and Parmotrema perlatum lichens was evaluated by disc diffusion and macrobroth dilution methods. The obtained results revealed that extracts generally showed antimicrobial activity except for water extracts. P. muralis lichen possess higher antimicrobial activity when compared with P. perlatum lichen. Minimum Inhibition Concentration (MIC) values of fungi is comparatively lower than MIC values of bacteria. Therefore, this work confirms the inhibitory effects of P. muralis and P. perlatum lichens as natural antimicrobials and suggests the possibility of utilizing them in pharmaceutical industry for curing of infectious diseases caused by test microorganisms.
... Moreover, Pinto et al. [21] also demonstrated that this compound exhibits a strong fungistatic and fungicidal activity, with this effect being preeminent for Candida and Aspergillus spp. Several authors have also described the antifungal activity of limonene against several fungi strains [36][37][38][39]. Therefore, the activity of these major compounds of D. carota subsp. ...
Article
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The essential oil of Daucus carota subsp. carota from Portugal, with high amounts of geranyl acetate (29.0%), α -pinene (27.2%), and 11 α H-himachal-4-en-1 β -ol (9.2%), was assessed for its biological potential. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated against several Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts, dermatophytes, and Aspergillus strains. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal lethal concentration (MLC) were evaluated showing a significant activity towards Gram-positive bacteria (MIC = 0.32–0.64 μ L/mL), Cryptococcus neoformans (0.16 μ L/mL), and dermatophytes (0.32–0.64 μ L/mL). The inhibition of the germ tube formation and the effect of the oil on Candida albicans biofilms were also unveiled. The oil inhibited more than 50% of filamentation at concentrations as low as 0.04 μ L/mL (MIC/128) and decreased both biofilm mass and cell viability. The antioxidant capacity of the oil, as assessed by two in chemico methods, was not relevant. Still, it seems to exhibit some anti-inflammatory potential by decreasing nitric oxide production around 20% in LPS-stimulated macrophages, without decreasing macrophages viability. Moreover, the oils safety profile was assessed on keratinocytes, alveolar epithelial cells, macrophages, and hepatocytes. Overall, the oil demonstrated a safety profile at concentrations below 0.64 μ L/mL. The present work highlights the bioactive potential of D. carota subsp. carota suggesting its industrial exploitation.
... In orange essential oil, there are a large number of compounds used in the food and beverage industry as antimicrobial agents. Limonene, a terpene with high antimicrobial activity, is the compound in greatest abundance (Mustafa et al., 2012). ...
Article
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The aim of this work was to evaluate the bioconversion of (+)-valencene to (+)-nootkatone by B. theobromae using a membrane aerated biofilm reactor (MABR) in a two liquid phase system with orange essential oil as the organic phase. In the aqueous phase system, a (+)-nootkatone production rate up to 3.98 mg L-1 h-1 was achieved, obtaining a final product concentration of 398.08 mg L-1 with a bioconversion of 62 %. A two liquid phase system, using orange essential oil as the dispersed phase, was also studied and a final (+)-nootkatone concentration of 310.37 mg L-1 was achieved in the organic phase, with a bioconversion of 30.5 % and a production rate of 2.46 mg L-1 day-1. The lower performance obtained using the two phase system was probably due to mass transfer limitations. The present work is the first report on an MABR for the bioconversion of (+)-valencene to (+)-nootkatone. Further studies on bioconversion products and optimization of biofilm reactor operations are needed to enhance bioconversion. © 2014, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa. All rights reserved.
... Essential oil contains a large number of sesquiterpene compounds and can be potentially used as a broad spectrum green pesticide (Koul, Walia, & Dhaliwal, 2008). The largest compound present in orange essential oil is limonene, a terpene with high antimicrobial activity (Mustafa, Filiz, Aysun, & Sadık, 2012). ...
Article
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The production of (+)-nootkatone, highly appreciated by fragrance and flavour industries, can be performed by whole-cell bioconversion from the sesquiterpene (+)-valencene, a compound readily available in orange essential oil. The aim of this work was to screen for microorganisms that convert (+)-valencene to (+)-nootkatone using different bioconversion systems. The screening was conducted using six different microorganisms, and bioconversion experiments were set up on surface culture using serological flasks containing PDA at 30 °C. It was observed that Botryodiplodia theobromae 1368, Yarrowia lipolytica 2.2ab, and Phanerochaete chrysosporium oxidised (+)-valencene to (+)-nootkatone, reaching (+)-nootkatone concentrations of 231.7 ± 2.1, 216.9 ± 5.8 and 100.8 ± 2.6 mg L-1, respectively. Different bioconversion conditions were also testeddaqueous, organic, and biphasicdall resulting in similar (+)-nootkatone production. Both B. theobromae 1368 and Y. lipolytica 2.2ab showed substrate inhibition above 4.2 × 10-2 and 0.13 g of (+)-valencene (g of biomass)-1, respectively, in aqueous phase experiments. Furthermore, B. theobromae 1368 and Y. lipolytica 2.2ab showed product inhibition when concentrations reached above 17.02 and 34.78 mg of (+)-nootkatone (g of biomass)-1, respectively. The experimental method presented will be useful for ongoing studies on the selection and operation of the proper bioreactor at different bioconversion conditions.
... 31 Limonene, a terpene with the highest antimicrobial activity, is the most abundant compound. Besides, it has been reported that sesquiterpenes have antifungal activity, 32,33 and their biosynthesis is often induced after fungal infection. 34 ...
Article
BACKGROUND Low permeability of substrates across the cell membrane, cofactor regeneration and product inhibition are some drawbacks during (+)-nootkatone bioconversion. The aim of this work was to evaluate and enhance the bioconversion of (+)-valencene to (+)-nootkatone with Yarrowia lipolytica in a partitioning bioreactor using orange essential oil as the dispersed phase.RESULTSPreliminary experiments in shake flasks allowed enhancing (+)-nootkatone bioconversion to obtain favorable operating conditions (0.2 % w/v of CTAB and 2.0 mM of niacin and 11.5 g L−1 of biomass) to produce 420.9 mg L−1. Bioreactor experiments in a two-phase system using 0.2 % (w/v) of CTAB, 2.0 mM of niacin and 22.5 g L−1 of biomass produced a maximum (+)-nootkatone concentration of 619.8 mg L−1 which was around the product inhibition concentration. Nevertheless, the partitioning three-phase system using orange essential oil, overcome product inhibition obtaining concentrations of 852.3 mg L−1.CONCLUSIONS This is the first report of a wild type Y. lipolytica with the enzymatic machinery to carry out this bioconversion. Multiphase partitioning bioreactor conception seems to have a good potential in enhancing the productivity of (+)-nootkatone. The bioconversion approach presents an attractive way to produce and recover (+)-nootkatone in situ using a natural (+)-valencene source.
... [34]. It has also been shown to inhibit some yeast species; Sachharomyces elipsoideus, Wilia hansenula and Oidium lactis [37]. 1 Unal et al. [38] also demonstrated the antifungal and inhibitory effect of D-limonene on a variety of yeast strains. The inhibitory activity of the essential oil may be a cumulative effect of D-limonene and some other unidentified components or flavonoids and phenolic compound present. ...
Article
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Plants and plant products are continuously being explored in medicine against the increasing number of antibiotic resis-tant organisms. The antimicrobial activity of essential oil of some plants has been demonstrated against a range of or-ganism. This study aimed to determine the chemical constituents and the antimicrobial effects of the oil of grape peels on some clinical isolates. The oil was obtained from the peels by hydrodistillation procedure and analyzed using Gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometer. The in-vitro antimicrobial property of the methanolic, ethanolic and tween 80 mixture of extract was determined by agar well diffusion method against selected clinical bacterial isolates (Bacillus cereus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, E. coli ATCC 25292, Klebsellia pneumonia, Pseudococcus sp., Salmonella typhmurium, Shigella flexneri, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococus aureus ATCC 29213) and fungal isolates (Aspergillus niger, Candida albican, and Penicillium chrysogenum). The GC-MS analyses of the oil indicated the amount of the essential oil components was highest with D-Limonene (75.05%), followed by β-myrene (7.25%), α-pinene (2.11%), caryophyllene (1.88%), octanal (1.68) and β-phellandrene (1.18%). Some of the minor components included δ-cadinene (0.89%), copaene (0.82%), methyl phthalate (0.54%), linalool (0.48%) and 3-carene (0.21%). The oil extracts exerted different degrees of inhibitory activity against the organisms. The inhibition of the test isolates was dependent on the dissolution solvent used. Methanolic oil mixture inhibited all bacteria and fungi. Ethanol oil mixture inhibited the test bacteria and C. albicans while, the oil extract dissolved in Tween 80 solution showed no inhibitory activity on the test fungi. This study has shown that grape peels from Nigeria contain some antibiotic principles which may be explored for use in the treatment of certain diseases.
Article
In this study, the composition of essential oils (EOs) obtained from Citrus limon L. and Citrus sinensis L. peels and their biological activities on foodborne pathogenic bacteria and food-borne saprophytic yeasts and molds were investigated. In the lemon peel EO, 16 components were identified, mainly limonene (68.65 %) and γ-terpinene (10.81 %). Similarly, 8 components were determined in the orange peel EO, mainly limonene (95.51 %) and β-myrcene (1.98 %). The lemon and orange peel EOs showed a higher antibacterial effect on gram-positive bacteria used in the study compared to gram-negative bacteria. The highest antibacterial activity was detected on Staphylococcus aureus with 22.55 and 26.23 mm, respectively (P <0.05) The highest anti-fungal effects were determined at lemon peel EO, on Candida tropicalis (23.61 mm) and Rhizopus nigricans (14.15 mm) and orange peel EO, on Debaromyces hanseni spp hanseni (30.68 mm) and R. nigricans (17.23 mm) (P<0.05). The lowest minimum inhibitory concentration values were determined on S. aureus (0.023 mg/L, 0.006 mg/L), C. tropicalis (0.017 mg/L, 0.011 mg/L) and Aspergillus flavus (0.058 mg/L, 0.017 mg/mL) (P<0.05). The minimum bactericidal and fungicidal concentration values of lemon and orange peel EOs were determined on S. aureus (0.011 mg/L, 0.004 mg/L), C. tropicalis (0.011 mg/L, 0.003 mg/L) and Aspergillus flavus (0.023 mg/L, 0.015 mg/mL) (P<0.05).
Article
This study investigates the antifungal activities of the essential oils (EO) obtained from Myrtus communis L. and Gaultheria procumbens L. leaves on foodborne yeasts, isolated from sourdough samples and the chemical compositions of the oils. The main constituents of the Myrtus communis L. EO. were 1,8-cineole (35.62 %), α-pinene (29.14 %) and α-terpineol (10.04 %). Methyl salicylate (96.87 %) and limonene (2.05 %) were identified as the major constituents in the G. procumbens L. EO. M. communis L. and G. procumbens L. EOs showed the highest antifungal activity against Torulaspora delbrueckii (27.86 mm zone diameter) and Pichia polymorpha (40.23 mm zone diameter) respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of the M. communis L. and G. procumbens L. EOs were in the range of 46,87-562.50 μg/mL / 23.44-375.0 μg/mL and 4.39-562.50 μg/mL / 2.93-156.25 μg/mL, respectively.
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