Removal of Dental Biofilms with an Ultrasonically Activated Water Stream 1309
hundreds of mL/min (Rmaile et al. 2014). However, the use of
a UAS represents a potentially practical and effective method
for oral biofilm removal with the capacity to improve oral
R.P. Howlin, contributed to conception, design, data acquisition,
analysis, and interpretation, drafted and critically revised the man-
uscript; S. Fabbri, contributed to data acquisition, analysis, and
interpretation, critically revised the manuscript; D.G. Offin,
N. Symonds, K.S. Kiang, R.J. Knee, D.C. Yoganantham, contrib-
uted to data acquisition, critically revised the manuscript;
J.S. Webb, contributed to conception, critically revised the manu-
script; P.R. Birkin, T.G. Leighton, contributed to conception,
design, and data interpretation, critically revised the manuscript;
P. Stoodley, conception, design, data analysis, and interpretation,
critically revised the manuscript. All authors gave final approval
and agree to be accountable for all aspects of the work.
This work was funded by the Royal Society Brian Mercer Award
scheme. The authors thank Prof. J. Barton from The University of
Southampton. Leighton and Birkin are named inventors of the
ultrasonically activated water stream technology on the patent and
on a standard licence deal between the University of Southampton
and Ultrawave Ltd. The other authors declare no potential con-
flicts of interest with respect to the authorship and/or publication
of this article.
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