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Anatomical study of the brain of the African ostrich

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Abstract

The anatomical characteristics of the African ostrich brain were investigated in this study. The average weight, length, and width of the total brain are 26.34 g, 59.26 mm, and 42.30 mm, respectively. The cerebellum appears relatively well developed and obviously protrudes dorsally. The posterior superior part of the cerebellar vermis almost forms an angle of 130 degrees. The ostrich brain has many more transverse fissures of the cerebellar vermis than do the brains of domestic fowls. Therefore, the surface area of the African ostrich's cerebellum is larger. The formation of the cerebrum is an obtuse triangle. Its surface is smooth, without any gyrus or sulcus. The gray matter is very thin. There is an arcuated telencephalic vallecula on the dorsal surface, and the sagittal eminence is elliptic. The olfactory bulbs are quite small. The hypophysis is spherical. The whole brain represents only 0.015% of the total body weight, and it is 17 times lighter than the brain of domestic fowls. Statistical analysis showed that the ratio of brain weight to body weight is significantly smaller (P < 0.01) in the African ostrich than in the 3 domestic fowls investigated. The present study suggests that the brain of the African ostrich is underdeveloped.

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... Additionally, Ashwell and Scofield [77] (Figures 6G-I) figured the dorsal endocasts of several NZ moa: D. robustus (Owen, 1846), A. didiformis, Euryapteryx curtus gravis (Owen, 1870), and Emeus crassus (Owen, 1846) as well, all of which show wulst characteristics similar to those seen in dromornithids, wherein the vallecula, especially in the larger moa taxa, visibly extend rostrocaudally across the entire dorsolateral telencephalic hemispheres. These characteristics suggest that such characteristic hypertrophy of the wulst in large flightless birds (see also [78] (Figures 1 and 2), [79] (Figure 2a), [80] (Figures 1 and 3), [81] (Figure 1), [74] (Figures 5.3 1-6), may represent a parallel convergent modification towards enhanced visual proficiency and stereoscopic capability (see also Section 4.4.2.1 below). However, ratite taxa clearly display a lesser degree of wulst hypertrophy than that evident in dromornithids. ...
... Additionally, the rostrocaudal transition angle of the vallecula, describing the dorsal margins of the caudal telencephalon, agree with the extension of the visible rostral eminences of the dromornithid rostral telencephalon, should the dorsolateral curve of the rostral telencephalon not be masked by hypertrophy of the rostromediolateral wulst. In support of this interpretation, the appar- Figures 1b D-E), and similarly in the brains of extant flightless ratites (see [78] (Figures 1 and 2), [79] (Figure 2a), [77] (Figure 6), [49] (Figures 1B,C), [80] (Figures 1,3), [81] (Figure 1), [74] ( Figures 5.3 1-6)), suggest that the evolution of a rostromediolaterally hypertrophied wulst in large flightless birds may effectively mask rostral telencephalon morphology. The accommodation of this apparently major change in rostrodorsal endocranial morphology in dromornithids, would have necessitated a dorsomedial displacement of the olfactory bulb, which we think is a possibility, as this condition is somewhat similar to that seen in moa (e.g., [77] (Figures 5e-l and 6g-l), [49] (Figures 1b D-E)). ...
... Among ratites, kiwi are the only confirmed nocturnal taxon, and have evolved reduced eye size and distinct endocranial morphology associated with the somatosensory and tactile systems strategy (i.e., (2) see [79,145]). All other ratites are diurnal, as were the extinct NZ moa [77], and inspection of the shape of their brains (e.g., [75] (Figure 2), [79] (Figures 2a,b), [77] (Figures 6g-l), [145] (Figures 1b A-E), [80] (Figures 1 and 3), [81] (Figure 1), [74] (Figures 5.3 1-6)), show rostromediolaterally hypertrophied wulst structures in these large flightless birds, which may represent evolution for enhanced visual proficiency (i.e., strategy (1) above). However, no ratites display the massively hypertrophied state of the wulst seen in dromornithid dorsal endocasts. ...
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Dromornithids are an extinct group of large flightless birds from the Cenozoic of Australia. Their record extends from the Eocene to the late Pleistocene. Four genera and eight species are currently recognised, with diversity highest in the Miocene. Dromornithids were once considered ratites, but since the discovery of cranial elements, phylogenetic analyses have placed them near the base of the anseriforms or, most recently, resolved them as stem galliforms. In this study, we use morphometric methods to comprehensively describe dromornithid endocranial morphology for the first time, comparing Ilbandornis woodburnei and three species of Dromornis to one another and to four species of extant basal galloanseres. We reveal that major endocranial reconfiguration was associated with cranial foreshortening in a temporal series along the Dromornis lineage. Five key differences are evident between the brain morphology of Ilbandornis and Dromornis, relating to the medial wulst, the ventral eminence of the caudoventral telencephalon, and morphology of the metencephalon (cerebellum + pons). Additionally, dromornithid brains display distinctive dorsal (rostral position of the wulst), and ventral morphology (form of the maxillomandibular [V2+V3], glossopharyngeal [IX], and vagus [X] cranial nerves), supporting hypotheses that dromornithids are more closely related to basal galliforms than anseriforms. Functional interpretations suggest that dromornithids were specialised herbivores that likely possessed well-developed stereoscopic depth perception, were diurnal and targeted a soft browse trophic niche.
... Gupta et al. (2016) has identified an identical structure in Vencobb broiler birds. Peng et al. (2008) were also observed the brain of African ostrich and marked alike with the presently discovered undivided four divisions. They had the underdeveloped midbrain without distinguishable as a separate part. ...
... The average brain weight was observed as 3.924 ± 0.124 gm, while the average length and breadth (width) were 26.853 ± 0.593 mm and 19.857 ± 0.398 mm respectively. Peng et al. (2008), when observing the anatomical features of the African ostrich brain calculated the average weight, length, and width of the total brain as 26.34 g, 59.26 mm, and 42.30 mm. The brain weight of ostrich was 8 times while the length and breadth (width) were double. ...
... These were analogous to observations of Gupta et al. (2016) in brain of Vencobb broiler birds. The present observations were parallel to Peng et al. (2008) findings as the cerebrum was composed 59.65% of the brain's total length in relative to the brain of African ostrich. ...
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The gross anatomical structure and morphometry of brain in Guinea fowl was studied in 12 samples of the brain. The brain was observed characterized into four different parts viz. the cerebrum, cerebellum, optic lobe and medulla oblongata. The average brain weight was observed as 3.924 gms, while the average length and breadth (width) were 26.853 mm and 19.857 mm respectively. The largest part of the brain was identified as the cerebrum and it resembled the shape of a betel leaf which was divided into left and right cerebral hemispheres and measuring average length and width as 19.857 mm and 16.119 mm respectively, which showed smooth texture, devoid of gyrus and sulcus. The cerebellum was located behind the transverse sulcus. The optic lobes were interconnected with rest of brain with fissure. The pons and the medulla oblongata were located consecutively at the posterior part of the ventral section of the brain.
... mm in fowl, respectively. According to Peng et al. (2010) in ostrich, these parameters were 24.36 ± 0.015 mm and 18.42 ± 0.010 mm, respectively. The rostral surface of the cerebellum, which was laterally compressed, accommodated into a 'V' shaped notch between the caudal poles of the cerebral hemisphere and optic lobes. ...
... The cerebellum was divided into an outer cortex/gray matter and inner medulla/white matter (Figs 3 and 4), the same was reported by Abd-Alrahman (2013) in eagle owl and Pal et al. (2003) in fowl and they further identified this folia or lobules as lingual, central lobule, culmen, declive, folium, tuber, vermis, pyramid, uvula and nodule. However, Peng et al. (2010) in ostrich reported that there was 18-19 transverse sulcus distributed on the cerebellar vermis, dividing the vermis into lobules. ...
... mm. The cerebrum appeared as triangular in chicken (Batah et al., 2012), obtuse triangle in ostrich (Peng et al., 2010), trapezoid in white stork and tapers in the Pekin ducks and grey goose (Peng et al., 1994). ...
Article
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Morphological study was conducted on the brain of nine fowl aged from 2 to 6 months. The pear-shaped brain lodged in the cranial cavity was 3.34 ± 0.08 g in weight, with a length of 26.69±0.40 mm and width of 20.60 ± 0.17 mm. It consisted of cerebral hemispheres, pineal body, optic lobes, and cerebellum when viewed from the dorsal surface. On ventral surface, from cranial to caudal end it had olfactory bulbs, orbital faces of the cerebral hemispheres, optic chiasma, optic tract, optic lobes, hypophysis cerebri, midbrain (cerebral peduncles), pons and medulla oblongata, which was continued into the spinal cord. Olfactory bulbs present on the tapered cranial end of cerebral hemisphere were so closely attached with each other that were giving the appearance as a single structure. The cerebral hemispheres were obtuse triangular and devoid of gyrus and sulci. The cerebellum was located behind the transverse sulcus and had gyri and sulci. It was round structure resembling a curled worm and was 11.80±0.25 mm in length and 8.53±0.21 mm in width.
... Another comparative study regarding the brain development between chickens and bobwhite quail concluded that the chicken brain is more than twice as big as the bobwhite quail brain in adulthood (Charvet et al., 2010).The larger brain size was associated with the relative shrinking of the telencephalon and ventral rotation of the posterior part of the brain (Kawabe et al., 2013). In the study of African ostrich it was found that the body weight 158-184 kg, the brain weighs 26.34 g, representing only 0.015% of the body weight (Peng et al., 2010). The brain weight could be used to assess the body weight in the Grass cutter and encephalization quotient in the African giant rat. ...
... But it is lower than the brain weight observed in pekin duck (6.53 g), grey goose (12.57 g) and African ostrich (26.34 g) (Peng et al., 2010). Male had a non significantly higher brain weight than female at particular age (P>0.05). ...
... The average length varied from 30.04 ± 1.258 mm (Female) on day 21 to 33.09 ± 3.127 mm (male) on day 84. This value is almost similar to the total length and width observed in pekin duck (Peng et al., 2010) and significantly smaller than ostrich, grey goose (Peng et al., 2010), These findings were dissimilar with ostrich and goose due to proportionately larger body size of these birds than that of Vanaraja Chicken. Male birds had shown nonsignificantly higher average whole brain length and width value though non significant (P<0.05) at particular age. ...
Article
The objective of this study was to evaluate the brain biometrical dynamics with advancement of age between sexes. One hundred fifty day-old sexed Vanaraja chicks (75 male + 75 female) were selected and distributed equally in two groups. Birds were slaughtered by cervical dislocation method at 21, 42, 63 and 84 days of age and biometrical measurements were taken. From our present study we observed brain volume had shown significant (P>0.05) changes with respect to age and sex of birds. The mean length of both left and right cerebral hemispheres between male and female birds had varied significantly (P>0.05). With advancement of age, hemispheric length varied significantly (P>0.05). The major finding was that cerebral width significantly (P>0.05) increased from 42-63 days of age and in male birds cerebellar length increased from 63 days onwards. There were age-specific changes in all the morphometrical parameters where as between sexes there were some minor variations.
... No presente estudo, evidenciou-se na extremidade caudolateral dos hemisférios cerebrais, que os lobos ópticos, apresentaram-se bem desenvolvidos, em ambos antímeros, semelhante ao observado em avestruzes [13] e frangos [7]. Resultado diferente ao encontrado em pesquisas com corujas e kiwis [9], onde descreveram o lobo óptico em tamanho reduzido e muito reduzido, respectivamente, sobre o qual os autores justificam que se deve ao fato desses animais serem de habitat noturno, o que implicou em regressão dessa estrutura impulsionada pelos baixos níveis de luz. ...
... cerebroetmoidais(12), anastomose intercerebral rostral(13), cerebrais rostrais(14), etmoidais (15), interhemisférica (16), anastomose intercarotídea (cabeça de seta), hipofisarias (*) e glândula hipófise (H). [Barra= 1 cm]. ...
Article
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Background: The Rhea americana americana is a wild bird belonging to the group of Ratites, and is important from the scientific point of view given their adaptability to captivity. Considering that information about its morphology is important for the viability of domesticating the species, the aim of this study was to macroscopically identify the brain regions, as well as the cerebral arteries and the cerebral arterial circuit in order to establish the cerebral vascular pattern and systematization.Materials, Methods & Results: Twenty one brains from young and adult Greater Rheas of both sexes were used from animals that had died due to natural causes and were then kept in a freezer. The specimens were thawed and incised in the cervical region to allow exposure of the left common carotid artery, which was cannulated. The vascular system was rinsed with 0.9% saline solution, then perfused with latex Neoprene 650 stained with red pigment. The animals were subsequently fixed in 3.7% aqueous formaldehyde solution for 72 h, and then they were dissected by removing the bones from the skull cap. The brains were analyzed, and the structures were identified, photographed, schematized and denominated. Morphometric measurements were performed on the basilar and cerebellar ventral caudal arteries, recording the values of length and width in millimeters with the aid of a digital caliper. The brain was divided into: telencephalon, diencephalon, brainstem and cerebellum; while externally, the observed structures are: olfactory bulbs, optical lobes, optic nerves, optic chiasm, pituitary and pineal glands. Vascularization was performed by the following arteries: ventral spinal artery, basilar artery, ventricular cerebellar arteries, medium ventricular cerebellar arteries, caudal branches of the carotid arteries of the brain, ventral mesencephalic artery, cerebral caudal arteries, rostral branches of the carotid arteries of the brain, middle cerebral arteries, cerebroethmoidal arteries, rostral intercerebral anastomosis, rostral cerebral arteries, ethmoidal arteries, internal ophthalmic arteries, inter-hemispheric artery, pituitary arteries, dorsal mesencephalic tectal arteries, dorsal cerebellar arteries, occipital, pineal and dorsal hemispherical branches. The cerebral arterial circuit was both caudally and rostrally closed in 100.0% of the samples, being composed of the arteries: basilar artery, caudal branches of the carotid brain, rostral branches of the brain carotid, cerebroethmoidal arteries and rostral intercerebral anastomosis.Discussion: Encephalon classification regarding the presence or absence of gyri is a characteristic associated to evolutionary aspects among vertebrates, being respectively considered as lisencephalon or girencecephalus when it presents or does not present convolutions. In Greater Rheas, the telencephalon was quite developed, with a relatively rounded shape and the absence of sulci and convolutions in the cortex, which allowed it to be classified as a lisencephalon. Such findings resemble those described for the ostrich and in a comparative study involving kiwis, emus, owls and pigeons, although different sizes and forms of telencephalon development were observed in the latter. Regarding the cerebral arterial circuit, this structure in Rheas was complete and both caudally and rostrally closed in 100.0% of the specimens. Our findings differ from those observed for ostriches, in which a rostrally open behavior has been described, while it is caudally closed in 20.0% of cases and opened in 80.0%. Regarding the vascular type of the brain, in the Rhea it was observed that there was only contribution of the carotid system, similar to that found for birds such as ostriches and turkeys which confer a type I encephalic vascularization.
... Studies have revealed that the shape of the cerebral cortex vary in different animals, although spherical in humans. P e n g et al. [26] reported that the shape of the cerebral cortex of the African ostrich is an obtuse triangle. I b e et al. [13] observed a diamond-shaped cerebral cortex in the adult African giant pouched rat. ...
... Studies (including the present study) have revealed that the shape of the cerebral cortex vary in different animals, although spherical in humans. P e n g et al. [26] reported that the shape of the cerebral cortex of the African ostrich is an obtuse triangle. I b e et al. [13] observed a diamond-shaped cerebral cortex in the adult African giant pouched rat. ...
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In order to meet the increasing protein and income demand in Africa due to the rapid population growth, wildlife, such as the African grasscutter, is currently bred and domesticated as microlivestock. This study is one of the series on the brain morphology of this very large rodent, aimed at providing information that is lacking in the literature. Here, the gross anatomy of the cerebrum and brainstem in nine adult African grasscutters is described. The cerebral cortex was smooth, devoid of gyri and sulci, thus, placing the rodent in the lissencephalic group of mammals. However, blood vessels on the cortex created arterial and venous impressions. The cortex was asymmetrically-tapered oval in shape. The rostral and caudal colliculi were exposed through the cerebral transverse fissure. The rostro-caudal extent of the corpus callosum was from the mid-point of the frontal and parietal lobes, to a point just rostral to the occipital lobe. The rostral colliculi were grossly smaller than the caudal colliculi. The occulomotor and trochlear nerves emerged from the ventral midbrain, rostral to the pons. The pons was exceptionally large; it was pre-trigeminal. On either side of the ventral median fissure of the medulla oblongata were conspicuous pyramids. The trapezoid bodies were also conspicuous. These, and other findings, will be useful in future phylogenetic comparison of rodent brain morphology.
... The distal section included within the duramater and the proximal section extending of the choroid plexus. Peng et al. (2008) [8] reported a small rodshaped, bottom up tuber, nomeclatured as the conarium or in common terminology the pineal body, at the juncture of the transverse sulcus and the 2 cerebral hemispheres in the brain of African ostrich. Microscopically the pineal gland was observed surrounded by a thin tunic of connective tissue. ...
... The distal section included within the duramater and the proximal section extending of the choroid plexus. Peng et al. (2008) [8] reported a small rodshaped, bottom up tuber, nomeclatured as the conarium or in common terminology the pineal body, at the juncture of the transverse sulcus and the 2 cerebral hemispheres in the brain of African ostrich. Microscopically the pineal gland was observed surrounded by a thin tunic of connective tissue. ...
Article
Full-text available
The gross anatomy and histomorphology of pineal gland (Epiphysis cerebri) in Guinea fowl (Numida meleagris) was studied in 12 samples of pineal gland. The pineal gland was located within the triangular space formed between both the cerebral hemispheres and the cerebellum. The average length and thickness of pineal gland were observed as 6.549 mm and 0.949 mm, respectively. Microscopically, the pineal gland was surrounded by a thin tunic of connective tissue. Lacunae facilitated the formation of different lobes. Blood vessel was visualized in the trabecular region. Two types of cells were differentiated depending upon their shape and the containment of chromatin material. Rounded pinealocytes and irregularly cylindrical shaped glial cells, the astrocytes were observed. Bulk of the pinealocytes was detected with four different type's viz. P1, P2, P3 and P4. In respect of the astrocytes, depending upon the variability in size, two types of cells was observed as A1 and A2.
... cerebral and cerebellum [5]. The cerebral cortex of the domestic fowls is similar to that of the Pekin Duck and African ostrich [6]. ...
... The sagittal eminence became flattened and continued to the caudal (posterior) pole of the hemisphere. However, the presence of indistinct groove (vallecula) and relatively small sagittal eminence was in contrary in ostrich [6] and barn owl [2], who observed very large wulst and distinct vallecula in the brain. The entire optic lobes were not visible on dorsal view. ...
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Aim: The aim of this study was to study the anatomy of different parts of brain and histology of hippocampus of Vencobb broiler chicken. Materials and methods: A 12 adult experimental birds were sacrificed by cervical dislocation. After separation of the brain, gross anatomy features were studied. Brain tissue was fixed in 10% buffered neutral formalin for 2-3 days, and then routine dehydration process in ascending grades of ethyl alcohol was done. After xylene cleaning, paraffin impregnation was prepared. Paraffin blocks were cut, and slides were stained by Harris hematoxylin and eosin. Photography was carried out both under lower (×10) and higher (×40) magnifications. Results: The brain structure (dorsal view) of Vencobb bird resembled the outline of a playing card symbol of a "spade." The brain subdivisions are cerebrum, cerebellum, and medulla oblongata. Cerebrum was devoid of usual convolutions (elevations), gyri, depressions (grooves), and sulci. The cerebral hemispheres were tightly apposed along a median sulcus called interhemispheric fissure and cerebrum and cerebellum were separated by a small transverse fissure. The olfactory bulb was small structures, and the pineal body was clearly visible. The optic lobes were partially hidden under cerebral hemispheres, but laterally, it was large, prominent rounded or spherical bodies of the midbrain. The hippocampal area appeared as dorso-medial protrusion. Different types of neurons were distinguished in the hippocampus were pyramidal neurons, pyramidal-like neurons, and multipolar neurons, etc. There was rich vascularization in the form of blood capillaries throughout the hippocampus. Conclusion: Cerebrum was pear shaped and largest part of the brain. Cerebrum hemisphere was smooth devoid of convolutions, gyri, and depressions, but in the surface of cerebellum, there was the presence of a number of transverse depression (grooves) and sulci subdividing into many folds. Olfactory bulb was poorly developed, whereas optic lobes were rounded and large. The exact boundary line of the hippocampus was not discernable. In hippocampus histology, two categories of neuron local circuit neurons and projection neurons, high vascularization and epididymal lining of lateral ventricle were observed. Hippocampal neurons were comparatively larger without any distinct layers. The afferent neurons projected to the medium septum.
... No presente estudo, evidenciou-se na extremidade caudolateral dos hemisférios cerebrais, que os lobos ópticos, apresentaram-se bem desenvolvidos, em ambos antímeros, semelhante ao observado em avestruzes [13] e frangos [7]. Resultado diferente ao encontrado em pesquisas com corujas e kiwis [9], onde descreveram o lobo óptico em tamanho reduzido e muito reduzido, respectivamente, sobre o qual os autores justificam que se deve ao fato desses animais serem de habitat noturno, o que implicou em regressão dessa estrutura impulsionada pelos baixos níveis de luz. ...
... cerebroetmoidais(12), anastomose intercerebral rostral(13), cerebrais rostrais(14), etmoidais (15), interhemisférica (16), anastomose intercarotídea (cabeça de seta), hipofisarias (*) e glândula hipófise (H). [Barra= 1 cm]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The Rhea americana americana is a wild bird belonging to the group of Ratites, and is important from the scientific point of view given their adaptability to captivity. Considering that information about its morphology is important for the viability of domesticating the species, the aim of this study was to macroscopically identify the brain regions, as well as the cerebral arteries and the cerebral arterial circuit in order to establish the cerebral vascular pattern and systematization.Materials, Methods & Results: Twenty one brains from young and adult Greater Rheas of both sexes were used from animals that had died due to natural causes and were then kept in a freezer. The specimens were thawed and incised in the cervical region to allow exposure of the left common carotid artery, which was cannulated. The vascular system was rinsed with 0.9% saline solution, then perfused with latex Neoprene 650 stained with red pigment. The animals were subsequently fixed in 3.7% aqueous formaldehyde solution for 72 h, and then they were dissected by removing the bones from the skull cap. The brains were analyzed, and the structures were identified, photographed, schematized and denominated. Morphometric measurements were performed on the basilar and cerebellar ventral caudal arteries, recording the values of length and width in millimeters with the aid of a digital caliper. The brain was divided into: telencephalon, diencephalon, brainstem and cerebellum; while externally, the observed structures are: olfactory bulbs, optical lobes, optic nerves, optic chiasm, pituitary and pineal glands. Vascularization was performed by the following arteries: ventral spinal artery, basilar artery, ventricular cerebellar arteries, medium ventricular cerebellar arteries, caudal branches of the carotid arteries of the brain, ventral mesencephalic artery, cerebral caudal arteries, rostral branches of the carotid arteries of the brain, middle cerebral arteries, cerebroethmoidal arteries, rostral intercerebral anastomosis, rostral cerebral arteries, ethmoidal arteries, internal ophthalmic arteries, inter-hemispheric artery, pituitary arteries, dorsal mesencephalic tectal arteries, dorsal cerebellar arteries, occipital, pineal and dorsal hemispherical branches. The cerebral arterial circuit was both caudally and rostrally closed in 100.0% of the samples, being composed of the arteries: basilar artery, caudal branches of the carotid brain, rostral branches of the brain carotid, cerebroethmoidal arteries and rostral intercerebral anastomosis.Discussion: Encephalon classification regarding the presence or absence of gyri is a characteristic associated to evolution­ary aspects among vertebrates, being respectively considered as lisencephalon or girencecephalus when it presents or does not present convolutions. In Greater Rheas, the telencephalon was quite developed, with a relatively rounded shape and the absence of sulci and convolutions in the cortex, which allowed it to be classified as a lisencephalon. Such findings resemble those described for the ostrich and in a comparative study involving kiwis, emus, owls and pigeons, although different sizes and forms of telencephalon development were observed in the latter. Regarding the cerebral arterial circuit, this structure in Rheas was complete and both caudally and rostrally closed in 100.0% of the specimens. Our findings differ from those ob­served for ostriches, in which a rostrally open behavior has been described, while it is caudally closed in 20.0% of cases and opened in 80.0%. Regarding the vascular type of the brain, in the Rhea it was observed that there was only contribution of the carotid system, similar to that found for birds such as ostriches and turkeys which confer a type I encephalic vascularization.Keywords: arteries, brain, arterial circuit, morphometry, ratites.
... The vallecula in birds aid in visual acuity and is slightly convex, curved supersulcus bending posterior-medially on either sides of the cerebrum. This statement is in agreement with those of [19] in Africa ostrich, but disagree with those [20] in domestic pigeon where they are found on the lateral surface of the cerebral hemisphere. These morphological features could be useful in specie differentiation and birds which vallecula are place superiorly has good visual acuity. ...
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Knowledge on the anatomy of the brain of parrot is important with respect to the current advancement in comparative avian anatomy. This investigation was aim at reporting some landmarks anatomical features on the brain of the wild African parrot that will be valuable in obtaining a baseline information in this specie. Ten apparently healthy adult wild African parrots were euthanized using Pentobarbital sodium (Nembutal®) at 40mg per body weight. Sex was not kept into consideration in this study. Quantitative study of the body and brain indicated mean weights to be 163 ± 4.36 g and 4.78 ± 0.21 g, with whole brain having length and width measuring 3.66 ± 0.19 cm and 2.06 ± 0.07 cm respectively. The cerebral surface is thrown into three deep depressions; the interhemispheric fissure flank by two cerebral vallecula. Two large bulges, the Wulst are prominent on the dorsum of the cerebral hemispheres an indication of a good cognitive behaviour. Extensively large optic tracts projects from optic lobes suggesting that the parrot possesses high auditory activity.
... The cerebral hemispheres expand less in the rostrocaudal direction than laterally. The enlargement of the cerebral hemispheres in S. camelus may conform with the fact that movement and motor control are significant aspects of the life of an ostrich (Breazile & Hartwig, 1989;Peng, Feng, Zhang, Liu, & Song, 2010). Additionally, though the cerebellum does not show much change in size or shape through ontogeny, it is always relatively larger than in the alligator. ...
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Birds and crocodiles show radically different patterns of brain development, and it is of interest to compare these to determine the pattern of brain growth expected in dinosaurs. Here we provide atlases of 3D brain (endocast) reconstructions for Alligator mississippiensis (alligator) and Struthio camelus (ostrich) through ontogeny, prepared as digital restorations from CT scans of stained head and dry skull specimens. Our morphometric analysis confirms that ostrich brains do not change significantly in shape during postnatal growth, whereas alligator brains unfold from a cramped bird-like shape in the hatchling to an elongate, straight structure in the adult. We confirm that birds exhibit paedomorphic dinosaur endocranial traits such as retaining an enlarged and compact brain shape in the adult, whereas crocodiles show peramorphic traits where the brain elongates with growth as the skull elongates. These atlases of ontogenetic stages of modern bird and crocodilian endocrania provide a basis for comparison of non-avian dinosaur endocasts and consideration of the divergence of the "avian" and "crocodilian" modes of brain development and heterochronic change on phylogenies.
... Its body size and weight are 1.8-2.0 m and 200 kg, respectively (Bona-Gallo et al., 1983;Peng et al., 2010). They have features of cursorial animals, effective locomotors. ...
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Growth hormone is essential hormone for vertebrates like the ostrich (Struthio camelus) for growth stimulation, carbohydrate metabolism, protein assimilation etc. Growth hormone is secreted by the pituitary gland and expressed in many cells and tissues. The purpose of this study was generation of pcDNA 3.1+-GH recombinant expression vector in order to sub-clone ostrich growth hormone cDNA into Escherichia coli. In brief, total RNA was extracted from the pituitary gland tissue and cDNA sample was synthesised. The cDNA was amplified by PCR and revealed a 672 bp fragment on 2% agarose gel electrophoresis. Then, the ostrich growth hormone cDNA was extracted from the gel and was cloned into pCR8/GW/TOPO vector by T/A cloning technique to produce pCR8/GW/TOPO-GH. After obtaining the sequence of cDNA of the ostrich in Iran, it was submitted in GenBank (Accession number: JN559394). Finally, the GH cDNA was sub-cloned using pcDNA 3.1+ into Saccharomyces cerevisiae and pcDNA 3.1+-GH recombinant expression vector was generated. The results of present study were showed that ostrich growth hormone cDNA was successfully sub-cloned into Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Therefore, the pcDNA 3.1+-GH recombinant expression vector generated in this study could be useful to express the ostrich growth hormone in yeast cells as a simple and affordable way to produce this hormone at a large scale. © 2015, Bulgarian Journal of Veterinary Medicine. All rights reserved.
... The present findings are in accordance with [5] in local breed chicken, [9] in vencobb broiler, [12] in Vanaraja chicken, [7] in white crested polish and uncrested chicken and [6] in Sturnus vulgaris. The Wulst and Vallecula contradicts with previous observation of [3] in Barn Owl, [10] in African Ostrich, [13] in African Ostrich and [14] in wild African Parrot who find that the wulst and vallecula was very well demarcated. In present study cerebrum consisted of two regions that is pallium and subpallium as reported by [3] in brain of Barn Owl, [1] in quail and [2] in the Columba livia domestica. ...
... Ostriches have large-sized eyes with high visual ability. There are some reports on the external features of the African ostrich brain (Wenqin et al., 2005;Peng et al., 2010) and the internal features and the histological structures of the brain parts (Karakoura et al., 2015). However, little information is available regarding central nervous system of the ostrich, neither there are histomorphological studies on the optic tectum, especially during embryonic period. ...
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