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Classifying Shop Signs: Open Card Sorting of Bengaluru Shop Signs (India)


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Any Classification into categories aids in retrieving information. It develops a system for an object or phenomena. Hence, a classification of shop signs would provide an informed view about the system of elements that form the identity of a shop sign. The Philosophy of Classification as explained by Ereshefsky brings to light three kinds of paradigms: Essentialism Sorts, Cluster Analysis and Historical classification. This study investigates the relevance of creating categories through cluster analysis. The analysis helps collate the pragmatic approach applied by the viewers of the shop signs. How people classify shop signboards mentally? What clues they use to attach qualities or concepts with a shop sign? Applying the method of Open Card Sorting increased the analytical scope about the new values attached with the identities represented on these shop signs through text, images and materials. There is a paucity of published research in favour of the above statement. Therefore, this paper is a sincere attempt to substantiate the benefits of arriving at new categories via Open Card Sorting. This method provided the participants to design their own labels and classification structure for the given shop signs. A group of 30 participants (15 designers and rest 15 from other professions) underwent Open Card Sorting exercise. With formal instructions about card sort method, every participant was asked to 'think aloud' in order to resolve the 90 cards puzzle. Additionally, two standard questions regarding good and bad signs in the picture cards were asked. Around 20 new categories could be accumulated in the SPSS software. The viewers did not categorize total 10 cards of the 90 into any label(s). Cluster Analysis of this data gave rise to new classes/genres of these shop signs. It also clustered those cards that 1287 were considered good and bad shop signs. It is a unique study to know how people view, read and form opinions about shop signs. Results of this study can be used to inform the designers about the new features/qualities of the content and form observed by viewers along with their opinions on good and bad signs. Therefore, these insights would be the essential parameters in terms of elements of design and related qualities that sign designers should apply in the design of shop signs.
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"Interpretation of signs is generally driven by visual cues. The visual cues help to understand different Meaning Operations [MO] on signs. This paper builds upon the concept of meaning operations or richness, as defined by Phillips and Mc Quarrie that articulates a typology of visual rhetoric in advertising. They have proposed a typology to understand meaning operations with respect to the visual structure for print advertisements. The visual structure in identification signs is essential to create spatial order and hierarchy. However, to understand the concept behind identity on signs, we require to decode the hidden qualities linking the design elements on these signs. Hence, we propose a new typology by classifying the signs on the basis of embedded cues instead of visual structure. This paper investigates a sample of 27 shop signs in India by using the proposed typology of visual cues on signs (single, double and multiple visual cues) with respect to their MO (connection, similarity and opposition). We conclude with a comparative analysis of richness in the signs with respect to their visual cues. The insights are developed to understand the importance of cues, how they create richness through hidden links to generate meanings and what bearings they have on design of identification signs."
The question of whether biologists should continue to use the Linnaean hierarchy has been a hotly debated issue. Invented before the introduction of evolutionary theory, Linnaeus's system of classifying organisms is based on outdated theoretical assumptions, and is thought to be unable to provide accurate biological classifications. Marc Ereshefsky argues that biologists should abandon the Linnaean system and adopt an alternative that is more in line with evolutionary theory. He traces the evolution of the Linnaean hierarchy from its introduction to the present. He illustrates how the continued use of this system hampers our ability to classify the organic world, and then goes on to make specific recommendations for a post-Linnaean method of classification. Accessible to a wide range of readers by providing introductory chapters to the philosophy of classification and the taxonomy of biology, the book will interest both scholars and students of biology and the philosophy of science.
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